CESSAFBuilding Partnerships in Sustainable Urbanisation (The Way Forward) Dr.Mukesh Khare Patron, Planet Earth Institute Member, Global Scientific Committee, PEI Professor of Environmental Engineering IIT Delhi INDIA
Introduction: The Increasingly Urbanized Planet1.Urban areas would be home to more than two thirds of the worldspopulation by 20502.Urbanisation is driven by social processes3. The drivers of Urbanization include Population Dynamics,Governance, and Employment Opportunities associated withIndustrialization, Consumption Patterns, International Migrationand accessibility.4. Uneven rate of Urbanization across the planet5. Urbanization has also triggered the generation of slums.( Khare et al, 2012 ).
A multi-layer conceptual framework showing the interlinkages between the drivers/sources for airpollution (central rings), environmental sustainability (three circles),and overriding concerns for thefuture development of megacitiesKumar et al (2013), “ Can a “blue sky” return to Indian megacities?”, Atm. Env. 71,pp1-4.
Characteristics of Growing Cities1. Fragmented decision making2. Incrementalism3. Gaps in decision making hierarchy4. Lack of measurable outcomes5. Cumulative effects of urban growth(Integrated Landscape Management, 2005)
Challenges of Growing Cities• Urban landscape changes adversely affect Ecological, Economic andSocial perspectives.• Resource Management and Regulatory Processes are inefficient andincrease the risk of conflict.• Institutional Fragmentation affecting the decision making process.
The Growing City: Potential for Achieving Sustainability1. Create the smallest possible ecological footprint;2. Environmentally friendly in terms of Pollution, Land Use and ClimateChange;3. Provides Economic and Social Security;4. Inclusive Governance System;5. Takes a long-term view on allocation of resources and definition ofbenefits and cost;
Approach towards understanding Sustainability ofUrban Areas1. Understand long term changes (Liu et al, 2011).2. Identify sustainability factors in cities.3. Identify the effect of drivers of change (local, global and regional).4. Identify potential contribution and mitigation of each driver towardsaffecting sustainability.5. Identify measures/ policies which can be taken to reduce or mitigatenegative impacts (Fitzgerald et al, 2011).
Approach towards Urban Sustainability1. Adapta. Adapt the city towards a more balanced approachb. Due consideration to the natural and socio-economic constraints.2. MitigateThe effects of urbanisation on the environment through sustainable strategies,their interactions and potential conflicts.
Approach towards Urban Sustainability3. Integratea. Integrate form, space, order and dynamics of change with social, economicand political consequences.b. Develop strategies to integrate the physical processes, human-builtinfrastructure, economic, social and environmental systems.4. MonitorCities should be continuously seen for effectiveness of policy and regulatoryadministration.
Approach towards Urban Sustainability5. Think outside the administrative boxa. Maintain the connect of the urban metabolism of the city with the globalizingworld in order to improve the sustainable resilience of the city.b. Use existing policy instruments to identify opportunities to influence policychange, either individually or as groups of cities.
Growing Cities in the Indian Subcontinent1. Cities and towns of India constitute the world‟s second largest urbansystem. They contribute over 50% of country‟s Gross Domestic Product (GDP)and are central to economic growth.2. For these cities to realize their full potential and become true engines ofgrowth, the Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission or the JNNURM has beenformulated.3. The JNNURM has identified 104 cities with a population of more than 10 lakhs(1 million) as Growing Cities. (www.jnnurm.nic.in)
The objectives of the JNNURM are:1. Focused attention to integrated development of basic services to the urban poor2. Security of tenure at affordable price, improved housing, water supply,sanitation3. Convergence of services in fields of education, health and socialsecurity4. Provision of housing near the place of occupation of theurban poor5. Effective linkage between asset creation and asset management toensure efficiency6. Scaling up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities withemphasis on universal access to urban poor.7. Ensuring adequate investment of funds to fulfill deficiencies in thebasic services to the urban poor. (www.jnnurm.nic.in)
Exisiting land use of Amritsar (2012) G.T.Road
Approach at IIT Delhi Understand the Urban System Social, Economic and Environmental Processes and their influence on the eco-environment Synthesize the Knowledge Identification of Indicators Assessment of coupling relationships to understand the process within the of urban systems Simulate System Behavior through Policy Impacts Urban Growth Modeling to understand impact on eco-environment Outcome Redefine the Urban Growth Boundary Development of Sustainability Coefficients
Criteria of developing pathways towards urbansustainability1. Evidence -based development of a collective understanding ofpolicies.2. „Continual Dialogue of collective learning about the challengesfacing cities.3. Understand the legacy of micro- level development.4. Understand relationship between drivers of change, land use andinfrastructure to identify long term and short term change.
References1. Integrated Landscape Management, (2005)Applying Sustainable Development toLand use, Manual prepared by Canadian Integrated Landscape Management Coalition2. Dawson Richard, (2011) .Potential pitfalls on the transition to more sustainable cities and how they might be avoided ,Carbon Management (2011) 2(2), 175–1883. Fitzgerald, B.G; O‟Doherty, T; Moles R. &O‟Regan B. (2012).A quantitative method for the evaluation of policies toenhance urban sustainability. Ecological Indicators 18, 371–37.4. Indicators of sustainable development, guidelines and methodologies. Online atwww.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicatorsguidelines.pdf.5. Liu.Y; Yao,C.S;Wang, G. & Bao, S.(2011).An integrated sustainable development approach to modelling the eco-environmental effects from urbanization. Ecol. Indicat. doi.10.1016/j.ecoloind.2011.04.004.6. Moffat,I & Hanley,N. (2001). Modelling sustainable development: A systems dynamic and input- output approaches.Environmental Modelling and Software 16, 545-557.7. O‟Regan ,B; Morrissey,J; Foley,W & Moles,R.(2009). The relationship between settlement population size and sustainabledevelopment measured by two sustainability metrics. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 29, 169–178.8. Tayebbi. A; Pijanowski. B. C& Tayebbi. A. H. (2011). An urban growth boundary model using neural networks, GIS andradial parameterization: An application to Tehran, Iran. Landscape and Urban Planning 100, 35-44.9. Khare, M. Pandit, P.(2012). Sustainable Coefficients for Growing Cities- discussion paper, Planet Earth Institute, U.K ,JuneOnline at www.planetearthinstituteworldwide.org/publications/sustainabilitycoefficients10. Kumar et al (2013), “Can a „blue sky‟ return to Indian Mega Cities?”, Atm. Env. 71, pp 1-4