Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Study of new town canberra, australia

  • Login to see the comments

Study of new town canberra, australia

  1. 1. STUDY OF NEW TOWN –CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Australia is the worlds smallest continent and the world’s largest island. Canberra city was designed to be the Federal Capital of Australia. The word "Canberra" is derived from the word Kambera or Canberry and mean "meeting place" in the old Ngunnawal language. It is located near the Brindabella Ranges, approximately 150 kilometres inland from Australias east coast.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONESTABLISHED 12 March 1913POPULATION 3,58,222 as on 31 March 2011DENSITY 428.6/km²COORDINATES 35° 18′ 29″ S and 149° 07′ 28″ EAREA 814.2 km²LOCATION 286 km SW of Sydney(New South Wales) 669 km NE of Melbourne(Victoria) 1159 km E of Adelaide(South Australia) 1203 km SSW of Brisbane(Queensland) 3726 km ESE of Perth(West Australia)MEAN Max TEMPERATURE 19.7° C or 67° FMEAN Min TEMPERATURE 6.5° C or 44° FANNUAL RAINFALL 616.4 mm
  4. 4. HISTORY European exploration and settlement started in the Canberra area as early as the 1820s. Before European settlement, the area in which Canberra would eventually be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places, camps and quarry sites, and stone tools and arrangements. The evidence suggests human habitation in the area for at least 21,000 years.
  5. 5. HISTORY The European population in the Canberra area continued to grow slowly throughout the 19th century. The oldest surviving public building in the inner-city is the Anglican Church of St John the Baptist, in the suburb of Reid, which was consecrated in 1845. St Johns churchyard contains the earliest graves in the district. As the European presence increased, the indigenous population dwindled, mainly from disease such as smallpox and measles.
  6. 6. SELECTION OF NEW CAPITAL There was a long dispute over whether Sydney or Melbourne should be the national capital, later a compromise was reached: the new capital would be built in New South Wales, so long as it was at least 160 km from Sydney. As a result of survey work done by the government during 1908-1909, Canberra District was selected as a site for a new City of Australia due to its prominent location and commanding position with extensive views. In 1911, an International Competition (conducted by the Department of Home Affairs) for the design of its new city was launched.
  7. 7.  Walter Burley Griffin, a Chicago landscape architect was the first prize-winner of the International Competition for the design of this city. Griffin’s design approach was greatly influenced by topographical and landscape considerations, which left for further development of the Capital City today. However, it was also criticized as extravagant.
  8. 8. TOPOGRAPHY OFCANBERRA CITY DISTRICT
  9. 9. ORIGINAL PLANNING CONCEPT Griffin’s design of Canberra was influenced by two popular movements. ―City Beautiful‖—an idea used in Chicago City Plan by Daniel Burnham involving planning and landscaping, main buildings around formal water basins. ―English Garden City‖ by Ebenezer Howard which used parks to screen residential areas by major highways and used street patterns to change directions so as to discourage through traffic from using residential roads as shortcuts.
  10. 10. ORIGINAL PLANNING CONCEPT In comparison with the Central Washington Plan designed by McMillan in 1901, Griffin’s Geometrical Concept is much the same. With this regard, it is evident that government buildings were located around an artificial lake— named Lake Burley Griffin—and reflecting the identity of Canberra as a National Capital and residential buildings adjacent to North Bourne Avenue and Federal Highway were built and separated by residential streets.
  11. 11. CANBERRA, BASED ON GRIFFIN’S PLAN, 1912.
  12. 12. GRIFFIN’S ILLUSTRATION OF HIS CITY PLAN
  13. 13. LAND AND WATER AXES Walter Burley Griffin defined two bisecting axes - land and water - that determine the central part of the design of Canberra. The land axis begins at Mount Ainslie, the mountain with the domed building (the Australian War Memorial) at the base, continues across the water axis defined by Lake Burley Griffin, through Parliament House, the large building in the foreground with the tripod flagpole, and terminates some distance outside the city at Bimberi Peak in the Brindabella Range (not visible from Canberra).
  14. 14. THE JOURNEY BEGAN On 12 March 1913 the foundation stone was laid on the Capital Hill and the City was formally named Canberra. In mid-1913, due to a change of government, Griffin was invited to Australia to help the Board with the development of the City. The new Ministry appointed Griffin as a Federal Director of Design and Construction. World War I, changes of government and lack of money slowed progress of the city but several major works were undertaken.
