History of the computer elec. age (2nd gen.)

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History of the computer elec. age (2nd gen.)

  1. 1. REVIEW <ul><li>What is the first programmable computer invented by Konrad Zuse? </li></ul><ul><li>The first stored program computer invented by Aiken? </li></ul><ul><li>The first electronic computer invented by Atanasoff and Berry? </li></ul><ul><li>The electronic devices used during the 1 st Gen computers? </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 computing devices designed by Ekert and Mauchly during the 1 st Gen? </li></ul>
  2. 2. HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER ELECTRONIC AGE SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS (1959-1963)
  3. 3. ENRICHMENT ACTIVITY TRANSFER RESISTOR BRIDGE H2O TRANSISTOR MICROSCOPE PROCESSOR MICROPROCESSOR ROOT TEDRACUITSTEGINCIR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS ROOT
  4. 4. <ul><li>VACUUM TUBES REPLACED BY TRANSISTORS AS MAIN LOGIC ELEMENTS. </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNETIC TAPE AND DISK BEGAN TO REPLACE PUNCHED CARD AS EXTERNAL STORAGE DEVICES. </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNETIC CORES BECAME THE PRIMARY INTERNAL STORAGE TECHNOLOGY. </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH LEVEL PROGRAMMING WERE USED LIKE FORTRAN, AND COBOL. </li></ul>
  5. 5. TRANSISTOR <ul><li>A SEMI CONDUCTOR DEVICE COMMONLY USE TO AMPLIFY OR SWITCH ELECTRONIC SIGNALS. </li></ul><ul><li>THE GREATEST INVENTION OF THE 2OTH CENTURY. </li></ul><ul><li>WERE SMALLER, FASTER, CHEAPER, REQUIRED LESS POWER AND PRODUCED LESS HEAT THAN VACUUM TUBES. </li></ul><ul><li>MADE 2 ND GEN. COMPUTER MORE FASTER MORE RELIABLE THAN 1 ST GEN COMPUTERS. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>BESIDES INCREASING SPEED, IT CAN AMPLIFY A SIGNAL, OR OPEN AND CLOSE A CIRCUIT, SERVE AS ELECTRONIC SWITCH OR BRIDGE TO COMPUTERS. </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOWED COMPUTERS TO COMMUNICATE OVER TELEPHONE LINES. </li></ul><ul><li>IT GAVE WAY TO THE CONCEPTS OF PARALLEL PROCESSOR AND MULTIPROGRAMMING. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>JOHN BARDEN, WALTER BRATTAIN and WILLIAN SHOCKLEY OF BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES INVENTED THE TRANSISTOR. </li></ul>
  8. 11. GRACE MURRAY HOPPER <ul><li>THE WOMAN THAT FOUND THE FIRST COMPUTER BUG, FINISHES DEVELOPING THE COBOL </li></ul><ul><li>CO - Common </li></ul><ul><li>B - Business </li></ul><ul><li>O - Oriented </li></ul><ul><li>L - Languages </li></ul>
  9. 12. 1964: KEN OLSEN <ul><li>FOUNDED THE DEC- DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION, RELEASED THE FIRST SUCCESFULL COMMERCIAL MINI-COMPUTER, THE PDP-8 </li></ul>
  10. 13. 1965: THOMAS KURTZ and JOHN KEMENY <ul><li>DEVELOPED THE BASIC - A COMPUTER LANGUAGE TO HELP PEOPLE HOW TO PROGRAM </li></ul><ul><li>B- Beginners </li></ul><ul><li>A- All Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>S- Symbolic </li></ul><ul><li>I- Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>C- Code </li></ul>
  11. 14. TRIVIA Who was the first man that walks over the water? Who was the second man that walks over the water? Who was the third man that walks over the water? Do you wish that you can walks over the water today?
  12. 15. ELECTRONIC AGE THE THIRD GENERATION 1963-1974
  13. 16. <ul><li>INDIVIDUAL TRANSISTOR WERE REPLACED BY INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNETIC TAPE and DISK COMPLETELY REPLACE PUNCHED CARDS AS EXTERNAL STORAGE DEVICES. </li></ul><ul><li>A NEW FORM OF MAGNETIC CORE, MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) </li></ul>
  14. 17. 1958: JACK KILBY <ul><li>Responsible for the development and application of a monolithic integrated circuits, which still widely used in electronic system. </li></ul>
  15. 18. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS <ul><li>IS A SINGLE WAFER OR CHIP THAT CAN HOLD MANY TRANSISTORS AND ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS. </li></ul><ul><li>ELIMINATED THE NEED FOR UNRELIABLE HAND WIRE CIRCUITS. </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOWED HUNDREDS OF CIRCUITS TO BE EASILY CONNECTED. </li></ul><ul><li>WERE FASTER, IMPROVED MEMORY, AND REDUCED THE PRICE OF COMPUTERS. </li></ul>
  16. 20. <ul><li>1968- ROBERT NOYCE- one of the inventors of integrated circuits founded the INTEL. </li></ul><ul><li>1969- ARPANET is set up later becomes INTERNET. </li></ul><ul><li>1972-THE C programming language is developed at AT&T Bell Labs by Brian Kerningham and Dennis Ritchie. </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX is written at Bell Labs and become the most portable operating system. </li></ul>
  17. 21. ELECTRONIC AGE THE FOURTH GENERATION 1979-PRESENT
  18. 22. <ul><li>INTEL CORPORATION designed the first tiny computer on a chip, called a MICROPROCESSOR. </li></ul><ul><li>MADE THE COMPUTER OF THE FOURTH GENERATION THE FASTEST AND THE MOST POWERFUL THEY HAVE EVER BEEN. </li></ul>
  19. 23. MICROPROCESSOR <ul><li>IS AN INTEGRATED CIRCUITS BUILT ON A TINY PIECE OF SILICON. </li></ul><ul><li>IT CONTAINS THOUSANDS, OR EVEN MILLIONS OF TRANSISTORS, WHICH ARE INTERCONNECTED VIA SUPERFINE TRACES OF ALUMINUM, WORK TOGETHER TO STORE AND MANIPULATE DATA. </li></ul>
  20. 25. ALTAIR 8080- a special computer, because it made computers available to everyone, it has 256 bytes of memory, and ran by BASIC.
  21. 26. WILLIAM HENRY “BILL” GATES III PAUL ALLEN
  22. 27. Apple II- the first PC to come in plastic case and include colour graphics, introduced by the APPLE COMPUTERS, design by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak The graphic users interface computer (GUI)
  23. 28. SOFTWARE/PROGRAMS <ul><li>VISICALC- the first spreadsheet program. </li></ul><ul><li>WORDSTAR- the first word processor. </li></ul><ul><li>MS-DOS- operating system introduced by IBM. </li></ul>
  24. 29. IBM PC- IBM personal computer in the market, and it came with a DOS, licensed by the Microsoft. D- DISK O- OPERATING S- SYTEM
  25. 30. APPLE MACINTOSH- introduced by Apple Computers in 1984, a simple GUI with 8-MHz, 32 bit Motorola 68000 CPU, and has a built in 9-inch B/W screen.
  26. 31. AMIGA - the first multimedia computer, introduced games, advanced graphics, and multitasking operating system with GUI.
  27. 32. AMIGA
  28. 35. What about the 5 th generation of computers?

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