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Final Report of Project A Low

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Final Report of Project A Low

  1. 1. LoCom group Final Report locomgroup.wordpress.com iwinc.ece.uprm.edu
  2. 2. Final Report of Project: A Low-Complexity Cognitive Radio using COTS equipment Author: Jan Salomón, Gilberto Blas, Héctor Tosado, Radamés Peña, Oscar García Advisor: Lizdabel Morales, PhD. University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus ECE - Electrical and Computing Engineering Department. IWINC - Intelligent Wireless Networking Communications Laboratory May 18, 2011
  3. 3. Table of Contents 1. Introduction 4 2. Theoretical Frame 5 3. GNURadio Installation 10 4. Outcomes: The OFDM communication Demo 13 5. Conference and Meetings 16 6. LoCom Blog 18 7. LoCom Outreach and Workshop participation 19 8. Future Works 20 9. Bibliography 21
  4. 4. Introduction This report, far from being a more detailed summary of activities that have been realized by LoCom, shows the structure of our group and the problems that we have encountered in the execution of the project between January and June 2011. We will start by mentioning the state of the project at the beginning of the semester, its evolution in those months, a comparison between our project and those worked on by our fellow colleagues in the Electrical and Computer Department (ECE) and finally our future works for next semester. To enter into context, in this work we can envision how is the current panorama, both regionally and worldwide, in aspects relating wireless communication, software radio and cognitive radio. Accordingly, they teach what are our motivations, expectations and goals in the future. Among the activities mentioned in the report we can find the literature review of the fundamental theoretical concepts in the area of digital signal processing, communications, software defined radio, cognitive radio and programming languages. Similarly, the experiments that were done in the laboratory, first to prove the functionality of the USRP and GNU Radio, and then to test common theoretical aspects of software defined radio. Also mentioned in the report are the meeting and conferences that we have attended where we have reported and shared our results with fellow peers and the engineering community in general.
  5. 5. Theoretical Frame Currently, society has a big demand in its communication processes for: connectivity, mobility, performance and throughput. We live in a world of high demand for faster and more efficient connectivity; we wish to be able to access theses recourses anywhere and on the fly, having slow output might mean significant losses to a company or poor efficiency could end up costing the company more resources than what they need to and could limit their potential. Wireless communication devices have demonstrated to meet the aforementioned demands with certain outcomes leaving a lot of room for improvement. Within them, different prototypes of radios are still being developed to reach these specific goals. According to present and future demands in communication, Cognitive Radio (CR) is one of the solutions considered that can address most of the problems being encountered in wireless communications in a more cost efficient way than what is being used. Next, we will define the most important concepts in our research: • Software Defined Radio: Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a radio communication system where components that have been typically implemented in hardware are instead implemented by means of software on a personal computer or embedded computing devices. Software radio is the technique of getting code as close to the antenna as possible. The fundamental characteristic of software radio is that software defines the transmitted waveforms, and software demodulates the received waveforms. It turns radio hardware problems into software problems giving more flexibility with one piece of hardware. • GNU Radio: The GNU Radio project is an open source toolbox to develop code and deploy software radios. There are three ways to access the resources of the GNU Radio: GNU Radio Companion (GRC), C++ and Python. C++ is used in applications with signal processing that are closer to the physical layer. On the other hand, Python is used to display relevant information to the end user through an API. GRC is a development tool bundled with GNU Radio; it utilizes block libraries to build SDR systems. Many blocks are bundled and ready for use, even though, the programmer can build his own blocks. All blocks are built on C++ functions and the signal processing outcomes are displayed with Python to the end user.
