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Instructional planning


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Instructional planning

  1. 1. Favorite Learning Experiences• HS – 26%• MS – 23%• ES – 21%• College – 30%• Relevant, real-life – 30%• Active, participation, involved – 57%• Multimedia, variety of media – 27%
  2. 2. Learning ExperiencesStudent Feelings: “powerful” “excited” “free” “respected” “appreciated” “important” “uncomfortable”
  3. 3. Learning ExperiencesTeacher Behaviors: Groups Experiments Field Trips Excited, enthusiastic Challenging Pushing Fun Available
  4. 4. Learning ExperiencesVerbs used: Play Use Talk Argue Debate Laugh Question Try
  5. 5. Learning has nothing to do What activities with what the teacher does this surveycovers. Learning has to do suggest? with what the student accomplishes.
  6. 6. Whatresearchsays aboutplanning...…effective teachers do it!
  7. 7. No widely accepted planning model.• Individual preferences• Time, content, activities are important• Clear objectives with active verbs• Plan strategies & activities targeting learning styles
  8. 8. Use a variety of plan formats• Standard - the “Book”• Madeline Hunter• 4MAT• District templates• Lesson specific plans• Year, semesters, months, weeks, units, days, activities
  9. 9. Planning is a guide to action• Links instruction to real life• Considers student attention spans, learning styles and interest• Systematically develops objectives, questions and activities• Reflects higher order thinking skills
  10. 10. Teacher planning is often mental• There is a reason TV is not “live”• Planning is not linear, but a process• Planning is flexible• Based on needs
  11. 11. Rarely linear…• Must focus on student needs…• Must be constantly revised…• Must be flexible…with several plans• Must have multiple activities
  12. 12. Writing Objectives• Use active & measurable verbs…• Focus on observable behavior…• Consider the three domains…• Use Bloom’s Taxonomy…
  13. 13. Activity #1 1. Use the TEKS handouts 2. Write an objective 3. Put on a card 4. Select one to present to the class
  14. 14. Activity #2 1. Trade cards with another table 2. Select a card; write an objective for each domain 3. Put on 3 other cards
  15. 15. Activity #3 1. Use a card from the previous activities 2. Write an objective for the TEKS for each of the levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy 3. Discuss within the group 4. Select 2 to share
  16. 16. “Never teach a pig to sing.It’s a waste of time andannoys the pig.”Robert Heinlein
  17. 17. MasteryIs 80% mastery of 100% of the objectives OK?Is 100% mastery of 80% of the objectives OK? Is 70%? What percent?
  18. 18. Learning Styles“A human being should be able to change a diaper, plan an invasion, butcher a hog, conn a ship, design a building, write a sonnet, balance accounts, build a wall, set a bone, comfort the dying, take orders, give orders, cooperate, act alone, solve equations, analyze a new problem, pitch manure, program a computer, cook a tasty meal, fight efficiently, die gallantly. Specialization is for insects.”Robert Heinlein in “Time Enough For Love”Also wrote “Stranger in a Strange Land”
  19. 19. Gardner’sTheory ofMultipleIntelligencesHoward Gardner; published in1985
  20. 20. Learning Styles• Styles are preferences, NOT abilities• Styles + ability = synergy for learning• Individuals have patterns of styles• Styles vary with task, situation• Styles are socialized• Styles are teachable• Culture, gender, age and education influence styles
  21. 21. Verbal/linguistic• Thinking in words• Uses language• Appreciate complex meanings• Journalists, newscasters, writers
  22. 22. Logical/mathematical• Calculate and quantify• Consider propositions and hypothesis• Engineers, accountants, programmers
  23. 23. Spatial• Thinks in 3 dimensions• Manipulates graphics• Navigates in space• Pilots, painters, architects
  24. 24. Body/kinesthetic• Fine hand-eye coordination• Good physical skills• Dancers, craftsmen, surgeons
  25. 25. Musical• Sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, tone• Musicians, composers, sensitive listeners
  26. 26. Interpersonal• Interacts effectively with others• At ease in social situations• Teachers, actors and politicians
  27. 27. Intrapersonal• Accurate self-perception• Plans and directs own life• Theologians and psychologists
  28. 28. Naturalist• Appreciates natural phenomena• Recognizes patterns• Sensory, hands-on learners• Environmentalists, farmers, oceanographers
  29. 29. Existentialist• Sensitive to “Big Issues”• Global Thinkers• Asks “Why are we here?”
  30. 30. LessonPlansIntegrating Multiple Intelligences
  31. 31. Plans are as varied as teachers• Formats vary• Some principals/administrations require particular formats• Plans are NOT schedules• Plans may be Unit, Weekly or Daily• Next week: Format models
  32. 32. Elements of a plan• Objectives• Assessments• Procedures/sequence• Materials/resources• Re-teaching strategies• Enrichment strategies• Alternatives for special students
  33. 33. Objectives• District curriculum mandated• Domains• Taxonomic• Learning Styles
  34. 34. Assessments• Must be tied to the objectives• Must be realistic• Must be measurable
  35. 35. Procedures• Step-by-step• Focus on what the students DO• Separate content and skills
  36. 36. Re-teaching Strategies• What if they don’t get it?• What is the definition of insanity?
