The first phone with LBS abilities was the PALM VII that came out in 1999. At this point there were apps like yellowpages that would work off of postal code input to search for businesses nearby. In 2001 the first phone with Global Positioning was released in Japan.In 2002 the automatic location identification came out which no longer required user input to use LBS, this brings the technology much closer to that of today.In 2005 the Can Spam Act was enforced in the US which led to users having to opt in to have their location tracked.Present day we have tons of LBS apps from things like foursquare where you can check in to let your friends know where you are to apps like grinder which use location to determine if someone else in your proximity is looking for a “love connection”. The future holds many opportunities for LBS! One bit of news we found that may affect LBS going forward is a major patent held by apple on LBS useage. The article can be found at http://news.cnet.com/8301-13579_3-57326207-37/look-out-here-comes-apples-killer-location-services-patent/
We decided to give order to the chaos of the LBS world. Define and classify LBS according to certain dimensions.
Schiller in his book “Location-based-services” discusses four non-device oriented dimensions that are split into push & pull services. Pull services- those in which the user has to send in a call/request to receive data/information/communication/etc. Push services- those that (usually after an initial opt-in) automatically and by themselves send an update. Communication- communication of some relevant data. Information- information is provided to the user. Entertainment- a level of entertainment, fun, game within LBS. M-commerce & advertising- includes mobile purchasing or targeted advertising based on a user’s location.
Four of our own classifications.
FourSquare requires users to “check-in” to locations in order for their locations to be updated and viewed by other users.Grindr is a mobile app for gay men that automatically updates you with the location of other Grindr members in your vicinity, and then allows you to click on user profiles to get more information and send a message (if so desired).
Facebook is a good example of a LBS that doesn’t use game mechanics. You check in to let your friends know where you are so they can either be jealous or comment or even meet up with you. Aside from this there isn’t motivation to post. You don’t get any awards or recognition for checking in a certain number of times. There’s no ranking system in place to encourage more check ins.Geocaching is a great example incorporating game mechanics into LBS. I like this example because it links the online world with real world fun. Geocaching works like a scavenger hunt. The application brings you to the approximate location using LBS and provides clues about where a “cache” is hidden. After some searching you will find the “cache” (hopefully) which can be anything from the size of a film canister to a shoebox. Within it is a log that you can put your username on and there also may be trinkets inside that you can take one of if you like. Generally to take one it is customary to leave something different behind in its place. There are literally millions of these caches world wide and users comment online about how much they enjoyed the view from where the cache was hidden or that it was a tough search. There is a large online community all involved in this, they all see it as a big secret because they don’t want random people to find the caches.
We have two spheres in our lives: the offline world and the online world. Certain applications facilitate offline, real world interaction (such as checking into a physical space) and transfer that real world action into the online sphere and facilitate online discussions lately (ex. FB places takes your physical location and facilitates online interaction around it via status posts and comments); while certain applications take online interaction and using LBS facilitate offline interaction and real-world meet-ups (ex. Grindr moves online interaction to real-world offline meetings). Certain application do both
-Is it driven by achieving some sort of operational/logistics/functional purpose (I receive information about nearest bank machine) or is motivated by deeper psychological/social needs and motivations (such as need for social interaction, showing off, etc.)
Bentham had an idea for social control via an interesting architectural prison design. The concept was a round prison with the cells situated around the outside of a courtyard, facing in. A guard tower would be situated in the dead center of the courtyard so all acts of the prisoners could be monitored and good behavior would be rewarded while poor behavior would be punished. The guard tower would have one way or mirrored glass so the prisoners would be unable to see the guard, and Bentham theorized that the prisoners (unable to see whether or not a guard was present in the tower) would behave because they believed they were being monitored. This concept has been the focus of many scholarly articles concerning social media and the growing concern for privacy.
The focus of the 1st generation Panopticon was punishing of misdeeds (or the threat of doing so).Where it fell short was in its inability to cover all areas and adequately punish those deserving. It was virtually impossible to monitor all cameras at all times, so misdeeds often went unpunished - when punishment did occur it was well after the crime had been committed. The belief that misdeeds would be punished was not imbedded in society, hence the behavior wasn’t curbed. In many cases, criminals simply avoided areas they knew to be monitored.
