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GO_GN Seminar 2017

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This is a brief overview of my dissertation research projects for the GO-GN seminar in Cape Town, March 5-6, 2017

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GO_GN Seminar 2017

  1. 1. TRANSFORMATIVE POTENTIALS OF OPEN EDUCATION IN THEORY, POLICY, AND PRACTICE JAMISON R. MILLER | THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY @MILLERJAMISON | JRMILLER@WM.EDU
  2. 2. ● BA & MA in urban and cultural geography ● Start PhD in educational policy + planning in 2013 ● Didn’t discover “open” until 2014 with OpenVA ● GO-GN member since 2015 ABOUT ME: Image: Public Domain | Une classe by Pieter van de Heyden, 1557
  3. 3. ● Introduction to the 3-paper approach and overview of my dissertation ● The three projects ○ THEORY ○ POLICY ○ PRACTICE ● A synthesis FORMAT: Image: Public Domain | Une classe by Pieter van de Heyden, 1557
  4. 4. Open education has the potential to sustainably transform existing educational institutions into more equitable and democratic forms. Public Domain Image: The subscription room at Lloyd's of London in the early 19th century
  5. 5. OPEN EDUCATION IN 1) THEORY Open Education as a Real Utopia 2) POLICY The Constraints of Policy: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Open Education Policies in Virginia 3) PRACTICE From EDUPUNK to Open Policy: Critical Technology Praxis in Higher Education Image CC (BY-NC) Jonathan Cohen
  6. 6. OPEN EDUCATION AS A REAL UTOPIA JAMISON R. MILLER | THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY JRMILLER@WM.EDU | @MILLERJAMISON Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier
  7. 7. Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier OPEN EDUCATION IS “UNDER-THEORIZED” Bayne, Knox, & Ross, 2015 Deiman & Farrow, 2013 Edwards, 2015 Knox, 2013 Moe, 2015 Nyberg, 1975
  8. 8. Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier WHY THEORY? ● Without it, open education is vulnerable to dilution and cooptation ● Not just a lens, but also as a keel
  9. 9. REAL UTOPIAS Sociologist Erik Olin Wright has built a theoretical framework for a critical and emancipatory approach in social science most comprehensively presented in Envisioning Real Utopias (2010). “Real utopias” aims to contribute a “normatively grounded sociology of the possible, not just the actual” (2012, p. 2). Image: DV Ltd. / Sigtryggur Ari
  10. 10. REAL UTOPIAS Image: DV Ltd. / Sigtryggur Ari A contradictory term? UTOPIAS are fantasies, morally inspired designs unconstrained by feasibility REALists eschew such fantasies, condemning them as wasted time and effort Wright proposes embracing the tensions between dreams and practice. What is pragmatically possible is not independent of our imaginations, but
  11. 11. Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier FOUNDATIONS 1) Many forms of human suffering and many deficits in human flourishing are the result of existing institutional and social structures. 2) Transforming existing institutional and social structures in the right way has the potential to substantially reduce human suffering and expand the possibilities for human flourishing. (Wright, 2012, p. 2)
  12. 12. Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier FOUR TASKS 1) Specifying moral principles 2) Diagnosis and critique of existing institutions 3) Developing an account of viable alternatives 4) Proposing a theory of transformation
  13. 13. THE CONSTRAINTS OF POLICY A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF OPEN EDUCATION POLICIES IN VIRGINIA JAMISON R. MILLER | THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY JRMILLER@WM.EDU | @MILLERJAMISON Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier
  14. 14. Two research questions guide this analysis. ● First, how is open education discursively framed within institutional policies? ● Second, do discursive framings in policies support open education and OER as transformational for education, and if so, how? Image CC (BY-SA) Véronique Debord-Lazaro
  15. 15. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ∎ Tkacz (2015), Wikipedia and the Politics of Openness ∎ Critical Theory (Horkheimer, 1947;1972) and ∎ Critical Approaches to Open Education (Bayne, Knox, and Ross, 2015; Deimann and Farrow, 2013; Hall, 2011; and Knox, 2013) Image: Warwick University
  16. 16. Fairclough (1993, 1995) Texts present ideologies, beliefs, messages, and meanings. CDA proposes to illuminate these messages, how they are framed, and how they can be resisted and usurped. Gee (1999) Language is not merely a means of communication, but also orders social activity. CDA is concerned with how text presents discursive practices- the ways in which we are in the world. Martínez-Alemán (2015) Has been applying CDA in higher education policy analysis. Identifies its primary purposes as 1) to reveal ideological foundations of discourse, and 2) to provide evidence (data) to support corrective action Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)
  17. 17. Image CC (BY-SA) Pleuntje DATA COLLECTION
  18. 18. DATA ANALYSIS Image CC (BY) Angie Garrett Following Martínez-Alemán (2015), CDA is derived from an array of social science techniques and not a singular method: Establishing context(s) ● Identification of connections between aspects that construct and restrict discourse ○ CULTURE, SOCIAL IDENTITY, and LANGUAGE ● Identification of linkages between TEXT, STRUCTURAL POWER, and CONTEXT Framing the text (McGregor, 2004) ● Power relations: who is depicted in power, who has agency, who does not? ● Omission of information, nominalization (converting verbs to nouns), passive verbs ● Presuppositions, what is assumed by the author? ● Insinuations and connotations ● Tone of certainty and authority ● Register, do the words spoken ring true?