  37. 37. Enrichment• What if they get it and are ready to move on?• What would YOU think is fun?• Think of last two levels of Bloom’s taxonomy
  38. 38. Alternatives for Special Friends• Different tests• Alternative assignments
  39. 39. Ideal School• Students stimulated & excited• Teachers prepared• Spacious, clean, windows, open• Many learning areas• Socializing, talking, noisy (but not obnoxious)• Happy to be there
  40. 40. Ideal School…• Community• Students active, “doing”• Close to home, like home• Safe & secure• Lots of stimulation, learning areas and variety…
  41. 41. Conditions ofQualitySchoolworkWhat is “quality?”
  42. 42. The Six Conditions William Glasser1. Warm, supportive environment2. Useful work3. Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4. Self evaluation by students5. Quality work is fun & feels good6. NOT destructive
  43. 43. How…do I teach_____?
  44. 44. The ToolBoxModels of Lesson OrganizationModels of Teaching
  45. 45. How…?• How…do you eat an elephant?• ¿Cómo come usted un elefante?
  46. 46. “Our plea to you is to planyour objectives or what toteach and then plan how to teach it.” page 191
  47. 47. What… Que…? las habilidades…el conocimientoTo DO or to KNOW or BOTH?Where do you find the WHAT?
  48. 48. How…?
  49. 49. Planning Cycle6 months – 1 year 3-6 months 3-6 weeks 1-2 weeks Daily
  50. 50. One year to six months• Resources – visualize, budget, plan…• Time –• Make data-driven decisions about the school…“…the next time I teach this…”
  51. 51. Three to six months• Budget – if it’s not there, don’t plan for it.• Make data –driven decisions about your class…“…this is what summer is for…”
  52. 52. Three to six weeks…• Gather resources• Schedule time with special teachers, labs, videos, librarian, etc.• Write your tests• Design your projects“…what do I want them to know…?”
  53. 53. One to two weeks…• Finalize, write and turn-in your lesson plans• Finalize the activities• Collect resources• Preview for the class• Make data-driven decisions about individual students“…*(%^#$@ !!! copy machine!”
  54. 54. DailyKeep notesCollect student work samplesUse the plan as a guide, NOT the bible…
  55. 55. Erickson’s Structure of Knowledge• Generalizations or principles• Concepts• Topics• Facts
  56. 56. Ten Views for Making Unit PlansTeams, Themes and Threads
  57. 57. FragmentedTraditional: Teacher presents subject as an independent discipline.
  58. 58. NestedWithin each subject, teacher targets multiple skills and domains.Example: Photosynthesis unit project targets consensus seeking, sequencing and plant life cycle.
  59. 59. ConnectedWithin a subject area, content is linked and relates to previous and subsequent learning.Example: Fractions and decimals relates to money, grades, statistics, etc.
  60. 60. SequencedConcepts are arranged to coincide with one another.Example: English teacher presents a historical novel while History teacher presents that historical period.
  61. 61. SharedPlanning and teaching overlap concepts in two disciplines.Example: Science and Math teachers use data collection, charting and graphing and team teaching.
  62. 62. WebbedA theme is used to present topics and concepts.Example: Teacher uses “The Circus” to present various subject areas.
  63. 63. ThreadedCombined curricular approach targets all domains.Example: Staff targets prediction, interpersonal communication and speaking in all areas.
  64. 64. IntegratedInterdisciplinary approach matches subjects for overlaps in topics and concepts.Example: Math, Science, ELA, Fine Arts teachers use patterns in “Weather” to create a unit.
  65. 65. ImmersedThe learner filters all content through one “lens” and becomes immersed in their own experience.Example: Naturalist “intelligence” or preference…
  66. 66. NetworkedThe learner filters all learning through the expert’s eyes and makes internal connections.Example: An architect networks with CAD operators to expand knowledge base.
  67. 67. Three General Categories: Concept Analysis Task AnalysisAdvance Organizer
  68. 68. Concept Analysis• Deductive - large concepts to specific examples• Inductive - small examples to discover broader concepts
  69. 69. Deduction
  70. 70. Deductive Models• Demonstrations• Videos or films• Student trials• Guest speakers• Reading• Reports• Games
  71. 71. Induction
  72. 72. Inductive Models• Lists• Student generalizations• Brainstorms• Questioning• Data analysis• Research• Applied experiments
  73. 73. Task Analysis• Step by step organization• Sequencing of more complex objectives• Terminal and intermediate (supporting) objectives
  74. 74. Advance Organizer• Overview to specific (deductive)• Often referred to as “scaffolding”• Use a visual/graphic representation
  75. 75. Organizer Examples• Timelines • Tables• Flow charts • Trees• Graphs • Classifications• Networks • Venn diagrams • Outlines
  76. 76. What’s First…?• What is to be tested?• What task or concept is the hardest?• What activity is the most complex?• What will grab their attention?
  77. 77. Break
  78. 78. There ought not to be anythingin the whole universe that mancan’t poke his nose into…that’sthe way we’re built and I assumethere’s some reason for it.”Robert Heinlein, author of Stranger in aStrange Land
  79. 79. Effect Size• Mean (average) score of pretest or first test• Mean score of the posttest, second test, or comparison group• Standard deviation of the pretest or first group
  80. 80. Effect Size• An ES of > .02 is not important• An ES of < .03 is significant• An ES approaching 1.0 is very significant and a basis for change.• An ES above 1.5 is phenomenal…
  81. 81. Calculate ESPretest – 1st 29 23 26 30 27 22 29 26 27 29 Posttest – 2nd 35 38 29 35 36 30 39 33 34 33 Average of the pretest = 26.8 Average of the posttest = 34.2 Std Dev of the pretest is 2.65