2nd generation sees technological advances that provide a means for commerce to gather information on consumers. The focus is no longer just on criminal activity but on buyer preferences and personal interests as well.Rather than scaring the public into believing they are being watched, the 2nd generation led the public to believe they were providing info for beneficial personal outcomes, when the true use of that information was likely to be far more invasive.Once again, people start to avoid the intrusive gathering of data by paying in cash and providing fake names and numbers whenever possible.The system is still imperfect as it lacks cohesion…for example, police databases were independent of one another so crucial info was not being shared
Data gathering systems all linked, providing the cohesion that was lacking in the previous generation. Technology now allows for prevention rather than focusing on punishment alone, and the speed at which information now travels can bring about immediate results.Payment for monitoring others, either for financial reward or simply for virtue. “ The rightness of an action depends on the value of its consequences” (Bentham).
Person to peer involves what one allows friends and family to know about themPerson to firm refers to consumer to business information flows (gathering of info for warranties, contests, etc.). Person to state refers to the information one must provide to the government in the course of filing taxes, issuance of drivers licenses, collecting census data, etc.Person to public is the focus of this presentation and is the most complex. It is essentially the way we regulate what everyone else knows or assumes about us. This interface is very misunderstood and in todays world is just an illusion. As noted above, we are no longer in control of our public personae (Vaidhyanathan, 2008)
The idea that believing one is being watch will curb antisocial behavior is certainly not a slam dunk as can be seen by reality television and Youtube.Vaidhyanathan argues that this concept is not one of a modern-day Panopticon at all, because the public does not know the extent to which it is being watched and monitored.Interesting vantage points from both sides as to how location based services and social media technologies are pervading our private spaces. Both Kietzmann and Ingalls and Vaidhyanathan agree that the direction this technology is taking is leading society down a dangerous path and question whether the good will eventually be overrun by the bad.
Networking/communicationWhen people post and people post back, networking occurs between these people.Ask around is a website that allows people to communicate to one another However, with LBS, is this the same? It is easy to post Friendships are madeAka-aki is a social media app that shows people near you with similar interests and friends that you have. It is almost like an offline facebook, where instead of facebook creeping someone, you can creep them in real life.Dating sites also come to mind in terms of meeting new people.
Neighbourhood interactionsAka-aki, block chalk, the list goes on for sites that allow people to communicate about the issues in their communities, or to simply chat with people who live in the neighbourhood in real-time rather than over email.By doing so, people come together so they can, for example, fix an issue that people in the community have a problem with.
Functional vs. ego-drivenYou know you are being watched. You are deliberately checking yourself into a location, reviewing a restaurant.When you are reviewing a restaurant, you are creating functionality for other users, as well as creating an ego for yourself. Creating a face on the internetPopularity Reward (reading source?)How many people check in to a location?In 2010, foursquare claimed that its users check in to locations more than 380 million times.
The uses of LBS in business: marketing research, operations and logistics, advertising.
Marketing research uses:-conduct data mining on an application that uses LBS to figure out the usages and locations of your users. Use the information for relationship building or further promotion. -Know where your target segment is going and use it to establish partnerships with those venues, locations, establishments to further drive customer relationship building. -use the location knowledge of your customer segment to sponsor or advertise in those venues, locations, establishments they are in. -offer incentives or rewards based on their locations-understand the competitors’ customers and how they move about-use it to generate leads by promoting at where your potential customers are
Operations and logistics:-parcel tracking- value added services for both the company (be able to track and ensure delivery of packages) and for the customers (know and anticipate their packages)-fleet tracking: significantly improves efficiency and operations of various company through building of real-time knowledge of the company’s fleet. Allows for specific coordination. -Allows for superior inventory management through the increased knowledge of inventory/fleet whereabouts. -Through more coordinated planning of fleets and routes, companies significantly reduce time and distance travelled. As such, their carbon footprint is also reduced.
-leverage of social recommendations and social shopping of products. Allows business to be associated with friend recommendations and friend endorsements. As a friend checks into a specific location (ex. Restaurant), he or she essentially advertise and personally endorse that location. As such, their friends are more inclined to check out that place or purchase the same product. As such businesses are promotion check-ins through offering coupons/discounts for customers who check-in. -Hyper-targeted advertising based on a user’s location is becoming more common. This hyper-targeted advertising seems to have much higher click-through rates (upwards of 40%).