  19. 19. DATA ANALYSIS Image CC (BY) Angie Garrett “improve student success through increased access and affordability, and improve teaching efficiency and effectiveness through the ability to focus, analyze, augment, and evolve course materials directly aligned to course learning outcomes. Faculty will be supported in their use of OER to achieve both of the stated outcomes.” (TCC, 2014, p. 1-2)
  20. 20. DATA ANALYSIS Image CC (BY) Angie Garrett Faculty who incorporate OER materials into their courses shall assume all responsibility for maintaining the integrity of the course content as related to copyright and scholarly merit. In order for a course to carry a Z designation within TCC’s Student Information System, faculty must follow the procedures contained in this policy. (TCC, 2014, p. 2, emphasis added)
  21. 21. DATA ANALYSIS Image CC (BY) Angie Garrett Faculty are to use only materials that are published under a Creative Commons License or exist in the Public Domain. (TCC, 2014, p. 3, emphasis added) It is the faculty member’s responsibility to ensure that such content is eligible for and meets the standards for a CC-BY license. As such, no portion of such work may be claimed by others in whole, in part, or as a derivative work. This requirement is mandatory for Z courses and strongly encouraged for OER courses. (TCC, 2014, p. 3, emphasis added)
  22. 22. ASSUMPTIONS ● Built on the assumptions that language is more than the mechanics of communication; it orders social practices and expresses ideology and thus holds impact on actions DELIMITATIONS ● Focused on institutional and state-level higher education policies from Virginia from 2007-2016 LIMITATIONS ● As open education policies are only just emerging, there are relatively few examples from which to draw ● This study will not be analyzing the impact of evident discourses Image CC (BY-SA) Edith Soto
  23. 23. FROM EDUPUNK TO OPEN POLICY CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY PRAXIS IN HIGHER EDUCATION JAMISON R. MILLER | THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY JRMILLER@WM.EDU | @MILLERJAMISON Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier
  24. 24. Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier BUILD A BRIDGE BETWEEN CRITICAL PEDAGOGICAL THEORY AND PRACTICES AND MY DISCIPLINARY HOME OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY.
  25. 25. Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier CONTEXT The neoliberalizing university (Giroux, 2014; Newfield 2010; 2016)
  26. 26. Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS ● Dewey, Freire, hooks, Montessori ● Connected learning, Networked learning, and open education
  27. 27. Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier 1. EDUPUNK a. DS106 b.A domain of one’s own 2.OER & Z-Degrees 3. OpenVA & Open Policy EMPIRICS
  28. 28. Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier Implications for a critical technology praxis in higher education, geography in particular
  29. 29. OPEN EDUCATION IN 1) THEORY Open Education as a Real Utopia 2) POLICY The Constraints of Policy: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Open Education Policies in Virginia 3) PRACTICE From EDUPUNK to Open Policy: Critical Technology Praxis in Higher Education Image CC (BY-NC) Jonathan Cohen
  30. 30. TRANSFORMATIVE POTENTIALS OF OPEN EDUCATION IN THEORY, POLICY, AND PRACTICE JAMISON R. MILLER | THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY @MILLERJAMISON | JRMILLER@WM.EDU
  31. 31. Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier REFERENCES Benkler, Y. (2006). The wealth of networks. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Castells, M. (2010). The rise of the network society. In The information age: Economy, society, and culture (2nd ed., Vol 1). West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Castells, M. (2013). Communication power. London, UK: Oxford University Press. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: Macmillan. Floridi, L. (2011). The philosophy of information. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Freire, P. (2000 [1970]). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. Giroux, H. A. (2014). Neoliberalism's war on higher education. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books. Goldrick-Rab, S. (2016). Paying the price: College costs, financial aid, and the betrayal of the American dream. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  32. 32. Public Domain Image: N°. 2 – Les utopies de la navigation aérienne au siècle dernier REFERENCES hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge. McMillan-Cottom, T. 2017. Lower ed: The troubling rise of for-profits. New York, NY: The New Press. Newfield, C. (2008). Unmaking the public university: The forty-year assault on the middle class. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Newfield, C. (2016). The great mistake: How we wrecked public universities and how we can fix them. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Slaughter, S., & Rhoades, G. (2004). Academic capitalism and the new economy: Markets, state, and higher education. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Wright, E. O. (2010). Envisioning real utopias. London, UK: Verso. Wright, E. O. (2012). Transforming capitalism through real utopias. American Sociological Review, 78(1), 1-25. doi: 10.1177/0003122412468882

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