SlideShare a Scribd company logo

American Indians And Alaska Natives In Higher Education Research On Participation And Graduation. ERIC Digest

Professional Writing Service http://StudyHub.vip/American-Indians-And-Alaska-Natives-In- 👈

American Indians And Alaska Natives In Higher Education Research On Participation And Graduation. ERIC Digest

1 of 7
Download to read offline
ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians
and Alaska Natives in Higher Education:
Research on Participation and
Graduation. ERIC Digest.
ERIC Development Team
www.eric.ed.gov
Table of Contents
If you're viewing this document online, you can click any of the topics below to link directly to that section.
American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Research on
Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest 1
EQUITY IN ENROLLMENT AND GRADUATION 2
LONGITUDINAL STUDIES 3
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 4
CONCLUSION 5
REFERENCES 5
ERIC 411,0 Digests
ERIC Identifier: ED348197
Publication Date: 1992-08-00
Author: Pavel, D. Michael
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools Charleston WV.
American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher
Education: Research on Participation and
Graduation. ERIC Digest.
THIS DIGEST WAS CREATED BY ERIC, THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES
ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Page 1 of 7
Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
www.eric.ed.gov ERIC Custom Transformations Team
INFORMATION CENTER. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT ERIC, CONTACT
ACCESS ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC
Educators with an interest in the postsecondary education of American Indians and
Alaskan Natives (hereafter, "Natives") will find this Digest useful. It covers four topics:
equity in undergraduate enrollment and graduation, longitudinal studies, qualitative
research, and continuity with the K-12 system. The Digest illustrates the actual and
potential usefulness of data about Natives in national databases, and it considers the
need to apply qualitative methods. Whatever the method, however, research must also
draw on the existing literature and the actual experiences of Native educators.
EQUITY IN ENROLLMENT AND GRADUATION
Achieving equity in the number of Native students who enter college and subsequently
graduate is important to Natives and to the nation as a whole. The need is both real and
attainable, as recent research suggests. Researchers can help by developing indicators
that measure progress toward meeting the need.
Richardson and Pavel (in press), for instance, propose two indicators to determine
progress towards achieving equity in postsecondary institutions. They used both
institutional and demographic data to develop the proposed indicators.
Institutional data about enrollment and graduation are available for the universe of
postsecondary institutions through annual Integrated Postsecondary Education Data
System (IPEDS) surveys, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics
(NCES). Demographic data about the percentage of Natives in a given region come
from the U.S. Census Bureau. Although the use of Census data on Natives is
sometimes questioned, Richardson and Pavel demonstrate the actual and potential
usefulness of existing data. They also call for improved sampling, especially to provide
more accurate identification of Native students.
Researchers, following Richardson and Pavel, can compute state equity scores for
enrollment (ESEs). This indicator is created by dividing (a) the proportion of Natives in
the state population by (b) the proportional Native enrollment in the state's institutions.
Multiplying the resulting ratio by 100 removes the decimals, and an ESE score of 100
would, on this basis, indicate equity. Equity simply means that the proportion of Natives
enrolled in a state's colleges equals the proportion of Natives in the state's total
population.
Similarly, state equity scores for graduation (ESGs) can be computed by dividing (a) the
proportion of Natives in an entering class by (b) the proportion of Natives who graduate.
The timing of graduation depends on the nature of degree programs and the effect of
sporadic or parttime enrollment. Computing ESG scores must, therefore, take such
circumstances into account.
Richardson and Pavel computed equity indicators (ESEs and ESGs) from 1980 to 1988,
Page 2 of 7 ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education:
Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
ERIC Resource Center www.eric.ed.gov
using IPEDS data from four-year undergraduate public and independent institutions.
They also used 1980 and 1985 Census data in seven states with relatively large Native
populations (AK, AZ, MT, ND, NM, OK, and SD).
The analysis compared progress at state college and universities to progress at land
grant (or "flagship") institutions in each state. As many observers have suspected, the
data suggest little overall progress between 1980 and 1988. ESEs for both public and
independent institutions varied widely, but the median ESE score for both sectors was
in the low 50s. This finding indicates that, in general, the number of Native students
enrolled in four-year institutions needs to double in order to achieve equity of Native
enrollment in the 1990s.
The median ESGs were 75 and 40 at public and independent institutions, respectively.
Here, too, the number of students graduating from four-year institutions needs to
increase considerably for Natives to attain equity.
LONGITUDINAL S TUDIES
Longitudinal studies can help examine time-dependent factors that influence
postsecondary enrollment and graduation. Two examples presented here use Native
data from separate national databases. Both studies demonstrate that surveys must ask
Native students the right questions, while illustrating uses of Native data available in
national databases.
The first study (McEvans & Astin, 1992) used regression analysis to determine the
characteristics that predict enrollment and graduation among ethnic and racial
minorities. Data for this study came from information collected from 1984 to 1988 by the
Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) at the University of California, Los
Angeles.
The second study, by Pavel & Padilla (1992) assessed the Tinto (1987) model of
institutional departure, using a structural modeling technique. The study used data
collected by NCES from Native high school sophomores and seniors in its longitudinal
survey, High School and Beyond (HS&B).
In the first study, McEvans and Astin examined the influence of gender, high school
grades, pre-college test scores, and institutional type on postsecondary retention. They
used graduation or enrollment status as dependent variables among 925 Native
respondents. Results indicated that Native students were likely to enroll in public
four-year colleges and universities and to have the lowest retention rates among all
ethnic and racial groups.
According to McEvans and Astin, only 15 percent of the Natives earned bachelors
degrees, compared to nearly 37 percent of the Whites and Asians. Both male and
female Natives were unlikely to complete degrees. Although Native retention rates
ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Page 3 of 7
Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
www.eric.ed.gov ERIC Custom Transformations Team
improve at selective independent institutions, Native students with high SAT scores do
not complete their degree programs at the same rate as other ethnic and racial groups
with similar scores. One may conclude, therefore, that additional factors, working in
concert with academic preparation, influence persistence.
In the second study, Pavel and Padilla assessed Tinto's model to see how it applied to