Bus450 Location Based Services
Location Based Services #lbs450 Where the offline & online convergeMegan Cramb | Connor Veitch | Ryan Phillips | Jevta Lukic
2Rated R FourSquare For Sex Viewer Discretion Advised #lbs450
3What are Location BasedServices?A location-based service (LBS) is an information orentertainment service, which is accessible withmobile devices through the mobile network andwhich uses information on the geographicalposition of the mobile device.* *Thanks wikiepdia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Location-based_service #lbs450
4Q: What are the uses of Location Based Services? #lbs450
5 Three Uses of LBS Government Emergency Commercial and Military Services Services Services• Military • Ambulance • Fleet tracking operations locations • Mobile• Air-traffic • Natural applications control disaster efforts #lbs450
6 Three Uses of LBS Government Emergency Commercial and Military Services Services Services• Military • Ambulance • Fleet tracking operations locations • Mobile• Air-traffic • Natural applications control disaster efforts #lbs450
7Agenda Evolution of LBS LBS Taxonomy LBS & Surveillance Motivations of use LBS & Business Outcomes #lbs450
11LBS Taxonomytax·on·o·my/takˈsänəmē/Noun:The branch of science concerned withclassification, esp. of organisms; systematics. #lbs450
12 LBS Taxonomy* Push Services Pull ServicesCommunication Ex. You get an Ex. Request from alert who is near an application you who is near you.Information Ex. Get a terror Ex. Look for the alert for the city nearest cinema. you‟re in.Entertainment Ex. Opted to Ex. Try to find participate in a someone in your shooting game & area to „shoot‟. are „being shot.‟M-Commerce & Ex. Receive a Ex. Look for coolAdvertising voucher from a events in the restaurant you‟re area you‟re in. in. Adapted from: Jochen H. Schiller, A. V. (2004). Location-based services- Morgan Kaufmann series in data management systems. Elsevier. #lbs450
13Dimension of LBS Voluntary vs. Automatic Tracking Degree of Game Mechanics Offline to Online vs. Online to Offline Functional vs. Ego-Driven #lbs450
14D1: Voluntary vs. AutomaticDo users input their location (“Check in”) or doesthe application automatically update the userlocation?Voluntary Check-In Automatic GPS Tracking• BuddyWay • BuddyCloud• CheckPoints • ComeTogethr• Facebook Places • EagleTweet• FourSquare • Grindr• MeetMoi #lbs450
15D2: Degree of Game MechanicsCreates engagement and fun when usingapplicationsUses GM Doesn‟t use GM• Yelp • Facebook• FourSquare • Block Chalk• Geocaching • Grindr• Waze #lbs450
16D3: Offline to Online vs. Online toOfflineYour offline “real world” activities (visits to venues,events, locations) are transferred to the onlinesphere & facilitate online interaction. Vs. Youronline activities (checking in, disclosing location)facilitate “real world” offline interaction.Offline to Online Online to Offline• Facebook Places • Grindr• LocalMind • Block Chalk• Love Clean London #lbs450
17D4: Functional vs. Ego-DrivenDo you do it to achieve an operational purpose orto show-off?Functional Ego-Driven• UrbanSpoon • Facebook Places• Flixster • FourSquare #lbs450
19Panopticon Jeremy Bentham (1787) Prison theory of social control #lbs450
201st Generation Panopticon• Early 21st century- CCTV in London• Citizens learn & alter behaviour “George Orwell would have been proud and horrified…” (Kietzmann & Angell). #lbs450
212nd Generation PanopticonEnables personal information gathering via:• Data mining & profiling,• Loyalty cards• Mobile phonesProblem with cohesion, Panopticon still imperfect"Behaviour changing intentions hiddenbehind...desirable outcomes".(Kietzmann & Angell) #lbs450
223rd Generation Panopticon• Outsourcing of policing duties to the general population.• Ultimate public panopticon can exist by convincing population to spy on itself.• Social media/ Mobile phone combination (GPS, tamper-proof time stamps, and facial recognition = public police).• Cohesion finally realized #lbs450