  6. 6. Figure 1. Structure of GNURadio • Universal Software Radio Peripheral The Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) is a very flexible USB device that connects a personal computer to the RF world. consists of a small motherboard co sample/sec analog-to-digital digital-to-analog converters, a million gate (FPGA) and a programmable USB 2.0 controller, 4 extension sockets (2 TX, 2 RX) in order to connect 2 through 4 Basic TX/Basic RX daughterboards (16 pins each). The USRP daughterboard features an ISM band filter that suppresses the RF signal outside the 2402-2480 MHz band and attenuates it withi one dB or two. The flexibility of the USRP comes from the two programmable components on the board and their interaction with the host-side library. Figure 2. Parts of Figure 1. Structure of GNURadio Universal Software Radio Peripheral: The Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) is a very flexible USB device that connects a personal computer to the RF world. The USRP consists of a small motherboard containing up to four 12 digital-converters, four 14-bit, 128M sample/sec analog converters, a million gate-field programmable gate array (FPGA) and a programmable USB 2.0 controller, 4 extension sockets (2 TX, n order to connect 2-4 daughterboards, 64 GPIO pins available through 4 Basic TX/Basic RX daughterboards (16 pins each). The USRP daughterboard features an ISM band filter that suppresses the RF signal 2480 MHz band and attenuates it within such band by one dB or two. The flexibility of the USRP comes from the two programmable components on the board and their interaction with the Figure 2. Parts of LoCom’s USRP The Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) is a very flexible USB The USRP -bit 64M bit, 128M sample/sec field programmable gate array (FPGA) and a programmable USB 2.0 controller, 4 extension sockets (2 TX, 4 daughterboards, 64 GPIO pins available through 4 Basic TX/Basic RX daughterboards (16 pins each). The USRP daughterboard features an ISM band filter that suppresses the RF signal n such band by one dB or two. The flexibility of the USRP comes from the two programmable components on the board and their interaction with the
  7. 7. • Cognitive Radio: Cognitive Radio is a hybrid technology that involves the use of a software defined radio with a host personal computer. An SDR is an important device in our design because of the reconfigurability it offers. On the other hand, a computer is capable of executing functions of artificial intelligence. When both come together, it is said that we now have a CR system. One of the important qualities of the CR is that it has the capacity of selecting the best option between the available channels to insure a better communication. In this way the usage of the electromagnetic spectrum will be improved. The key concept is that CR has the ability of responding to the changes in its environment and adapts its system’s parameters. Possible functions of cognitive radio include the ability of a transceiver to determine its geographic location, identify and authorize its user, encrypt or decrypt signals, sense neighboring wireless devices in operation, and adjust output power and modulation characteristics. • Why use ISM Band in 2.4 GHz? The 2.4Ghz is used for two main reasons: because this band does not require a license to tamper with (free to use) and because the USRP device operates on the 2.4-2.8Ghz range (the former is actually the reason for the latter). What this number means is that the USRP will broadcast at a frequency that is within the legal boundaries of civilian use. A glance at FCC regulations confirms that the band of frequencies around 2.4 GHz has been assigned, along with a handful of others, as the industrial, scientific, and medical radio bands. Figure 3. ISM Band Frequency Spectrum One of our main projects with the USRP will be creating a spectrum analyzer for Bluetooth devices which also happen to operate around the 2.4Ghz range. Since the USRP is well equipped to operate around this band, the spectrum analyzer will attempt to detect any Bluetooth (or any commercial device, as a
  8. 8. later project) operating around this frequency. Creating a spectrum analyzer out of a cheap commercial programmable radio can potentially save thousands of dollars for people who wish to purchase a analog spectrum analyzer which price is well over $5000 in most cases. We cannot, however, detect anything below this frequency such as AM and FM radio or police/military radios since the USRP does not operate within this range. However, having a spectrum analyzer to detect commercial devices does have its applications such as troubleshooting devices, or ensuring that any transmitter working within this range can be detected. Figure 4. Traditional Spectrum Analyzer In short, the 2.4-2.8Ghz range will be ideal for testing and analyzing the spectrum of commercial devices. The development of a cheap spectrum analyzer will potentially allow access of a spectrum analyzer to those with a small budget or those interested in saving money for a analog spectrum analyzer working in the 2.4-2.8Ghz range. • Bluetooth Sensing Currently, the FCC is currently concerned with traditional licensed-based policies and trying to move toward the adoption of “spectrum sharing” strategies like ultra-wideband (UWB) and cognitive radio. While UWB systems help achieve a more efficient spectrum usage by overlaying existing narrowband systems, cognitive radios find and use the empty frequency bands. Cognitive radios rely on the fact that a significant portion of the spectrum allocated to licensed services shows little usage over time. So where does Bluetooth come in and how is this related to cognitive radio? Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short wavelength radio transmissions) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security and operates within the license-free ISM band at 2.402- 2.480 GHz.
