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Introduction
TheTheDarkTriad(TDT)ismadeupofthreepersonalitytraitswhicharegenerallyconsid-
eredtobeassociatedwithnegaveands...
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Empirical Project Academic Poster - Dark Triad Traits & Belief in a Just World

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A brief academic poster outlining the motives, methodology, and results of my empirical project undertaken during my honours year of my bachelor's degree.

The overall aim of this research was to explore the relationship between the Dark Triad model (Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, & Narcissism) and Belief in a Just World.

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Empirical Project Academic Poster - Dark Triad Traits & Belief in a Just World

  1. 1. Introduction TheTheDarkTriad(TDT)ismadeupofthreepersonalitytraitswhicharegenerallyconsid- eredtobeassociatedwithnegaveandsomemesimmoralacons-thesearePsychop- athy,Machiavellianism,andNarcissism.Muchdebatehasclassicallycenteredaround whetherthethreeDTtraitsarepraccallyhomogenous(McHoskey,Worzel,&Szyarto, 1998)orwhethertheyareallstandaloneconstructswithsomeexpecteddegreeofcor- relaon(Paulhus&Williams,2002).ModernresearchhasgenerallyinvesgatedDT traitswithregardstootherpersonalitymodels(Douglas,Bore,&Munro,2012),relaon- shippreferences(Jonason,Luevano,&Adams,2012),andworkbehaviour(O'Boyle,For- syth,Banks,&McDaniel,2012).However,verylileaenonhasbeenpaidtomorality beliefsandtheirimplicaonswithregardstoDTtraits,specificallyBeliefinaJustWorld. BeliefinaJustWorld(BJW)isacognivebiaswhichaffectshowindividualspercievethe jusficaonforbothposiveandnegaveoutcomesforthemselvesandothers.Lerner (1980)putforwardthenoonthatindividualsemployalevelofBJW toallowforplan- ningforthefuture,aswellasbeingawaytopredicttheconsequencesoftheiracons. LeveloftheBJWinanindividualisimportantasthereisevidenceofitaffecngeveryday behavioursandacons.Thiscomesinmanyforms,suchasobservaonofvicmderoga- on(Lerner&Simmons,1966),responsibilityaribuon(Shaver,1970),revengea - tudestudes(Kaiser,BrookeVick,&Major,2004),andhelpingbehaviours(Depalma,Madey, Tillman,&Wheeler,1999).WhileBJW hasbeencorrelatedwithsomepersonality models,suchastheFive-FactorModel(Nudelman,2013),noresearchtodatehasexam- ineditsrelaonshipwithTDT. TheaimofthepresentstudywastofindarelaonshipbetweenTDTpersonalitytraits andBJW,asthiscouldleadtonewwaysofalteringmaladapvebehaviourthrough changesinmoralitybeliefs.ItwashypothesisedthateachDTtraitwouldcorrelatenega- velywithBJW. Method •Sample •177UKdomicilesrecruitedviaopportunity&snowballsamplingonsocial media(Facebook,Twier,OnlineForums). •74.6%werefemale(n=132),24.3%weremale(n=43),1.1%idenfiedas “Other”(n=2).Meanageofallparcipantswas24.7,SDwas8.8. •Measu•Measures •TheShortDarkTriad(SD3)-(Jones&Paulhus,2014) •A27-itemquesonnairemeasuringPsychopathy,Machiavellianism,and Narcissism.Asubscalecomposedof9statementsispresentforeachtrait andtheseareratedforagreementona1to5Likertscale. •TheGeneralBeliefinaJustWorldScale(GBJWS)-(Dalbertetal.,1987) •A6-itemquesonnairemeasuringthelevelofgeneralbeliefinajust world.Thescaleiscomposedof6statementswhichareratedfor agreementona1to6Likertscale. •TheOnlineQuesonnaire •Adigitallycreatedonlinequesonnaireusedtorecordparcipant responses.Itcontained: •Aninformaonformbrieflyexplainingthestudy. •Ademographicsform(Age,sex,country&uniqueidenfier). •TheSD3&GBJWSrecreateddigitally. •Adebriefingformfullyexplainingthestudywithoptoutopon. •’ThankYou’messageaskingparcipantstosharestudyhyperlink. DatawascollectedthroughGoogleFormsandexportedintoSPSSfordataanalysis. Results MeanoverallscoresforeachDTtraitandBJWcanbeseeninFigure1.MeanDTscores foreachtraittendedtobehigherinmalescomparedtofemales.However,themean BJW scorewashigherforfemalescomparedtomales.Fullsamplemeanscoreswere withintheexpectedaverage. Fig1. OOverallscoresforeachDTtraitwerecorrelatedwithoverallBJW scoresintheoverall sampleusingaSpearman’sRhobivariatecorrelaon.Resultsapproachingsignificance werefoundbetweenPsychopathyandBJW(r(175)=-.139,p=-.065),andNarcissismand BJW(r(175)=.144,p=.056).Anon-significantresultwasfoundwhencorrelangMachia- vellianismandBJW(r(175)=-.029,p=.702). DDataweresplitbysexandanalysedagainusingaSpearman’sRhobivariatecorrelaon. AsignificantposivecorrelaonwasfoundbetweenNarcissism andBJW inmales (r(41)=.315,p=.039*),butthesametrendwasnotobservedinfemales(r(132)=.027, p=.409).ThissignificantrelaonshipisillustratedinFigure2. Fig2. Discussion TheDarkTriad&Beliefin