World history fall semester final review


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World history fall semester final review

  1. 1. World History Fall Semester Final Review
  2. 2. Paleolithic Age Hunter Neolithic Agriculture Revolution cuneiform 3000 B.C. Farmer “Old Stone Age” Prehistoric Sumerian writing system Unit 1: The Emergence of Civilization King Tut Egyptian Pyramids hieroglyphics 1
  3. 3. 1. prehistoric – period of time before writing systems were created (before 3000 B.C.)
  4. 4. 2. artifact – object made by humans i.e. tools, weapons, pottery, clothing 3. archeologist –person who digs to find artifacts to learn about early people
  5. 5. 4. Paleolithic Age - Old Stone Age (2,500,000 B.C. – 10,000 B.C.) • • • • • Humans where nomadic Hunters & Gathers Temporary houses Lived in small groups Life was short and harsh
  6. 6. 5. Neolithic Agriculture Revolution – Hunting change from hunting & gathering to farming New Stone Age (10,000 B.C. – 3,000 B.C.) permanent homes surplus food
  7. 7. Stability tends to promote progress. The change from nomadic to farming led to the emergence of civilization.
  8. 8. 6. civilization – complex highly organized social order made possible because of agriculture surplus Cities were key features of early civilizations.
  9. 9. Social Classes Writing System Cities Features of Early Civilizations Art & Architecture Central Governments Roads, Bridges, Temples
  10. 10. 7. culture – the way of life of a society handed down through generations
  11. 11. 8. cultural diffusion – the spread of culture (ideas, customs, and technologies) from one group of people to another caused by is spread by people through Culture interaction among people migrating migration (moving). (moving)
  12. 12. warfare
  13. 13. Culture is spread by trade.
  14. 14. The growth of cities near fertile river valleys was a central feature in the development and spread of civilizations. 9. physical geography - most directly influences were people live.
  15. 15. 10. Mesopotamia (Tigris-Euphrates River Valleys) (3200 B.C.) 1st civilizations developed here in the Fertile Crescent. periodic flooding left rich soil – ideal for farming
  16. 16. developed -cuneiform – first writing system 3200 B.C Judaism, the first monotheistic religion was established in Mesopotamia. (belief in one god) (Kingdom of Israel 1000 B.C.)
  17. 17. 11. Egypt (Nile River Valley) (2700 B.C.) “Gift of the Nile” Fertile soil, stable food supply helped it to grow.
  18. 18. pyramids – burial tombs built for their pharaohs
  19. 19. Ancient Egyptians were polytheistic - believed in many gods
  20. 20. 12. Indus River Valley Civilization (2500 B.C.) first to grow cotton and weave it into cloth
  21. 21. 13. Huang He River Valley Civilization (1650 B.C.) Desert and mountain barriers caused Chinese civilization to grow independently.
  22. 22. Early Chinese people developed a complex civilization and made many advances in learning and the arts. made first books learned to make silk threads
  23. 23. 13 Trojan War 1250 B.C. Acropolis Unit 2: Ancient Greece and Rome: The Birth of Democracy Greek Alphabet Roman Forum Roman Senate Drama Roman Arch Athena Colosseum
  24. 24. 14. Greece is a mountainous peninsula. Physical geography lead to isolated societies in ancient Greece. Greece
  25. 25. The mountainous terrain (land) of Greece resulted in the development of many small independent city-states in ancient Greece – each had their own ruler. The physical geography also led to many different political systems. Monarchy Oligarchy Tyranny Democracy
  26. 26. Two powerful city-state, Athens and Sparta, arose in Greece. Each developed very different societies and systems of government.
  27. 27. Athens was named after Zeus’s daughter – Athena –goddess of wisdom and war
  28. 28. The Greeks believed in beauty, balance, and order in the universe.
  29. 29. Golden Age of Athens (after the Persian Wars 460 B.C. – 429 B.C.) 15. Athens was a democracy – ruled by Pericles
  30. 30. Golden Age of Athens (after the Persian Wars 460 B.C. – 429 B.C.) Athens prospered - cultural center of Greece (Thinkers, writers, and artists came to Athens to take part in the growth of culture.) Homer Greek epic poet
  31. 31. Ancient Greek Philosophers explored the nature of the universe and the place of people in it Socrates Raphael’s School of Athens Plato School at Athens Aristotle
  32. 32. Sparta 16. Sparta was an Oligarchy. From childhood, Spartan boys were trained to be soldiers.
  33. 33. 17. The Roman Empire Rome’s central location helped the Romans to unite Italy and all of the Mediterranean would under their control.
  34. 34. By about 270 B.C., Rome controlled most of the Italian peninsula. Why was Rome’s expansion in Italy successful? • • • well-trained army Treated defeated enemies fairly Gave rights to conquered people
  35. 35. 31 A.D. 476 Unit 3: The Fall of Rome to the Emergence of Feudalism – Chaos to Order Legacy of Rome Christianity Feudal System
  36. 36. 18. What factors lead to the fall of Rome? A.D. 476 The fall of Rome was not a single event. It was a long, slow process. Germanic invasions weakened the empire.
  37. 37.  Roman army lacked training and discipline  Divided empire becomes weak imperialism – added many conquered lands to the Empire By 133 B.C., Roman power extended from Spain to Egypt.
