Janin Alfonso AP Art History Per.5 ANCIENT NEAR EAST
Ziggurat Ur,  Iraq   2100 BCE <ul><li>Built using mud bricks </li></ul><ul><li>Colossal scale </li></ul><ul><li>Resembles ...
Lamssu   Louvre, Paris   c. 700 BCE <ul><li>Ceiling-to-floor limestone animal guardian figures </li></ul><ul><li>Winged, h...
Standard of Ur   British Museum, London     c. 2600 B.C.E . <ul><li>Panels inlayed with shell, lapis lazuli, and limestone...
Tell Asmar Statue Iraq Museum , Baghdad   c.2700 B.C.E <ul><li>Composition: limestone, alabaster, gypsum </li></ul><ul><li...
Lyre University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia  C. 2600 BCE    <ul><li>Lyre with bull’s head </li></ul><ul><li>Four ...
Gudea  Louvre, Paris c. 2100 B.C.E. <ul><li>Folded hands with long thin fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Right arm uncovered </li...
Victory Stele of Naram-Sim Louvre, Paris     2254-2218  BCE <ul><li>Sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts victory over Lullu...
Stele of Hammurabi Louvre, Paris   C.  1780 BCE <ul><li>Basalt </li></ul><ul><li>Bas relief, 8 ft </li></ul><ul><li>One of...
Persepolis   Iran c.500 B.C.E. <ul><li>Built by Darius I and his son Xerxes, destroyed by Alexander the Great </li></ul><u...
Palace of Shapur   I   Ctesiphon, Iraq 250 C.E. <ul><li>Built by Sassanian Persian rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Brick audience...
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Near Eastern Art Per5

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Near Eastern Art Per5

  1. 1. Janin Alfonso AP Art History Per.5 ANCIENT NEAR EAST
  2. 2. Ziggurat Ur, Iraq 2100 BCE <ul><li>Built using mud bricks </li></ul><ul><li>Colossal scale </li></ul><ul><li>Resembles mountain </li></ul><ul><li>Whitewash applied to disguise muddy appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Four corners oriented to the compass </li></ul><ul><li>Three staircases lead to upper story entrance from three different directions and a guardhouse can be accessed where the stairs meet. </li></ul><ul><li>Top temple was small and removed from populace </li></ul><ul><li>Tapers out so that rainwater washed off </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated to moon god Nanna </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lamssu Louvre, Paris c. 700 BCE <ul><li>Ceiling-to-floor limestone animal guardian figures </li></ul><ul><li>Winged, human headed </li></ul><ul><li>The sculpture’s five legs when seen from the front seem to be standing at attention; when seen from the side appear to be walking past </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose is to ward off both visible and invisible enemies </li></ul>
  4. 4. Standard of Ur British Museum, London c. 2600 B.C.E . <ul><li>Panels inlayed with shell, lapis lazuli, and limestone </li></ul><ul><li>PractiComprised of two sides: a war and a peace which could have been two sides of a narrative (early example of historical narrative) </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: Perhaps part of soundbox for a musical instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Residents of Jericho buried dead family members under floor boards </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tell Asmar Statue Iraq Museum , Baghdad c.2700 B.C.E <ul><li>Composition: limestone, alabaster, gypsum </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: Representational figures of middle-eastern people found in temples. Meant to pray in the stead of their human counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Large wide eyes and folded hands give impression of worship </li></ul><ul><li>Height denotes hierarchy scale </li></ul><ul><li>Men: bare chest, long skirt, wavy beard </li></ul><ul><li>Women: dress draped over one shoulder </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lyre University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia C. 2600 BCE <ul><li>Lyre with bull’s head </li></ul><ul><li>Four panels on side: </li></ul><ul><li>Top: Sumerian wrestling two man-headed bulls </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd level: wolf carries a table with animal parts, preparing for a ceremony; lion bears wine, jug, cup </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd level: donkey play a bull-harp; bear dances; seated fox plays a rattle </li></ul><ul><li>4th level: jackal (?) waves rattles; scorpion-man </li></ul><ul><li>Animals in profile; people have frontal shoulders </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gudea Louvre, Paris c. 2100 B.C.E. <ul><li>Folded hands with long thin fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Right arm uncovered </li></ul><ul><li>Broad shoulders, narrow waist, simple outlines </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful, pensive </li></ul><ul><li>Diorite, the stone it is carved out of proclaims the wealth of the owner and importance of subject </li></ul>
  8. 8. Victory Stele of Naram-Sim Louvre, Paris 2254-2218 BCE <ul><li>Sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts victory over Lullubi </li></ul><ul><li>Naram-Sin deifies himself as composition leads him up the mountain to the heavens </li></ul><ul><li>Heavens indicated by three stars </li></ul><ul><li>Sun represents victory blessed by the gods, however Naram-Sin acts independently </li></ul><ul><li>King wears horned crown of divinity, holds a bow in one hand, arrow in the other, battle axe in hollow of arm </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated soldiers beg for mercy </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy scale </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stele of Hammurabi Louvre, Paris C. 1780 BCE <ul><li>Basalt </li></ul><ul><li>Bas relief, 8 ft </li></ul><ul><li>One of the earliest law codes ever written is engraved upon it </li></ul><ul><li>Sun god/patron of justice, Shamash, sitting on throne atop ziggurat handing Hammurabi a rope, ring and rod of kingship (authority) </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi greets him </li></ul><ul><li>Shamash wears horned helmet signifying divinity </li></ul><ul><li>Images powerfully convey close link between the human and divine rulers, Hammurabi had god-given authority to enforce laws on stele </li></ul>
  10. 10. Persepolis Iran c.500 B.C.E. <ul><li>Built by Darius I and his son Xerxes, destroyed by Alexander the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Included enormous audience hall, apadama </li></ul><ul><li>Apadama was supported by 36 colossal columns, each surrounded by bull’s heads of gray limestone </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: receptions and festivals </li></ul><ul><li>Carved onto stairs are the Immortals, the King’s Guard, who were called this because they always numbered 10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Relief sculpture of people form all parts of empire bringing gifts to treasury; selected to protect treasury </li></ul>
  11. 11. Palace of Shapur I Ctesiphon, Iraq 250 C.E. <ul><li>Built by Sassanian Persian rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Brick audience hall </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Roman architecture in the barrel vault and arches </li></ul>

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