aJustWorldRelationship TheThehypothesisthatallthreeDTtraitswillcorrelatenegavelywithBJWisnotsupportedas nosignificantrelaonshipswereobservedintheoverallsample.Itisworthnong,however, thatanegavecorrelaonbetweenPsychopathyandGBJW,andaposivecorrelaon betweenNarcissismandBJW bothapproachedsignificanceatthe.05level.Thissuggestsa weakrelaonshipbetweentheDTandBJW,withtheexceponofMachiavellianismwhich showedanalmostorthogonalrelaonshipwithBJW.Futurestudiesmayconsidersexdiffer- encesandpossiblesocialdesirabilityresponsesoftheirrespondents. SexdifferencesarelikelyasignificantfactorasstudiesbythelikesofPaulhusandWilliams (2002)andJonason,Li,andBuss(2010)haveconsistentlyshownthatmalesscorehigherinDT traitsthanfemales.Anoverabundanceoffemaleresponses(74.6%)mayhaveskewedthe dataaveragestowardsthelowerendoftheDTspectrum. SociallydesiSociallydesirablerespondingmayalsohavebeenasignificantfactorashigh-machsaremore likelytolieinself-reportmeasuresasawayofappearingmoresociallydesirable(Triki,Cook, &Bay,2015).EventhosenotscoringhighinMachiavellianismhavebeenshowntoelicitsocial desirabilityrespondingwhenitisperceivedtobebeneficial(Holtgraves,2004). FuturestudiesinvesgangDTtraitsandjuscebeliefsshouldaimtohaveanevensexsplitin theirsampletopreventorreduceskewingofdatatowardsanyparcularendofthetrait spectrums.Proxymeasurescouldalsobeusedtoreducesociallydesirableresponding. MaleNarcissism &Beliefin aJustWorldRelationship Althoughnotthemainhypothesis,furtheranalysisuncoveredasignificantposiverelaonship betweenNarcissismandBJWinmales,howeverthisrelaonshipwasnotobservedinfemales. ThisThisrelaonshipcouldbeexplainedwithregardstohowsomenarcissistsviewtheworldinrela- ontothemselves.Suchindividualsmaybelievethemselvestobesuperiortoothersinarange ofdifferentways,byextensiontheymayalsoseethissuperiorityastheobviousoutcomeina worldwhere‘good’peoplereceivegoodoutcomes.Inessence,thosemaleshighinbothNarcis- sismandBJWmayidenfywithastatementsuchas:IfIliveinworldwhereIamuniqueandspe- cial,thenthatworldmustbejust,asIdeservetheseposivequalies. Whythisrelaonshipisnotobservedinthefemalesamplemaysimplybeduetomalesgenerally scoringhigherinDTmeasures(Paulhus&Williams,2002).Futureresearchshouldexplorethese sexdifferencesinDTandBJWinmoredetail,idenfyinganypossiblesignificantfactors. References Dalbert,C.,Montada,L.,&Schmi,M.(1987).Beliefinajustworld:Validaoncorrelatesoftwoscales.PsychologischeBeitrage,29(4),596-615. Depalma,M.,Madey,S.,Tillman,T.,&Wheeler,J.(1999).PerceivedPaentResponsibilityandBeliefinaJustWorldAffectHelping.BasicAndAppliedSocialPsychology,21(2),131-137. Douglas,H.,Bore,M.,&Munro,D.(2012).DisnguishingtheDarkTriad:EvidencefromtheFive-FactorModelandtheHoganDevelopmentSurvey.Psychology,03(03),237-242. Holtgraves,T.(2004).SocialDesirabilityandSelf-Reports:TesngModelsofSociallyDesirableResponding.PersonalityAndSocialPsychologyBullen,30(2),161-172. Jonason,Jonason,P.,Li,N.,&Buss,D.(2010).ThecostsandbenefitsoftheDarkTriad:Implicaonsformatepoachingandmateretenontaccs.PersonalityAndIndividualDifferences,48(4),373-378. Jonason,P.,Luevano,V.,&Adams,H.(2012).HowtheDarkTriadtraitspredictrelaonshipchoices.PersonalityAndIndividualDifferences,53(3),180-184. Jones,D.N.,&Paulhus,D.L.(2014).IntroducingtheShortDarkTriad(SD3):Abriefmeasureofdarkpersonalitytraits.Assessment,21,28-41. KKaiser,C.,BrookeVick,S.,&Major,B.(2004).AProspecveInvesgaonoftheRelaonshipBetweenJust-WorldBeliefsandtheDesireforRevengeA erSeptember11,2001.PsychologicalScience,15(7), 503-506. Lerner,M.(1980).Thebeliefinajustworld.NewYork:PlenumPress. Lerner,M.,&Simmons,C.(1966).Observer'sreacontothe"innocentvicm":Compassionorrejecon?.JournalOfPersonalityAndSocialPsychology,4(2),203-210. McHoskey,J.,Worzel,W.,&Szyarto,C.(1998).Machiavellianismandpsychopathy.JournalOfPersonalityAndSocialPsychology,74(1),192-210. Nudelman,G.(2013).TheBeliNudelman,G.(2013).TheBeliefinaJustWorldandPersonality:AMeta-analysis.SocJustRes,26(2),105-119. O'Boyle,E.,Forsyth,D.,Banks,G.,&McDaniel,M.(2012).Ameta-analysisoftheDarkTriadandworkbehavior:Asocialexchangeperspecve.JournalOfAppliedPsychology,97(3),557-579. Paulhus,D.,&Williams,K.(2002).TheDarkTriadofpersonality:Narcissism,Machiavellianism,andpsychopathy.JournalOfResearchInPersonality,36(6),556-563. Triki,A.,Cook,G.,&Bay,D.(2015)Machiavellianism,MoralOrientaon,SocialDesirabilityResponseBias&An-Intellectualism:AProfileofCanadianAccountants.SSRNElectronicJournal. TheRelationshipBetween DarkTriadTraits ofPersonality&Beliefin aJustWorld JamiePeutherer-BScHonsPsychology-Glasgow Caledonian University

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