  9. 9. Figure 5. A Bluetooth Peripheral Since Bluetooth is a relatively new and recent technology that is available from phones to any kind of residential, commercial or scientifical peripheral means that one day there might be enough Bluetooth devices at any given place that there might be interference among the devices in the same frequency band. Cognitive radio could attempt to solve this by detecting free space within its portion of the ISM band to ensure complete and uninterrupted communication. This means not only that interference would be reduced, but faster more reliable communication is ensured between devices.
  10. 10. GNURadio Installation To install GNURadio in any operating system result in a big effort for any people. After many tries, nights and endless reads, we have a guide to install GNURadio from scratch and straight-forward on Ubuntu. The installations were probed on Ubuntu 9.10, 10.04 and the release Maverick 10.10. • First Method - Manual Installation This is the most complicated of the three ways, but you can install the last release version or any version and to control in all steps of the process. To install GNURadio step by step follow the next steps: 1) First, you need to download the latest development code. To accomplish this, open the terminal and enter the following command: $ git clone http://gnuradio.org/git/gnuradio.git (This step takes a few minutes, so please, make sure to wait until the download is complete) 2) Then, you need to open Synaptic Package Manager and add GNU Radio sources onto it. Go to System > Administration > Synaptic Package Manager. Then, go to Settings > Repositories > Other Software and click Add. Then add the following sources: deb http://gnuradio.org/ubuntu stable main deb-src http://gnuradio.org/ubuntu stable main deb http://mirrors.kernel.org/ubuntu maverickmain universe Close that window and click Reload. 3) Search for gnuradio, right click on gnuradioand click Mark for Installation. After that, click on the apply button.
  11. 11. 4) By this point, you are ready to test the GNU Radio. Go to Places > Home Folder > gnuradio > gnuradio-examples > python > audio and then run noise.py. If this works, you have installed GNU Radio correctly. 5) In order to connect a USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) devices, you need to add a 'usrp' user group. Go to your terminal and add this lines (Be careful, you need to substitute MachineName for the real name of your machine): $sudo addgroup usrp$ sudo addgroup 'MachineName'usrp$ echo 'ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="usb", ATTR{idVendor}=="fffe", ATTR{idProduct}=="0002", GROUP:="usrp", MODE:"0660"' > tmpfile $sudo chown root.root tmpfile$ sudo mv tmpfile /etc/udev/rules.d/10- usrp.rules Then, $sudo service udev restart$ sudo ldconfig 6. Restart your machine and test your connection to the USRP by running examples codes from: …/gnuradio-examples/python/usrp/ • Second Method – Synaptyc Package Manager or Software Center The methods of installation were found to work two ways: either with the synaptic package manager or the software center for more recent versions of Ubuntu. The synaptic and terminal method is preferred due to the fact that it always fetches the most recent version of the GNU radio library. The steps to follow for the synaptic package manager are divided into two parts: 1. Change repositories in the synaptic package manager Some repositories need to be changed in order for the installation of the GNU Radio to work. The installation will fail unless these are changed. 2. Checkmark GNURadio from the Synaptic Manager list This will download the GNU Radio package. It is self-installing so not much work is required