the experiences of nearly 400 Native respondents in the HS&B surveys. Tinto's model
illustrates how family background, skills and abilities, and prior schooling influence
intentions and commitments prior to college entrance. These pre-entry influences
determine the extent to which students will become part of campus academic and social
systems. The extent of such integration, moreover, can further influence students'
intentions and commitments.
Pavel and Padilla's results suggested that both intentions in high school and academic
integration on campus are central to postsecondary outcomes. Social integration plays
a prominent, but indirect role. In particular, programs that foster aspirations to pursue
higher education should come early, rather than late, in a Native student's high school
experience. Moreover, once on campus, Native students need support programs to
enhance academic integration, together with programs to satisfy the Native student's
social needs.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
The latter study, in particular, illustrates the need for qualitative research. Wise
decisions about programming require knowledge about how such influences as student
sub-cultures, curriculum, and the quality of advising affect participation and graduation.
Two studies that used qualitative methods illustrate the need for further inquiry into the
Native student's higher education experiences.
Murgia, Padilla, and Pavel (1991) derived a concept model of ethnicity and social
integration. Data came from interviews with 24 upper-class students, equally
represented by Hispanics and Natives enrolled at a public four-year institution. Findings
suggest that ethnic enclaves help minority students "scale down" the complexities of the
campus environment. At the same time, such enclaves provide a context for everyday
action that helps make college a more fulfilling experience for minority students. The
results, then, tend to support the prevalent view that ethnic enclaves in higher education
help retain Native students.
Padilla and Pavel (1992) used data from the same interviews to examine the role of
advising in academic integration. They found what others have found, namely, that the
quality of advising varies considerably. Students indicated that (a) advisers they chose
("surrogate advisers") and (b) advisers who were ethnic matches ("designated minority
advisers") were more effective than assigned advisers not ethnically matched with the
student.
Page 4 of 7 ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education:
Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
ERIC Resource Center www.eric.ed.gov
Effective advisers undertake many activities helpful to students. For instance, they not
only approve programs of study and course selection, but also serve as advocates,
mediating on the students' behalf. They also provide information from an insider's
perspective, including advice about job and career choices. Effective advisers
understand their advisees as people, and they interpret their roles on that basis. Clearly,
students value the rapport established with effective advisers.
CONTINUITY WITH THE K-12 SYSTEM
Achieving equity in participation and graduation also depends on maintaining continuity
with K-12 schools. Two recent national studies conducted by the Center for Indian
Education at Arizona State University (Swisher, Hoisch, & Pavel, 1991; Swisher, Pavel,
Hoisch, & Concho, 1992) indicate the importance of continuity with K-12 schools.
These studies indicate that the Native high school dropout rate is declining. Parental
involvement, belief in the relevance of education, community-based curriculum,
appropriate teaching styles, caring teachers and administrators, and holistic early
intervention programs contribute to the decline in the rates at which Natives drop out of
high school. Postsecondary institutions should consider undertaking parallel efforts,
thereby cultivating some element of consistency in the Native student's educational
experience.
CONCLUSION
This nation can significantly increase Native student postsecondary participation and
graduation in the 1990s if policymakers, educators, and communities attend to issues
such as those brought to light in this Digest. Along with improved sampling of Native
respondents, researchers, in particular, need to develop indicators to assess progress
towards equity in access and achievement. Their work can help hold institutions
accountable to this goal. As this Digest suggests, qualitative research should augment
statistical analyses of national data. Likewise, efforts to increase postsecondary
enrollment and graduation must be closely linked with efforts to improve participation in
the K-12 system. The research agenda must include an array of influences that promote
dramatically enhanced participation of Natives in higher education.
REFERENCES
Mc Evans, A., & Astin, A. (1992). Minority student retention rates: Comparative national
data from the 1984 freshman class. Los Angeles, CA: Higher Education Research
Institute, University of California at Los Angeles.
Murgia, E., Padilla, R. V., & Pavel, D. M. (1991). Ethnicity and the concept of social
integration in Tinto's model of institutional departure. Journal of College Student
Development, 32(5), 433-439.
Padilla, R. V., & Pavel, D. M. (1992). The role of advising in academic integration.
ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Page 5 of 7
Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
www.eric.ed.gov ERIC Custom Transformations Team
Tempe, AZ: Program in Higher Education, Arizona State University.
Pavel, D. M., & Padilla, R. V. (1992). Assessing Tinto's model of institutional departure
using American Indian and Alaska Native national longitudinal data. Tempe, AZ:
Program in Higher Education, Arizona State University.
Richardson, R. C., Jr., & Pavel, D. M. (in press). Designing and using equity indicators
for African American, Hispanic, and Native American enrollment and graduation. In M.
Ludwig (Ed.), The challenge of change: Higher education enrollment lessons from the
1980s for the 1990s, Washington, DC, American Association of State Colleges and
Universities.
Swisher, K., Hoisch, M., & Pavel, D. M. (1991). American Indian/Alaska Natives Dropout
Study 1991. Washington, DC: National Education Association.
Swisher, K., Pavel, D. M., & Hoisch, M. (1992). BIA membership study: An analysis of
transfer and dropout rates. Washington, DC: Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of college attrition.
Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
D. Michael Pavel teaches at the University of California, Los Angeles.
This publication was prepared with funding from the U.S. Department of Education,
Office of Educational Research and Improvement, under contract no. RI88062016. The
opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the
Office of Educational Research and Improvement or the Department of Education.
Title: American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Research on
Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
Document Type: Information Analyses---ERIC Information Analysis Products (IAPs)
(071); Information Analyses---ERIC Digests (Selected) in Full Text (073);
Available From: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, P.O. Box
1348, Charleston, WV 25325 (free).
Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indians, College Attendance, College
Graduates, Educational Attainment, Equal Education, Faculty Advisers, Higher
Education, Longitudinal Studies, Measurement, Racial Differences, School Holding
Power, Secondary Education
Identifiers: ERIC Digests
###
Page 6 of 7 ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education:
Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
Ad