23Nonopticon• Privacy Infringement = lack of control over ones reputation in the world• Four major "Privacy Interfaces" 1. Person-to-peer 2. Person-to-firm 3. Person-to-state 4. Person-to-public"We are no longer in control of our publicpersonae...” (Vaidhyanathan, 2008) #lbs450
24Nonopticon• Two arguments against Panopticon theory: 1. Reality TV shows that presence of cameras often stimulates odd behaviour, rather than curbing it. 2. Opposite of Penopticon in that the public is being watched without knowing it (or at least the full extent of it). “We will be subjects, mere fodder for our watchers, means instead of ends.” (Vaidhyanathan, 2008) #lbs450
26Q: So…why do you use location based services? #lbs450
27 MotivationsConscious Networking Communicationlevels • Posting/checking-in creates interaction. • Friendships. • Dating sites. • Satisfaction. • Feeling of community. Find people in your area with similar interests at: #lbs450
28MotivationsBlockChalk: a newservice built aroundthe idea of leavingsimple messagesdirectly tied to aspecific location.For companies, it isfree word of mouth,free reviews, and tosome degree, freeadvertising. #lbs450
30 Why do we do it? Ego-Subconscious Functional VSlevels Driven #lbs450
31 Why do we do it? Ego-Subconscious Functional VSlevels Driven • You know you are being watched (i.e. you are deliberately checking yourself into a location). • How many people check in to a location? • In 2010, Foursquare claimed that its users check in to locations more than 380 million times. #lbs450
32 Why do we do it? Ego-Subconscious Functional VSlevels Driven Creating a face on the internet. Popularity. • When you are reviewing a restaurant, you are creating functionality for other users, as well as creating an ego/face for yourself. • Reward: #lbs450
35Three Uses of LBS in Business Marketing Research Operations & Logistics Advertising #lbs450
36Three Uses of LBS in Business Marketing Research • Internal Data Mining • Partnerships • Sponsorships/Advertising • Incentives/Rewards • Understanding competition • Lead Generation #lbs450
37Three Uses of LBS in Business Operations & Logistics • Parcel tracking • Fleet tracking • Inventory management • Efficiency improvements • Carbon emissions reductions #lbs450
38Three Uses of LBS in Business Advertising • Promotion of brand through check-ins • Offer coupons/discounts for check-ins (push or pull) • Local deals • Targeted advertising based on location (LocalResponse) #lbs450
42ReferencesAngell, I. & Kietzmann, J.(June, 2010). Communications of the ACM -Vol. 53, No.6. PanopticonRevisited. doi: 10.1145/1743546.1743582BenBassat, D. M. (2008, March). Location-Based Services Put Efficiency on the Map. Retrieved February22, 2012, from Inbound Logistics: http://www.inboundlogistics.com/cms/article/location-based-services-put-efficiency-on-the-map/Holden-Bache, A. (2011, January 4). 9 Ways B2B Companies Can Use Location Based Services.Retrieved February 22, 2012, from Social : http://socialmediab2b.com/2011/01/b2b-location-based-services/Jochen H. Schiller, A. V. (2004). Location-based services- Morgan Kaufmann series in datamanagement systems. Retrieved February 22, 2012Location Based Service. (n.d.). Retrieved from MobileIn:http://www.mobilein.com/location_based_services.htmSalesBlog! (2011). Retrieved February 22, 2012, from Location Based Services Smart for Business:http://www.lottspace.com/location-based-services-smart-for-business.htmlShontell, A. (2011, October 12). Check-In Based Ad Platform LocalResponse Raises $5 Million From ASlew Of Investors. Retrieved February 22, 2012, from Business Insider:http://www.businessinsider.com/localresponse-raises-5-million-2011-10Schapsis, C. (2010, December). Location Based Social Networks, Location BasedSocial apps and games - Links . Retrieved February 15, 2012, from BDNooz - LBSStrategies: http://bdnooz.com/lbsn-location-based-social-networking-links/#axzz1mP7XX9FE #lbs450
43ReferencesVaidhyanathan, S. (2008). The Chronicle Review -Vol.54, Iss.23, P.B7. Naked in the Nonopticin.Retrieved from: http://www.english.illinois.edu/-people-/faculty/debaron/582/582%20readings/siva%20on%20privacy.pdf #lbs450