  15. 15.  In 1914 the railway was extended from Queanbeyan to the south-east comer of Canberra, a power station was built at Kingston, brick-works were opened at Yarralumla and in 1915 Cotter Dam was completed. Griffin was frustrated by repeated efforts to change his city plan and his relationship with the Australian authorities was strained. He was fired in 1920, with little work done due to lack of funding.
  16. 16.  From 1920 to 1957, three bodies, successively the Federal Capital Advisory Committee, the Federal Capital Commission and the National Capital Planning and Development Committee(NCDC) continued to plan the further expansion of Canberra in the absence of Griffin. Between 1921-1930, under the guidance of the Federal Capital Advisory Committee construction progressed slowly. Road and sewerage layouts continued, tree planting was carried out, Parliament House constructed. Shops were built at Civic, Manuka and Kingston; offices, hostels and houses completed for 1100 public servants.
  17. 17.  The federal legislature moved to Canberra in 1927, with the opening of the Provisional Parliament House. The Prime Minister, Stanley Bruce, had officially taken up residence in The Lodge a few days earlier.
  18. 18. OLD PARLIAMENT HOUSE WITH THE PRESENT PARLIAMENT HOUSE BEHIND IT.
  19. 19.  Meanwhile, in 1936 Walter Burley Griffin died. The years of the Depression, World War II and post-war shortages caused a lengthy period of stagnation in development, and only a small number of national projects were brought to fruition, including the Australian War Memorial (1941) and the Australian-American Memorial (1954). Some projects planned for that time, including Roman Catholic and Anglican cathedrals, were never completed.
  20. 20. AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL
  21. 21. AUSTRALIAN- AMERICAN WAR MEMORIAL
  22. 22.  Immediately after the end of the war, Canberra was criticised for resembling a village, and its disorganised collection of buildings was deemed ugly. Griffin originally designed the city for a population of 75,000 people. The population grew by more than 50% in every five-year period from 1955 to 1975. Several Government departments, together with public servants, were moved to Canberra from Melbourne following the war. Government housing projects were undertaken to accommodate the citys growing population. Prime Minister Robert Menzies regarded the state of the national capital as an embarrassment. Over time his attitude changed towards championing its development. He fired two ministers charged with the development of the city for poor performance.
  23. 23. CITY HILL SURROUNDED BY CAR PARKS, ARTERIAL ROADS AND EMERGING CIVIC CENTRE, 1960S
  24. 24.  The Federal Government under Robert Menzies established the National Capital Development Commission (NCDC) in 1957 to create a capital city of which all Australians would be proud. The Commission had a four-fold task:  to complete the establishment of Canberra as seat of government  to develop it fully as the administrative centre  to create the buildings, avenues, lakes, parks and other features appropriate to Australias national capital  to design living areas with high standard of amenities and attractive surroundings.
  25. 25.  NCDC was responsible for a number of major projects.  Russell Offices for the Department of Defence were built flanking the Australian American Memorial at the end of Kings Avenue.  Kings Avenue Bridge (1962) and Commonwealth Avenue Bridge (1963) provided dignified crossings which allowed Lake Burley Griffin to be formed in 1963.  Anzac Parade was developed in 1965 to commemorate the jubilee of the Gallipoli campaign, the Royal Australian Mint ( 1965), the National Library ( 1968), the National Botanic Gardens, the Carillon and Captain Cook Memorial Jet (1970).  Between 1961 and 1965 new office blocks, retail stores, banks, theatres and law courts filled in most of the empty areas around Civic Centre.
  26. 26. BRIDGES
  27. 27.  Canberra was growing so rapidly because of the transfer of Public Service departments in the 1960s that new residential areas had to be developed.  either by increasing the density of the existing city - areas and allowing a sprawl of suburbs to take place as in other Australian cities; or  by planning new towns (satellite cities) adjacent to North and South Canberra.
  28. 28. NEW (SATELLITE) TOWNS In 1962, the first new town, Woden was begun 12 km south of Civic Centre and an adjoining valley, Weston Creek was later added to accommodate more than 60,000 people. Woden-Weston Creek today has its own town centre, a major employment area with around 8,000 people currently engaged in government administration, retail and service trades activities. In 1973, Tuggeranong, the third new town, was commenced south of Woden-Weston Creek in a series of valleys, ridges and hills intersected by the Murrumbidgee River. Rugged mountain ranges often snow-capped in winter, provide a dramatic backdrop to Tuggeranong, which will eventually have a population of around 1,00,000.