Recommended

Sociology Final Project
Sociology Final ProjectSociology Final Project
Sociology Final ProjectAlyssa Rust
 
Assessment Of Advanced Placement Participation And University Academic Succes...
Assessment Of Advanced Placement Participation And University Academic Succes...Assessment Of Advanced Placement Participation And University Academic Succes...
Assessment Of Advanced Placement Participation And University Academic Succes...Sophia Diaz
 
Quantitative Educational Aspirations
Quantitative Educational AspirationsQuantitative Educational Aspirations
Quantitative Educational AspirationsNatalie Ortega
 
Running head PRESENT DATA 1PRESENT D.docx
Running head PRESENT DATA          1PRESENT D.docxRunning head PRESENT DATA          1PRESENT D.docx
Running head PRESENT DATA 1PRESENT D.docxtoltonkendal
 
Michelle Annette Cloud, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis...
Michelle Annette Cloud, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis...Michelle Annette Cloud, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis...
Michelle Annette Cloud, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis...William Kritsonis
 
American Indians And Alaska Natives In Higher Education Promoting Access And...
American Indians And Alaska Natives In Higher Education  Promoting Access And...American Indians And Alaska Natives In Higher Education  Promoting Access And...
American Indians And Alaska Natives In Higher Education Promoting Access And...Kaela Johnson
 
Dr. Arthur L. Petterway, National FORUM Journals
Dr. Arthur L. Petterway, National FORUM JournalsDr. Arthur L. Petterway, National FORUM Journals
Dr. Arthur L. Petterway, National FORUM JournalsWilliam Kritsonis
 

More Related Content

Similar to American Indians And Alaska Natives In Higher Education Research On Participation And Graduation. ERIC Digest

Academic Achievement Gap
Academic Achievement GapAcademic Achievement Gap
Academic Achievement GapCheryl Viljoen
 
Johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american students
Johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american studentsJohnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american students
Johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american studentsWilliam Kritsonis
 
Copy of johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american students
Copy of johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american studentsCopy of johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american students
Copy of johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american studentsWilliam Kritsonis
 
Contreras, alma the inter rater reliability aerj v25 n3 2012[1]
Contreras, alma the inter rater reliability aerj v25 n3 2012[1]Contreras, alma the inter rater reliability aerj v25 n3 2012[1]
Contreras, alma the inter rater reliability aerj v25 n3 2012[1]William Kritsonis
 
Dr. Arthur L. Petterway & Dr. W.A. Kritsonis
Dr. Arthur L. Petterway & Dr. W.A. KritsonisDr. Arthur L. Petterway & Dr. W.A. Kritsonis
Dr. Arthur L. Petterway & Dr. W.A. KritsonisWilliam Kritsonis
 
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Steven Norfleet, Disserta...
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Steven Norfleet, Disserta...Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Steven Norfleet, Disserta...
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Steven Norfleet, Disserta...William Kritsonis
 
First Generation Students Road to College -- Support
First Generation Students Road to College -- SupportFirst Generation Students Road to College -- Support
First Generation Students Road to College -- SupportLara Fordis
 
Help Amplify The Number Of College Bound Students
Help Amplify The Number Of College Bound StudentsHelp Amplify The Number Of College Bound Students
Help Amplify The Number Of College Bound Studentsnoblex1
 
Clarence johnson proposal power pt.
Clarence johnson proposal power pt.Clarence johnson proposal power pt.
Clarence johnson proposal power pt.guestfa49ec
 
Clarence Johnson, PhD Dissertation Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritso...
Clarence Johnson, PhD Dissertation Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritso...Clarence Johnson, PhD Dissertation Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritso...
Clarence Johnson, PhD Dissertation Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritso...William Kritsonis
 
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair - Proposal, Clarence Johnson
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair - Proposal, Clarence JohnsonDr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair - Proposal, Clarence Johnson
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair - Proposal, Clarence JohnsonWilliam Kritsonis
 
Dissertation abstracts for dr. yates
Dissertation abstracts for dr. yatesDissertation abstracts for dr. yates
Dissertation abstracts for dr. yatesWilliam Kritsonis
 
Creating Barriers to Accessing Higher Education: National Educational Policy ...
Creating Barriers to Accessing Higher Education: National Educational Policy ...Creating Barriers to Accessing Higher Education: National Educational Policy ...
Creating Barriers to Accessing Higher Education: National Educational Policy ...Kamden Strunk
 