  12. 12. Figure An alternate way of installation for the less tech savvy can be completed through the Ubuntu Software Center. The Software Center is a program for browsing, installing and removing software on the operating system. The GNU Radio Library can be found in the Software Center besides it is an almost fool beginning of the research this was not available due to the fact that previous version of Ubuntu was used that did not have the Software Center, but it is a viable alternative. Figure Since up-to-date versions of the GNU Radio library can be found through the use of the synaptic/terminal method, it is the preferred method. This guarantees less error during compilation and more stable programs to be written and run. The step by step inst at the GNU Radio Wiki. Figure 6. Ubuntu Software Center An alternate way of installation for the less tech savvy can be completed through the Ubuntu Software Center. The Software Center is a comp for browsing, installing and removing software on the operating system. The GNU Radio Library can be found in the Software Center it is an almost fool-proof way of a successful installation. At the ginning of the research this was not available due to the fact that previous version of Ubuntu was used that did not have the Software Center, but it is a Figure 7. Ubuntu Software Center date versions of the GNU Radio library can be found through the use of the synaptic/terminal method, it is the preferred method. This guarantees less error during compilation and more stable programs to be written and run. The step by step instructions using this method can be found An alternate way of installation for the less tech savvy can be completed computer for browsing, installing and removing software on the Ubuntu operating system. The GNU Radio Library can be found in the Software Center, successful installation. At the ginning of the research this was not available due to the fact that previous version of Ubuntu was used that did not have the Software Center, but it is a date versions of the GNU Radio library can be found through the use of the synaptic/terminal method, it is the preferred method. This guarantees less error during compilation and more stable programs to be ructions using this method can be found
  13. 13. Outcomes: The OFDM Communication Demo The demonstration shown in the IAP event is the most relevant outcome by LoCom. This demo consists in the transmission of a voice signal from one USRP to another. The software was coded using GNURadio Companion. To capture the voice was used a microphone and after the signal was sampling for GNURadio from the Computer’s audio card. In the receptor, the voice transmitted was listened with commons speakers. The step by step description is shown next: • Transmitter (Tx) First the block Audio Source allow to GNURadio load the audio in the audio card sampling to 48 KHz. The signal loaded is a float data type variable in the range between -1 to 1. It is desired to have a signal among 0 and 255, thus 1 is added to the signal with the Add Const block and after multiplied for 128 with the Multiply Const block. The next step is to modulate the audio signal with an OFDM modulation. The input of this block must be UChar type, is for this reason that in the before step finish up with the block Float to UChar. The last step is amplifying the signal with Multiply Const before send it to the USRP to transmit it with USRP1 Sink. To observe the output of the USRP a block WX GUI FFT Sink is used.
  14. 14. Two Slider Bars allow the transmission frequency When the program is running appears the Figure 8. GUI of the OF Two Slider Bars allow changing the transmission power and the transmission frequency through WX GUI Slider blocks. the program is running appears the following GUI: Figure 8. GUI of the OFDM TX the transmission power and blocks.
