Fundamental elements of computer

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Fundamental elements of computer

  1. 1. FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER
  2. 3. Output Device System Unit Input Devices
  3. 4. SYSTEM UNIT <ul><li>THE CORE OF A COMPUTER IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PROCESSING AND STORING DATA AND CONTROLS ALL COMPUTER FUNCTIONS. </li></ul>
  4. 9. THE SYSTEM CASE <ul><li>IS A PLASTIC AND METAL BOX THAT HOUSES COMPONENTS SUCH AS MOTHERBOARD, DISK DRIVES AND POWER SUPPLY UNIT </li></ul>
  5. 10. SYSTEM CASE TYPE <ul><li>DESKTOP CASE-is designed to sit horizontally on a surface so that it is wider than it is long. </li></ul>
  6. 11. TOWER CASE <ul><li>IS DESIGNED TO SIT VERTICALLY ON A SURFACE SO THAT IT IS HIGHER THAN IT IS WIDE. </li></ul>
  7. 12. PARTS OF THE CASE
  8. 13. MOTHERBOARD <ul><li>IS THE MOST IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF YOUR COMPUTER, ONE POINT OR ANOTHER, EVERY OTHER COMPONENT CONNECTS TO THE MOTHERBOARD </li></ul>
  9. 16. THE CPU <ul><li>The C entral P rocessing U nit- is the device that interprets and executes instructions. The CPU is the chip that functions as the “brain of a computer. </li></ul>
  10. 18. MEMORY
  11. 19. MAIN MEMORY <ul><li>VERY CLOSELY CONNECTED TO THE PROCESSOR. </li></ul><ul><li>THE CONTENTS ARE QUICKLY AND EASILY CHANGED. </li></ul><ul><li>HOLDS THE PROGRAMS AND DATA THAT PROCESSOR IS ACTIVELY WORKING WITH. </li></ul><ul><li>INTERACTS WITH THE PROCESSOR MILLIONS OF TIMES PER SECOND. </li></ul>
  12. 20. RAM (Random Access Memory <ul><li>Means the memory cells can be accessed in any order. </li></ul><ul><li>Its just a normal memory which means the computer can store, retrieve, alter or delete any items. It can be read and write. (volatile) </li></ul>
  13. 21. DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) <ul><li>A computer RAM or main memory is build from a small circuit board or memory chip called MEMORY MODULES. </li></ul><ul><li>DIMM chips usually 64MB, 128MB or 256 MB, have to access pathways (read and write at the same time) </li></ul>
  14. 23. ROM BIOS Read Only Memory Basic Input Output System <ul><li>Provides the industry standard program code that operates the fundamental components of the PC. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures that the design of each manufacturer’s motherboard is PC-compatible. </li></ul>
  15. 24. CMOS RAM Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor <ul><li>Stores the configuration of the PC (password, disk types, amount of memory installed, current time and date.) </li></ul><ul><li>Require very little power to operate and use battery power to maintain their settings. </li></ul>
  16. 25. SECONDARY MEMORY <ul><li>IS WHERE PROGRAMS AND DATA ARE KEPT ON A LONG TERM BASIS. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICES ARE THE FLOPPY DISK, HARD DISK, AND COMPACT DISK, FLASH DISK. </li></ul>
  17. 26. FLOPPY DISK (DISKETTE) <ul><li>IS A ROUND BUT COMES PERMANENTLY SEALED IN A SQUARE DUST JACKET. </li></ul><ul><li>THE TYPICAL 3 ½ FLOPPY DISK CAN HOLDS 1.44 MB. </li></ul>
  18. 28. HARD DISK <ul><li>MIGHT HAVE A CAPACITY OF 40 GB. </li></ul><ul><li>IS NON REMOVABLE , ITS STUCK PERMANENTLY INSIDE THE SYSTEM UNIT </li></ul><ul><li>ITS ALSO CALLED AS “FIX DISK” </li></ul>
  19. 31. COMPACT DISK –CD <ul><li>A CD THAT HOLDS MUSIC IS CALLED “Music CD or “Audio CD) </li></ul><ul><li>A CD THAT HOLDS computer data is called as “data CD” </li></ul><ul><li>It is also called as CD ROM. </li></ul>
  20. 32. CD-RW (CD-ReWritable) <ul><li>A blank CD which you can write onto blank and then edit what you wrote. </li></ul>DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) <ul><li>Can hold more information, a two hour movie or 4.7GB of data </li></ul>
  21. 33. OTHER PERIPHERAL DEVICES
  22. 34. VIDEO CARD <ul><li>A board that plugs into PC to give display capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>It also called as video adapter, video board, video display board or graphics card. </li></ul>
  23. 36. INTERNAL MODEM <ul><li>IN ORDER TO CONNECT TO THE INTERNET YOU NEED SOME FORM OF MODEM (Modulator/Demodulator) </li></ul><ul><li>Modem convert (modulate) the digital code to analogue code, then convert them back (demodulate) at the other end. </li></ul>
  24. 38. POWER SUPPLY <ul><li>SUPPLIES THE FUEL (POWER) FOR THE COMPUTER. CONVERT THE VOLTAGE NEEDED TO THE MOTHER BOARD AND DRIVES. </li></ul><ul><li>IT ALSO CONTAINS A FAN HELPS IN COOLING THE COMPUTER </li></ul>
  25. 40. IDE AND FLOPPY RIBBON CABLE <ul><li>IDE stands for Integrated Device Electronics. </li></ul><ul><li>This device contains wires that are used to transfer data between the motherboard and the drive/s. </li></ul>
  26. 41. End of the Lesson

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