Dr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven Norfleet
Dr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven NorfleetDr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven Norfleet
Dr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven Norfleetguest2b32b2e
 
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...YogeshIJTSRD
 
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...YogeshIJTSRD
 
Dr. William Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair
Dr. William Kritsonis, Dissertation ChairDr. William Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair
Dr. William Kritsonis, Dissertation Chairguestfa49ec
 
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis & Steven Norfleet
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis & Steven NorfleetDr. William Allan Kritsonis & Steven Norfleet
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis & Steven Norfleetguestfa49ec
 
JoepHeijnen-70240485MY-20132014
JoepHeijnen-70240485MY-20132014JoepHeijnen-70240485MY-20132014
JoepHeijnen-70240485MY-20132014Joep Heijnen
 

Similar to American Indians And Alaska Natives In Higher Education Research On Participation And Graduation. ERIC Digest (20)

Academic Achievement Gap
Academic Achievement GapAcademic Achievement Gap
Academic Achievement Gap
 
Johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american students
Johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american studentsJohnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american students
Johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american students
 
Copy of johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american students
Copy of johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american studentsCopy of johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american students
Copy of johnson, clarence the national dilemma of african american students
 
Contreras, alma the inter rater reliability aerj v25 n3 2012[1]
Contreras, alma the inter rater reliability aerj v25 n3 2012[1]Contreras, alma the inter rater reliability aerj v25 n3 2012[1]
Contreras, alma the inter rater reliability aerj v25 n3 2012[1]
 
Dr. Arthur L. Petterway & Dr. W.A. Kritsonis
Dr. Arthur L. Petterway & Dr. W.A. KritsonisDr. Arthur L. Petterway & Dr. W.A. Kritsonis
Dr. Arthur L. Petterway & Dr. W.A. Kritsonis
 
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Steven Norfleet, Disserta...
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Steven Norfleet, Disserta...Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Steven Norfleet, Disserta...
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Steven Norfleet, Disserta...
 
First Generation Students Road to College -- Support
First Generation Students Road to College -- SupportFirst Generation Students Road to College -- Support
First Generation Students Road to College -- Support
 
Fighting Education Inequality
Fighting Education InequalityFighting Education Inequality
Fighting Education Inequality
 
Help Amplify The Number Of College Bound Students
Help Amplify The Number Of College Bound StudentsHelp Amplify The Number Of College Bound Students
Help Amplify The Number Of College Bound Students
 
Clarence johnson proposal power pt.
Clarence johnson proposal power pt.Clarence johnson proposal power pt.
Clarence johnson proposal power pt.
 
Clarence Johnson, PhD Dissertation Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritso...
Clarence Johnson, PhD Dissertation Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritso...Clarence Johnson, PhD Dissertation Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritso...
Clarence Johnson, PhD Dissertation Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritso...
 
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair - Proposal, Clarence Johnson
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair - Proposal, Clarence JohnsonDr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair - Proposal, Clarence Johnson
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair - Proposal, Clarence Johnson
 
Dissertation abstracts for dr. yates
Dissertation abstracts for dr. yatesDissertation abstracts for dr. yates
Dissertation abstracts for dr. yates
 
Creating Barriers to Accessing Higher Education: National Educational Policy ...
Creating Barriers to Accessing Higher Education: National Educational Policy ...Creating Barriers to Accessing Higher Education: National Educational Policy ...
Creating Barriers to Accessing Higher Education: National Educational Policy ...
 
Dr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven Norfleet
Dr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven NorfleetDr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven Norfleet
Dr. W.A. Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Dr. Steven Norfleet
 
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...
 
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...
Academic Performance of the Grade VIII Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P...
 
Dr. William Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair
Dr. William Kritsonis, Dissertation ChairDr. William Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair
Dr. William Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair
 
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis & Steven Norfleet
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis & Steven NorfleetDr. William Allan Kritsonis & Steven Norfleet
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis & Steven Norfleet
 
JoepHeijnen-70240485MY-20132014
JoepHeijnen-70240485MY-20132014JoepHeijnen-70240485MY-20132014
JoepHeijnen-70240485MY-20132014
 

More from James Heller

Introduction Of Report Writing 23 Problem Anal
Introduction Of Report Writing 23 Problem AnalIntroduction Of Report Writing 23 Problem Anal
Introduction Of Report Writing 23 Problem AnalJames Heller
 
How Cheap Essay Writing Services Can Get You A Distinction
How Cheap Essay Writing Services Can Get You A DistinctionHow Cheap Essay Writing Services Can Get You A Distinction
How Cheap Essay Writing Services Can Get You A DistinctionJames Heller
 
How To Write Good Paragraph Transitions
How To Write Good Paragraph TransitionsHow To Write Good Paragraph Transitions
How To Write Good Paragraph TransitionsJames Heller
 
How To Write A Career Development Essay - Aher
How To Write A Career Development Essay - AherHow To Write A Career Development Essay - Aher
How To Write A Career Development Essay - AherJames Heller
 
Political Science Research Paper Example How The
Political Science Research Paper Example How ThePolitical Science Research Paper Example How The
Political Science Research Paper Example How TheJames Heller
 
How To Write A 5 Paragraph Essay 6Th Graders - Ader
How To Write A 5 Paragraph Essay 6Th Graders - AderHow To Write A 5 Paragraph Essay 6Th Graders - Ader
How To Write A 5 Paragraph Essay 6Th Graders - AderJames Heller
 
Results For Farm Writing Paper TPT
Results For Farm Writing Paper TPTResults For Farm Writing Paper TPT
Results For Farm Writing Paper TPTJames Heller
 