  29. 29. AN EXAMPLE OF CANBERRA’S NEIGHBOURHOOD OPEN SPACES, WODEN TOWN CENTRE IN DISTANCE
  30. 30. NEW (SATELLITE) TOWNS In 1975, Gungahlin, the fourth new town, north of Canberra City, was begun. So far only the Mitchell Industrial Estate has been developed, but eventually Gungahlins population could grow to 85,000. The four satellites are being built with many of the characteristics of independent cities with their own commercial employment and retail centres, each having the potential to develop its individual character. All are linked by a comprehensive transportation system including roads, cycle-ways and an inter-town public transport network and each accommodates some of the national capital functions of Canberra.
  31. 31. TODAY’S CANBERRA As the seat of the government of Australia, Canberra is the site of Parliament House, the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies. It is also the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance, such as the Australian War Memorial, Australian National University, Australian Institute of Sport, National Gallery, National Museum, the High Court, Parliament House, the Museum of Australian Democracy at Old Parliament House, the Aboriginal Tent Embassy, and the National Library of Australia. The Australian Armys officer corps are trained at the Royal Military College, Duntroon and the Australian Defence Force Academy is also located in the capital.
  32. 32. TODAY’S CANBERRA As the city has a high proportion of public servants, the federal government contributes the largest percentage of Gross State Product and is the largest single employer in Canberra. As the seat of government, the unemployment rate is lower and the average income higher than the national average, while property prices are relatively high, in part due to comparatively restricted development regulations. Tertiary education levels are higher, while the population is younger.
  33. 33. TOP VIEW OF CANBERRA
  34. 34. GRIFFIN’S (PARLIAMENTARY) TRIANGLE
  35. 35. RESIDENCES
  36. 36. RESIDENCES AND ROAD NETWORK
  37. 37. CIVIC CENTRE
  38. 38. MARKET CENTRE
  39. 39. PLANNING PHILOSOPHY IN CANBERRA The planning philosophy in Canberra is that should be directed towards the users’ convenience. All development must be aimed to satisfy their desires and to ensure that business could operate economically. Residents could travel without facing chronic traffic congestion, people from Canberra region and other cities could move in and out without transport frustration. City structures must be flexible to adapt to new social and technological change, possible more outdoor leisure pursuits, new methods of transports and it could be a structure that could be transformed easily into a practical program for development.
  40. 40. LANDUSE PLANNING IN CANBERRA The concept is to disperse land use for residential settlement purposes in distinct towns, linked by a system of peripheral parkways and decentralise population growth from the central cities. Dispersal planning provides no traffic congestion in one area and promoting local business and employment opportunities for people in the areas, upon which economic growth is based. This refers to a situation where people in a community can reduce journey to work times and achieve other transport and economic benefits. Space requirements for residential development, recreational facilities become a major factor for planning bodies to consider. Building new homes on hills or slopes is more problematic than those on flat sites; it needs to take into account the gradient for sewer and sewerage systems and driveway; and of course, the cost of the buildings are almost twice as much as normal ones.
  41. 41. TRANSPORTATION PLANNING IN CANBERRA Major roads follow a wheel-and-spoke pattern rather than a grid. Griffins proposal had an abundance of geometric patterns, including concentric hexagonal and octagonal streets emanating from several radii. However, the outer areas of the city, built later, are not laid out geometrically. On the basis of the linear development of Canberra, major highways and route networks were constructed to link new town centres and dispersed residential areas together.
  42. 42. THE LEGACY OF MODERNIST PLANNING – FREEWAYS IN A GARDEN LANDSCAPE
  43. 43. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The development of Canberra is ongoing. Major new works under construction in recent years include the Gungahlin Town Centre, City West Precinct and the Kingston Foreshores Development. On 5 March 2004, the Canberra Spatial Plan for the citys future development was released. As of 2005 plans were under development for a new Canberra district to be situated west of Lake Burley Griffin, on land formerly occupied by a pine plantation.
  44. 44. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION On a controversial note, dispersal planning is criticized for excessive car use and car dependence which will impact on environment and concentration of pollutants will significantly increase. More compact cities with viable and the better utilized public transport systems were better in terms of air pollution than Canberra is now seen. The dispersal planning development in Canberra, land use and transportation planning have contributed a great deal of problems to the city’s environment as the city becomes car-dependent.
  45. 45. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The dispersal of a residential community would lose social contact between other community in a way that the people live far away from each other and it would be uneconomical for them to travel long distance. From a landscape viewpoint, Canberra deserves the name of ―Garden City‖ because this well planned city has its settings with the integration of natural landscape, hill backdrops and water basins and used topographical elements to form its structure.
  46. 46. THANK YOU

×