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  1. 1. Human Nature:<br /><ul><li>believed humans were characterized by fear, violence and dangerous self interest
  2. 2. Every person is an extreme individualist
  3. 3. If everyone is free, then everyone is in danger
  4. 4. We all need security more then we need freedom
  5. 5. Believed humans are physical objects, sophisticated machines all of whose function and activities can be described by mechanistic terms
  6. 6. Like animal nature, we live independently from everyone else</li></ul>Beliefs About How Society Should be Structured:<br /><ul><li>Everyone in society should give up his or her freedom to a monarch/dictator who is responsible for everyone's security
  7. 7. Believed if everyone was free, everyone is in danger
  8. 8. Hobbes believed it was not possible to have freedom and responsibility</li></ul>Thomas Hobbes<br />(1588-1679)<br />Interpretations of Human History:<br /><ul><li>Events such as the beheading of King Charles I and the forming of a Puritan republic whose government tyrannized the people and influenced the way Hobbes interrelated human history.
  9. 9. This event also affected the way he viewed society
  10. 10. Security is more important than freedom
  11. 11. Horrors of civil war, he saw humans as selfish</li></ul>Visions for the Future:<br /><ul><li>Hobbes wanted to avoid chaos and harm by having all people give up their sovereignty and by handing power over to the ruler everyone would be secure
  12. 12. He believed individual security could be achieved if individual sovereignty was sacrificed </li></li></ul><li>Human Nature:<br /><ul><li>People are rational, intelligent and responsible
  13. 13. people themselves were the source of power
  14. 14. Individuals have the ability to make rational decisions</li></ul>Beliefs About How Society Should be Structured:<br /><ul><li>Believed in democracy
  15. 15. Believed the government should be accountable to the people
  16. 16. He also put great emphasizes on the idea of private property/ the right of individuals to protect what they owned
  17. 17. Any government action needs to be justified by popular consent</li></ul>John Locke (1632-1704)<br />Interpretations of Human History:<br /><ul><li>believed the only reason for the government was to protect life, liberty and property
  18. 18. People give up freedom to enter a civil society
  19. 19. Opposed authoritarianism of the church and state
  20. 20. Believed individuals had the right to use logic to make their own decisions</li></ul>Visions for the Future:<br /><ul><li>Believed in the social contract, people give up natural rights and freedoms to government to receive security for themselves</li></li></ul><li>Beliefs About How Society Should be Structured:<br /><ul><li>Believed if the characteristics that made humans good could be reestablished most effective forms of government could be determined
  21. 21. He believed the general will of people was the absolute authority</li></ul>Jean- Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)<br />Interpretations of Human History:<br /><ul><li>He wanted to strip humans of the rigid class structure, great extremes of wealth and poverty that he thought to be the results of the influence of society
  22. 22. Wanted humans to go back to characteristics that were universal and unchanging (made humans good and equal)
  23. 23. He was opposed to the idea of representative democracy</li></ul>Visions for the Future:<br /><ul><li>Citizens themselves should make laws directly and if this were achieved people could enjoy their freedom like they use to</li></ul>Human Nature:<br /><ul><li>People are inherently good but are corrupted by civilization and society
  24. 24. Humans are naturally free and equal in principle
  25. 25. Humans have lost their compassion for one another because they have become selfish</li>