The Rewards Of Helping Others Come Back To Me Te
The Rewards Of Helping Others Come Back To Me TeThe Rewards Of Helping Others Come Back To Me Te
The Rewards Of Helping Others Come Back To Me TeJames Heller
 
Water Theme Art Wide Ruled Line Paper - Walmart.Com - Wa
Water Theme Art Wide Ruled Line Paper - Walmart.Com - WaWater Theme Art Wide Ruled Line Paper - Walmart.Com - Wa
Water Theme Art Wide Ruled Line Paper - Walmart.Com - WaJames Heller
 
Watch Freedom Writers (2007) Full Movie Online - Plex
Watch Freedom Writers (2007) Full Movie Online - PlexWatch Freedom Writers (2007) Full Movie Online - Plex
Watch Freedom Writers (2007) Full Movie Online - PlexJames Heller
 
How To Write A Personal Narrative A Step-By-Step
How To Write A Personal Narrative A Step-By-StepHow To Write A Personal Narrative A Step-By-Step
How To Write A Personal Narrative A Step-By-StepJames Heller
 
Technology Essay Writing This Is An Ielts Writing Task 2 Sampl
Technology Essay Writing This Is An Ielts Writing Task 2 SamplTechnology Essay Writing This Is An Ielts Writing Task 2 Sampl
Technology Essay Writing This Is An Ielts Writing Task 2 SamplJames Heller
 
How To Write A Film Essay. Critical Film Analysis Essa
How To Write A Film Essay. Critical Film Analysis EssaHow To Write A Film Essay. Critical Film Analysis Essa
How To Write A Film Essay. Critical Film Analysis EssaJames Heller
 
Introduction - How To Write An Essay - LibGuides At U
Introduction - How To Write An Essay - LibGuides At UIntroduction - How To Write An Essay - LibGuides At U
Introduction - How To Write An Essay - LibGuides At UJames Heller
 
Essay Examples Should College At
Essay Examples Should College AtEssay Examples Should College At
Essay Examples Should College AtJames Heller
 
Does Money Buy Happiness Essay. Does Money Make You
Does Money Buy Happiness Essay. Does Money Make YouDoes Money Buy Happiness Essay. Does Money Make You
Does Money Buy Happiness Essay. Does Money Make YouJames Heller
 
Climate Change Essay Telegraph
Climate Change Essay TelegraphClimate Change Essay Telegraph
Climate Change Essay TelegraphJames Heller
 
Pay Someone To Do A Research Paper - Pay For
Pay Someone To Do A Research Paper - Pay ForPay Someone To Do A Research Paper - Pay For
Pay Someone To Do A Research Paper - Pay ForJames Heller
 
Best Essays By George Orwell
Best Essays By George OrwellBest Essays By George Orwell
Best Essays By George OrwellJames Heller
 
Reflective Report Examples.Pdf - Acknowled
Reflective Report Examples.Pdf - AcknowledReflective Report Examples.Pdf - Acknowled
Reflective Report Examples.Pdf - AcknowledJames Heller
 

More from James Heller (20)

Introduction Of Report Writing 23 Problem Anal
Introduction Of Report Writing 23 Problem AnalIntroduction Of Report Writing 23 Problem Anal
Introduction Of Report Writing 23 Problem Anal
 
How Cheap Essay Writing Services Can Get You A Distinction
How Cheap Essay Writing Services Can Get You A DistinctionHow Cheap Essay Writing Services Can Get You A Distinction
How Cheap Essay Writing Services Can Get You A Distinction
 
How To Write Good Paragraph Transitions
How To Write Good Paragraph TransitionsHow To Write Good Paragraph Transitions
How To Write Good Paragraph Transitions
 
How To Write A Career Development Essay - Aher
How To Write A Career Development Essay - AherHow To Write A Career Development Essay - Aher
How To Write A Career Development Essay - Aher
 
Political Science Research Paper Example How The
Political Science Research Paper Example How ThePolitical Science Research Paper Example How The
Political Science Research Paper Example How The
 
How To Write A 5 Paragraph Essay 6Th Graders - Ader
How To Write A 5 Paragraph Essay 6Th Graders - AderHow To Write A 5 Paragraph Essay 6Th Graders - Ader
How To Write A 5 Paragraph Essay 6Th Graders - Ader
 
Results For Farm Writing Paper TPT
Results For Farm Writing Paper TPTResults For Farm Writing Paper TPT
Results For Farm Writing Paper TPT
 
The Rewards Of Helping Others Come Back To Me Te
The Rewards Of Helping Others Come Back To Me TeThe Rewards Of Helping Others Come Back To Me Te
The Rewards Of Helping Others Come Back To Me Te
 
Water Theme Art Wide Ruled Line Paper - Walmart.Com - Wa
Water Theme Art Wide Ruled Line Paper - Walmart.Com - WaWater Theme Art Wide Ruled Line Paper - Walmart.Com - Wa
Water Theme Art Wide Ruled Line Paper - Walmart.Com - Wa
 
Watch Freedom Writers (2007) Full Movie Online - Plex
Watch Freedom Writers (2007) Full Movie Online - PlexWatch Freedom Writers (2007) Full Movie Online - Plex
Watch Freedom Writers (2007) Full Movie Online - Plex
 
How To Write A Personal Narrative A Step-By-Step
How To Write A Personal Narrative A Step-By-StepHow To Write A Personal Narrative A Step-By-Step
How To Write A Personal Narrative A Step-By-Step
 