  38. 38.  Political corruption  Heavy taxes  Disease and war
  39. 39. 19. How did the fall of Rome affect western Europe? Western Europe entered a period of chaos and disorder. • disruption of trade • downfall of cities • decline of learning • rise of Germanic Tribes
  40. 40. 20. Early Middle Ages - 500 to 1000 Europe was a frontier land cut off from advanced civilizations in the Middle East, China, and India.
  41. 41. Invasions of Europe, 700–1000
  42. 42. Vikings – barbaric warriors from the North - Scandinavia – raided and terrorized Europe during the Middle Ages raided monasteries – for gold and treasures
  43. 43. Feudalism – System of rule in which powerful local lords divided their land among vassals. In exchange, the vassals pledged service and loyalty to lords. provided social stability Vassals
  44. 44. Castles were built to protect the medieval lords against invading armies.
  45. 45. 45 iron plow Revival of learning Unit 4: The Rise of Europe new middle class Joan of Arc Martin Luther Mona Lisa
  46. 46. 21. Christian Church The most prominent building in a medieval town was usually the church. The Church was an important part of everyday life.
  47. 47. The Crusades – holy wars to take back Jerusalem from the Muslims spurred a revival of trade that led to economic growth throughout Western Europe.
  48. 48. Why did people go on Crusades? 1. defense of Holy Land 2. desire to be released of feudal obligations 3. forgiveness of sins 4. desire for wealth from the Middle East
  49. 49. 4 22. Agricultural Revolution New farming technologies (innovations) iron plow harness windmill three-field system led to increase in food production Population explosion (growth) Between 1000 and 1300, the population of Europe doubled.
  50. 50. 23. medieval towns/trade A new middle class of merchants, traders, and artisans emerged. (craftspeople) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Middle Class
  51. 51. Merchants and artisans formed trade associations called guilds to keep the quality of work high. (Becoming a guild member involved many years of hard work.)
  52. 52. The Late Middle Ages was a period of decline in Europe, marked by disease, corruption and war.
  53. 53. 5 24. Black Death - By 1347, the bubonic plague had spread from Asia to Europe. One in three Europeans died. Society and economy fall apart.
  54. 54. 25. Hundred Years’ War - 1337–1453 England vs. France
  55. 55. Joan of Arc led the French to victories against the English
  56. 56. The turmoil of the late Middle Ages began a decline in the power of the Church and a rebirth of classical studies and fine arts. 1347-1353 The Hundred Years’ War (1337 – 1453). Church power declines
  57. 57. 26. Renaissance – revival of Greek and Roman culture, period of artistic and intellectual creativity - 1300s-1500s Renaissance philosophers encouraged a questioning attitude. Ancient Greek Philosophers explored the nature of the universe and the place of people in it Raphael’s School of Athens Socrates Plato Aristotle
  58. 58. The Renaissance begin in Italy because Italian city-states had grown wealthy from trade between Europe and Asia.
  59. 59. At the heart of the Italian Renaissance was an intellectual movement known as humanism. Humanism was based on the study of classical culture and focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues.
  60. 60. Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa Italian painter and inventor Made sketches of nature and of models Dissected corpses to learn how the human body worked Masterpieces include Mona Lisa and The Last Supper Studied botany, anatomy, optics, music, architecture, and engineering Made sketches for flying machines and undersea boats The Last Supper
  61. 61. the Pieta MICHELANGELO Italian painter and sculptor Talented sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet Sculpted the Pieta and statue of David Painted huge mural to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome Designed the dome for St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome St. Peter’s Cathedral Sistine Chapel David
  62. 62. 2 The Printing Revolution 1456 - Johann Gutenberg printed the Bible using the first printing press. IMPACT: • • Printed books were cheaper and easier to produce. With books more readily available, more people learned to read – literacy rate increased (more people could read and write)
  63. 63. SHAKESPEARE English Renaissance writer. Wrote “Romeo and Juliet” and 36 other plays that are still performed around the world
  64. 64. The late Middle Ages brought spiritual crisis, scandal, and division to the Roman Catholic Church. Tetzel selling indulgences
  65. 65. 27. Protestant Reformation – (1500s) movement to reform (change) the Roman Catholic Church Martin Luther German monk People who joined the movement for reform called themselves Protestants, for those who “protested” papal authority.
  66. 66. Martin Luther - German monk, protested church abuses by writing 95 theses and posted the list on the church door Wittenberg Castle Church Germany October 31, 1517
  67. 67. Luther’s ideas and the Protestant Reformation led to a decline in power of the Roman Catholic Church.
  68. 68. 4 The Reformation in England In 1528, English King Henry VIII asked the pope to annul, his marriage. The pope refused, and Henry broke from the Catholic Church and set up his own church – The Anglican Church.
  69. 69. 28. Age of Exploration and Conquest 1487-1609 New technology, the search for wealth, and a desire to spread Christianity led to an age of discovery.
  70. 70. The astolabe - used to determine latitude at sea, and improvements in cartography (mapmaking) helped Europeans to explore the Western Hemisphere. Columbus’s Landing October 12, 1492
  71. 71. Millions of native peoples in the Americas died as a result of new diseases such as smallpox, measles and influenza in which they had no natural immunity, after contact with Europeans in the 1500s.
  72. 72. Mercantilism •a nation’s real wealth is measured in its gold and silver treasure. •To build its supply of gold and silver, a nation must export more goods than it imports. •nations establish colonies for trade benefits – (to increase their wealth)