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Recording Behavior <ul><li>Define the target behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Identify who, when, and where to record (the logistics of recording) </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a recording method (what to record) </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a recording instrument (how to record) </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Consider reactivity of recording </li></ul>
<ul><li>Defining the target behavior </li></ul>Sometimes referred to as operationally defining the target behavior Sometimes referred to as a behavioral definition Whatever you call it, it specifies exactly what behavior is to be observed
Defining the Target Behavior 1 Describe what the person does and says – AVOID LABELS
Defining the Target Behavior 2 Use active verbs that are objective and unambiguous
Defining the Target Behavior 3 Do not use inferences about internal states or motivation Teacher may define bad attitude as being rude . Rolls eyes Doesn’t use please and thank you Turns away when spoken to How can you define rude more behaviorally?
Defining the Target Behavior 4 Defined so that two people agree When the behavior is defined behaviorally two people can observe the same behavior and agree the behavior occurred. It is called interobserver reliability (IOR) or interobserver agreement
Logistics of Recording Identify Who When Where
Logistics of Recording WHEN Must get permission especially if it occurs without the clients knowledge Observational periods must be defined Dependent on: when the behavior is likely to occur availability of observers constraints imposed by activities of the client
Logistics of Recording WHERE Record in contrived settings Record in natural settings Structured vs unstructured
Recording Method Frequency = the number of times the behavior occurs in an observation period Continuous Recording Real time recording = exact time of the onset and offset of the target behavior is recorded Duration = total amount of time occupied by the behavior Intensity = amount of force, energy, or exertion involved in the behavior Latency = the time from some stimulus event to the onset of the behavior
Recording Method Product Recording Record the tangible outcome or permanent product of the occurrence of the behavior
Recording Method Interval Recording Record the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the behavior in consecutive intervals of time during an observation period.
Recording Method Time Sample Recording Record the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the behavior in discontinuous intervals of time (time samples) during an observation period.
Recording Instrument The data sheet is the most commonly used instrument in behavioral research Recording must be immediate and practical
Recording Instrument Other methods of observation:
Dealing with Reactivity Record surreptitiously through observation windows or with participant observers Wait until the person being observed becomes accustomed to the observer or to self-monitoring