Technology Essay Writing This Is An Ielts Writing Task 2 Sampl
Technology Essay Writing This Is An Ielts Writing Task 2 SamplTechnology Essay Writing This Is An Ielts Writing Task 2 Sampl
Technology Essay Writing This Is An Ielts Writing Task 2 Sampl
 
How To Write A Film Essay. Critical Film Analysis Essa
How To Write A Film Essay. Critical Film Analysis EssaHow To Write A Film Essay. Critical Film Analysis Essa
How To Write A Film Essay. Critical Film Analysis Essa
 
Introduction - How To Write An Essay - LibGuides At U
Introduction - How To Write An Essay - LibGuides At UIntroduction - How To Write An Essay - LibGuides At U
Introduction - How To Write An Essay - LibGuides At U
 
Essay Examples Should College At
Essay Examples Should College AtEssay Examples Should College At
Essay Examples Should College At
 
Does Money Buy Happiness Essay. Does Money Make You
Does Money Buy Happiness Essay. Does Money Make YouDoes Money Buy Happiness Essay. Does Money Make You
Does Money Buy Happiness Essay. Does Money Make You
 
Climate Change Essay Telegraph
Climate Change Essay TelegraphClimate Change Essay Telegraph
Climate Change Essay Telegraph
 
Pay Someone To Do A Research Paper - Pay For
Pay Someone To Do A Research Paper - Pay ForPay Someone To Do A Research Paper - Pay For
Pay Someone To Do A Research Paper - Pay For
 
Best Essays By George Orwell
Best Essays By George OrwellBest Essays By George Orwell
Best Essays By George Orwell
 
Reflective Report Examples.Pdf - Acknowled
Reflective Report Examples.Pdf - AcknowledReflective Report Examples.Pdf - Acknowled
Reflective Report Examples.Pdf - Acknowled
 

Recently uploaded

Appendicular SkeletonSystem PPT.....pptx
Appendicular SkeletonSystem PPT.....pptxAppendicular SkeletonSystem PPT.....pptx
Appendicular SkeletonSystem PPT.....pptxRenuka N Sunagad
 
FILIPINO 7 IKATLO AT IKAAPAT NA LINGGO 3RD QUARTER.pptx
FILIPINO 7 IKATLO AT IKAAPAT NA LINGGO 3RD QUARTER.pptxFILIPINO 7 IKATLO AT IKAAPAT NA LINGGO 3RD QUARTER.pptx
FILIPINO 7 IKATLO AT IKAAPAT NA LINGGO 3RD QUARTER.pptxmarielouisemiranda1
 
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley Discussion
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley DiscussionShapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley Discussion
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley DiscussionTushar Tank
 
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxPractical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxKatherine Villaluna
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapitolTechU
 
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfWriting Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxPractical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxKatherine Villaluna
 
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATION
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATIONUNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATION
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATIONSayali Powar
 
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & TheoryIR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theorynivedithag131
 
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUSC_Library
 
John See - Narrative Story
John See - Narrative StoryJohn See - Narrative Story
John See - Narrative StoryAlan See
 
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRASACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRASMaria Lucia Céspedes
 
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdfD.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdfSUMIT TIWARI
 
mean stack mean stack mean stack mean stack
mean stack mean stack  mean stack  mean stackmean stack mean stack  mean stack  mean stack
mean stack mean stack mean stack mean stackNuttavutThongjor1
 
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSEDISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSEMYDA ANGELICA SUAN
 
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati RoyThe Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati RoyTrushali Dodiya
 
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATION
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATIONLIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATION
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATIONSayali Powar
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Appendicular SkeletonSystem PPT.....pptx
Appendicular SkeletonSystem PPT.....pptxAppendicular SkeletonSystem PPT.....pptx
Appendicular SkeletonSystem PPT.....pptx
 
FILIPINO 7 IKATLO AT IKAAPAT NA LINGGO 3RD QUARTER.pptx
FILIPINO 7 IKATLO AT IKAAPAT NA LINGGO 3RD QUARTER.pptxFILIPINO 7 IKATLO AT IKAAPAT NA LINGGO 3RD QUARTER.pptx
FILIPINO 7 IKATLO AT IKAAPAT NA LINGGO 3RD QUARTER.pptx
 
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley Discussion
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley DiscussionShapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley Discussion
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley Discussion
 
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxPractical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
 
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfWriting Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
 
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
 
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxPractical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
 
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATION
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATIONUNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATION
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATION
 
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & TheoryIR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
 
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
 
John See - Narrative Story
John See - Narrative StoryJohn See - Narrative Story
John See - Narrative Story
 
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRASACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
 
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
 
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdfD.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
 
mean stack mean stack mean stack mean stack
mean stack mean stack  mean stack  mean stackmean stack mean stack  mean stack  mean stack
mean stack mean stack mean stack mean stack
 
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSEDISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
 
Capter 5 Climate of Ethiopia and the Horn GeES 1011.pdf
Capter 5 Climate of Ethiopia and the Horn GeES 1011.pdfCapter 5 Climate of Ethiopia and the Horn GeES 1011.pdf
Capter 5 Climate of Ethiopia and the Horn GeES 1011.pdf
 
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati RoyThe Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
 
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATION
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATIONLIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATION
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATION
 

American Indians And Alaska Natives In Higher Education Research On Participation And Graduation. ERIC Digest