  15. 15. • Receiver (Rx) In the same way, the receiver has the same blocks that the Tx or blocks with inverse functions, because in this case we want to demodulate the RF signal and send it to the audio card to listen it. The following GRC program correspond to a radio frequency receiver with modulation OFDM: Figure 9. GRC program of RX
  16. 16. Conferences and Meetings This semester Low Complexity Cognitive Radio group had the opportunity to attend various conferences and meetings. There we were able to present our research through power point and/or poster presentations. From the conferences accepted are the: Puerto Rico Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (PRLSAMP), Computing Alliance for Hispanic Serving Institutes (CAHSI) and Industrial Affiliate Program (IAP). • PRLSAMP - PRISM The Puerto Rico Interdisciplinary Scientific Meeting The Puerto Rico Interdisciplinary Scientific Meeting is the annual island wide forum for undergraduate science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) students to present their research projects Every March over 350 undergraduate and graduate STEM students majors from the different universities in Puerto Rico present their research projects to an audience of over 750 faculty members and peers. The event opens with a plenary conference by a nationally recognized scientist. This year's PRISM took place at UIA-Bayamon campus on March 12, 2011 with the opening done by Dr. Tyrone Hayes presenting in the field of biology. In this conference Hector Tosado had the opportunity to do our first presentation of the semester. There he presented our approach towards achieving a Software defined radio, the tools used and what’s our motivation into achieving a Cognitive Radio. • Computing Alliance of Hispanic Serving Institutions CAHSI Annual Meeting This conference was celebrated March 27 through the 29th at the Caribe Hilton Hotel at San Juan, Puerto Rico. Different talks and workshops were offered varying from the importance of minority participation and the importance of the GRE. In this conference both Jan Salomon and Hector Tosado participated in the poster presentation. In this poster we already had running examples of GRC in where we had a spectrum analyzer receiving the signal of a nearby Bluetooth device. • Industrial Affiliate Program - IAP This meeting was taken place at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez on April 6 and 7. This meeting brought the opportunity to present our work to a few of the leading companies in the industry,
  17. 17. companies like Texas Instrument, Harris and Verizon, so that t see our research progress. We presented them with a demo that consisted of two USRP’s successfully communicatin One USRP was used to receive an audio signal from a microphone input and the other USRP was used to receive the signal wirelessly and play it back. This was done using the Radio. like Texas Instrument, Harris and Verizon, so that they could see our research progress. We presented them with a demo that consisted of two USRP’s successfully communicating with each other. One USRP was used to receive an audio signal from a microphone input and the other USRP was used to receive the signal wirelessly and play it back. This was done using the GNU Radio Companion (GRC) from hey could see our research progress. We presented them with a demo that g with each other. One USRP was used to receive an audio signal from a microphone input and the other USRP was used to receive the signal wirelessly and play it Companion (GRC) from GNU
  18. 18. LoCom Blog Currently Low Complexity Cognitive Radio group has a blog keep track of our events, accomplishments and regarding our investigation. outside can keep tabs on our progress and ask about anything they don’t understand or comment about a specific subject. information about our past conferences, outreach done by our professor and students from the research group, and 2.4 GHz and OFDM type modulation. Blog Currently Low Complexity Cognitive Radio group has a blog up and running to keep track of our events, accomplishments and any important information regarding our investigation. This can work as a tool so that people from the outside can keep tabs on our progress and ask about anything they don’t understand or comment about a specific subject. At the moment we have information about our past conferences, outreach done by our professor and students from the research group, and extra information about our use of the and OFDM type modulation. up and running to important information people from the outside can keep tabs on our progress and ask about anything they don’t At the moment we have information about our past conferences, outreach done by our professor and extra information about our use of the
  19. 19. LoCom Outreach and Workshop participation As part of the IWinC objectives LoCom had been invited to various events and workshops to show our developments and to meet our experiences in the disciplines of Digital Signal Processing, Communications and Cognitive/Software Radio. Among the events are: • Undergraduate students Orientation by area of emphasis • High School students Orientation in CROEM • Open House of University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez. • Workshop for anniversary of 100 years of University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez. • Workshop of Digital Signal Processing, organized by the Sociedad de Ingenieros Electricistas de Puerto Rico, Chapter UPR Mayaguez.
  20. 20. Future Works At our purpose of build a cognitive radio, for the next semester the LoCom group plans: • Review more literature. • Design and code more Software Radios (not only USRP1). • Study and deploy one low complexity cognitive algorithm in Python language. • Design and implement our own GRC block. • Transmit and receive an image. • To design validation experiments and create a guide for education experiments that can be incorporated into core classes. • To create an outreach program that can motivate students in high school and university level to study communications and DSP.
  21. 21. Bibliography 1. Reed J. Software Radio, A Modern Approach to Radio Engineering. Prentice Hall, 2002. 2. http://www.ettus.com/ 3. http://www.gnuradio.org 4. Ziemer R.E, Tranter W.H. Principles of Communications: Systems, Modulation, and Noise, 5th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002. 5. Pilgrim M. Dive Into Python 3. Apress, 2009.

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