  • 1. ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest. ERIC Development Team www.eric.ed.gov Table of Contents If you're viewing this document online, you can click any of the topics below to link directly to that section. American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest 1 EQUITY IN ENROLLMENT AND GRADUATION 2 LONGITUDINAL STUDIES 3 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 4 CONCLUSION 5 REFERENCES 5 ERIC 411,0 Digests ERIC Identifier: ED348197 Publication Date: 1992-08-00 Author: Pavel, D. Michael Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools Charleston WV. American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest. THIS DIGEST WAS CREATED BY ERIC, THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Page 1 of 7 Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
  • 2. www.eric.ed.gov ERIC Custom Transformations Team INFORMATION CENTER. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT ERIC, CONTACT ACCESS ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC Educators with an interest in the postsecondary education of American Indians and Alaskan Natives (hereafter, "Natives") will find this Digest useful. It covers four topics: equity in undergraduate enrollment and graduation, longitudinal studies, qualitative research, and continuity with the K-12 system. The Digest illustrates the actual and potential usefulness of data about Natives in national databases, and it considers the need to apply qualitative methods. Whatever the method, however, research must also draw on the existing literature and the actual experiences of Native educators. EQUITY IN ENROLLMENT AND GRADUATION Achieving equity in the number of Native students who enter college and subsequently graduate is important to Natives and to the nation as a whole. The need is both real and attainable, as recent research suggests. Researchers can help by developing indicators that measure progress toward meeting the need. Richardson and Pavel (in press), for instance, propose two indicators to determine progress towards achieving equity in postsecondary institutions. They used both institutional and demographic data to develop the proposed indicators. Institutional data about enrollment and graduation are available for the universe of postsecondary institutions through annual Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) surveys, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Demographic data about the percentage of Natives in a given region come from the U.S. Census Bureau. Although the use of Census data on Natives is sometimes questioned, Richardson and Pavel demonstrate the actual and potential usefulness of existing data. They also call for improved sampling, especially to provide more accurate identification of Native students. Researchers, following Richardson and Pavel, can compute state equity scores for enrollment (ESEs). This indicator is created by dividing (a) the proportion of Natives in the state population by (b) the proportional Native enrollment in the state's institutions. Multiplying the resulting ratio by 100 removes the decimals, and an ESE score of 100 would, on this basis, indicate equity. Equity simply means that the proportion of Natives enrolled in a state's colleges equals the proportion of Natives in the state's total population. Similarly, state equity scores for graduation (ESGs) can be computed by dividing (a) the proportion of Natives in an entering class by (b) the proportion of Natives who graduate. The timing of graduation depends on the nature of degree programs and the effect of sporadic or parttime enrollment. Computing ESG scores must, therefore, take such circumstances into account. Richardson and Pavel computed equity indicators (ESEs and ESGs) from 1980 to 1988, Page 2 of 7 ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
  • 3. ERIC Resource Center www.eric.ed.gov using IPEDS data from four-year undergraduate public and independent institutions. They also used 1980 and 1985 Census data in seven states with relatively large Native populations (AK, AZ, MT, ND, NM, OK, and SD). The analysis compared progress at state college and universities to progress at land grant (or "flagship") institutions in each state. As many observers have suspected, the data suggest little overall progress between 1980 and 1988. ESEs for both public and independent institutions varied widely, but the median ESE score for both sectors was in the low 50s. This finding indicates that, in general, the number of Native students enrolled in four-year institutions needs to double in order to achieve equity of Native enrollment in the 1990s. The median ESGs were 75 and 40 at public and independent institutions, respectively. Here, too, the number of students graduating from four-year institutions needs to increase considerably for Natives to attain equity. LONGITUDINAL S TUDIES Longitudinal studies can help examine time-dependent factors that influence postsecondary enrollment and graduation. Two examples presented here use Native data from separate national databases. Both studies demonstrate that surveys must ask Native students the right questions, while illustrating uses of Native data available in national databases. The first study (McEvans & Astin, 1992) used regression analysis to determine the characteristics that predict enrollment and graduation among ethnic and racial minorities. Data for this study came from information collected from 1984 to 1988 by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) at the University of California, Los Angeles. The second study, by Pavel & Padilla (1992) assessed the Tinto (1987) model of institutional departure, using a structural modeling technique. The study used data collected by NCES from Native high school sophomores and seniors in its longitudinal survey, High School and Beyond (HS&B). In the first study, McEvans and Astin examined the influence of gender, high school grades, pre-college test scores, and institutional type on postsecondary retention. They used graduation or enrollment status as dependent variables among 925 Native respondents. Results indicated that Native students were likely to enroll in public four-year colleges and universities and to have the lowest retention rates among all ethnic and racial groups. According to McEvans and Astin, only 15 percent of the Natives earned bachelors degrees, compared to nearly 37 percent of the Whites and Asians. Both male and female Natives were unlikely to complete degrees. Although Native retention rates ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Page 3 of 7 Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
  • 4. www.eric.ed.gov ERIC Custom Transformations Team improve at selective independent institutions, Native students with high SAT scores do not complete their degree programs at the same rate as other ethnic and racial groups with similar scores. One may conclude, therefore, that additional factors, working in concert with academic preparation, influence persistence. In the second study, Pavel and Padilla assessed Tinto's model to see how it applied to the experiences of nearly 400 Native respondents in the HS&B surveys. Tinto's model illustrates how family background, skills and abilities, and prior schooling influence intentions and commitments prior to college entrance. These pre-entry influences determine the extent to which students will become part of campus academic and social systems. The extent of such integration, moreover, can further influence students' intentions and commitments. Pavel and Padilla's results suggested that both intentions in high school and academic integration on campus are central to postsecondary outcomes. Social integration plays a prominent, but indirect role. In particular, programs that foster aspirations to pursue higher education should come early, rather than late, in a Native student's high school experience. Moreover, once on campus, Native students need support programs to enhance academic integration, together with programs to satisfy the Native student's social needs. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH The latter study, in particular, illustrates the need for qualitative research. Wise decisions about programming require knowledge about how such influences as student sub-cultures, curriculum, and the quality of advising affect participation and graduation. Two studies that used qualitative methods illustrate the need for further inquiry into the Native student's higher education experiences. Murgia, Padilla, and Pavel (1991) derived a concept model of ethnicity and social integration. Data came from interviews with 24 upper-class students, equally represented by Hispanics and Natives enrolled at a public four-year institution. Findings suggest that ethnic enclaves help minority students "scale down" the complexities of the campus environment. At the same time, such enclaves provide a context for everyday action that helps make college a more fulfilling experience for minority students. The results, then, tend to support the prevalent view that ethnic enclaves in higher education help retain Native students. Padilla and Pavel (1992) used data from the same interviews to examine the role of advising in academic integration. They found what others have found, namely, that the quality of advising varies considerably. Students indicated that (a) advisers they chose ("surrogate advisers") and (b) advisers who were ethnic matches ("designated minority advisers") were more effective than assigned advisers not ethnically matched with the student. Page 4 of 7 ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
  • 5. ERIC Resource Center www.eric.ed.gov Effective advisers undertake many activities helpful to students. For instance, they not only approve programs of study and course selection, but also serve as advocates, mediating on the students' behalf. They also provide information from an insider's perspective, including advice about job and career choices. Effective advisers understand their advisees as people, and they interpret their roles on that basis. Clearly, students value the rapport established with effective advisers. CONTINUITY WITH THE K-12 SYSTEM Achieving equity in participation and graduation also depends on maintaining continuity with K-12 schools. Two recent national studies conducted by the Center for Indian Education at Arizona State University (Swisher, Hoisch, & Pavel, 1991; Swisher, Pavel, Hoisch, & Concho, 1992) indicate the importance of continuity with K-12 schools. These studies indicate that the Native high school dropout rate is declining. Parental involvement, belief in the relevance of education, community-based curriculum, appropriate teaching styles, caring teachers and administrators, and holistic early intervention programs contribute to the decline in the rates at which Natives drop out of high school. Postsecondary institutions should consider undertaking parallel efforts, thereby cultivating some element of consistency in the Native student's educational experience. CONCLUSION This nation can significantly increase Native student postsecondary participation and graduation in the 1990s if policymakers, educators, and communities attend to issues such as those brought to light in this Digest. Along with improved sampling of Native respondents, researchers, in particular, need to develop indicators to assess progress towards equity in access and achievement. Their work can help hold institutions accountable to this goal. As this Digest suggests, qualitative research should augment statistical analyses of national data. Likewise, efforts to increase postsecondary enrollment and graduation must be closely linked with efforts to improve participation in the K-12 system. The research agenda must include an array of influences that promote dramatically enhanced participation of Natives in higher education. REFERENCES Mc Evans, A., & Astin, A. (1992). Minority student retention rates: Comparative national data from the 1984 freshman class. Los Angeles, CA: Higher Education Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles. Murgia, E., Padilla, R. V., & Pavel, D. M. (1991). Ethnicity and the concept of social integration in Tinto's model of institutional departure. Journal of College Student Development, 32(5), 433-439. Padilla, R. V., & Pavel, D. M. (1992). The role of advising in academic integration. ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Page 5 of 7 Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
  • 6. www.eric.ed.gov ERIC Custom Transformations Team Tempe, AZ: Program in Higher Education, Arizona State University. Pavel, D. M., & Padilla, R. V. (1992). Assessing Tinto's model of institutional departure using American Indian and Alaska Native national longitudinal data. Tempe, AZ: Program in Higher Education, Arizona State University. Richardson, R. C., Jr., & Pavel, D. M. (in press). Designing and using equity indicators for African American, Hispanic, and Native American enrollment and graduation. In M. Ludwig (Ed.), The challenge of change: Higher education enrollment lessons from the 1980s for the 1990s, Washington, DC, American Association of State Colleges and Universities. Swisher, K., Hoisch, M., & Pavel, D. M. (1991). American Indian/Alaska Natives Dropout Study 1991. Washington, DC: National Education Association. Swisher, K., Pavel, D. M., & Hoisch, M. (1992). BIA membership study: An analysis of transfer and dropout rates. Washington, DC: Bureau of Indian Affairs. Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of college attrition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. D. Michael Pavel teaches at the University of California, Los Angeles. This publication was prepared with funding from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, under contract no. RI88062016. The opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement or the Department of Education. Title: American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest. Document Type: Information Analyses---ERIC Information Analysis Products (IAPs) (071); Information Analyses---ERIC Digests (Selected) in Full Text (073); Available From: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, P.O. Box 1348, Charleston, WV 25325 (free). Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indians, College Attendance, College Graduates, Educational Attainment, Equal Education, Faculty Advisers, Higher Education, Longitudinal Studies, Measurement, Racial Differences, School Holding Power, Secondary Education Identifiers: ERIC Digests ### Page 6 of 7 ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.
  • 7. ERIC Resource Center Ah. [Return to ERIC Digest Search Page] www.eric.ed.gov ED348197 1992-08-00 American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Page 7 of 7 Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.