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“... History reveals the necessity for ...
underlying narratives in the manufacture
of cultures of affirmation and resista...
New Voices: postmodernism‟s
focus on the marginalised
 How „Authentic‟ is „Primitive‟ art?
 How „Essential‟ is Femininit...
How „Authentic‟ is
„Primitive‟ art?
“Developments in the Disciplines of
History and Anthropology during the
previous fifte...
Representing the „Other‟ and
„Authentic‟               Great Exhibition 1851
Otherness – binary oppositions
in the 19th Century world view.

       Culture      >    Nature

      Rationality   >   I...
Otherness
   “As Europeans increasingly came to
    think of themselves during the
    nineteenth centuries as essentiall...
Jean Michel Basquiat
Jean Michel
Basquiat




Basquiat, Jean-Michel
Self-Portrait as a Heel, Part Two
1982
Jean Michel Basquiat




        Jean-Michel Basquiat (1983) Notary
Jean Michel Basquiat

                       Jean-Michel
                       Basquiat
                       (1983)
   ...
Jean-Michel
Basquiat
(1982) Native
Carrying
Some Guns,
Bibles,
Amorites on
Surfari.
How “Essential” is Femininity?
“Legislators, priests, philosophers, writers, and scientists have
all striven to show that ...
How „Essential‟ is femininity?
“the [feminine] stereotype is a
product of a patriarchal culture which
constructs male domi...
Have there always been homosexuals?
Have there always been
Homosexuals?
   “Foucault did not suggest that sexual
    relationships between people of the same...
“Foucault ... Insisted that the category of the
homosexual grew out of a particular context in the
1870s and that, like se...
More than being a case of the „simple‟ repression of one
group of people by another, power is implicit in the way „we‟
com...
Bibliography
   De Beavoir, S (1949) The Second Sex, at
    http//www.marxists.org/reference/subject/ethics/de-beavoir/2n...
New Voices, Postmodernism's Focus On The Marginalised
New Voices, Postmodernism's Focus On The Marginalised
New Voices, Postmodernism's Focus On The Marginalised
New Voices, Postmodernism's Focus On The Marginalised
New Voices, Postmodernism's Focus On The Marginalised
New Voices, Postmodernism's Focus On The Marginalised
New Voices, Postmodernism's Focus On The Marginalised
New Voices, Postmodernism's Focus On The Marginalised
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New Voices, Postmodernism's Focus On The Marginalised

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New Voices, Postmodernism's Focus On The Marginalised

  1. 1. “... History reveals the necessity for ... underlying narratives in the manufacture of cultures of affirmation and resistance. The danger in not recognising the essential fictiveness of such constructs, however, is that a certain fundamentalism, a mega-nationalism, emerges – all the more dangerous for its vagueness – which exercise, elides, confiscates, imposes and distorts.” (Oguibe [1993] 2005, p. 228)
  2. 2. New Voices: postmodernism‟s focus on the marginalised  How „Authentic‟ is „Primitive‟ art?  How „Essential‟ is Femininity?  Have there always been Homosexuals?  Conclusion: Power and Exclusion
  3. 3. How „Authentic‟ is „Primitive‟ art? “Developments in the Disciplines of History and Anthropology during the previous fifteen years or so had eroded the notions of „Authenticity‟ and „the untouched primitive‟, especially when the two were linked; and in the aftermath of the 1984‟s exhibits, the concept of „authentic primitive art‟ was attacked head-on by a rack of cultural critics, leaving it bloody and dead.” (Errington 1998, p.3)
  4. 4. Representing the „Other‟ and „Authentic‟ Great Exhibition 1851
  5. 5. Otherness – binary oppositions in the 19th Century world view. Culture > Nature Rationality > Irrationality Western > Non-Western Man > Woman
  6. 6. Otherness  “As Europeans increasingly came to think of themselves during the nineteenth centuries as essentially and characteristically secular, rational, civilized, and technologically advanced, they almost necessarily generated an imagined Other that was savage, ignorant, and uncivilised” (Errington 1998, p.16)
  7. 7. Jean Michel Basquiat
  8. 8. Jean Michel Basquiat Basquiat, Jean-Michel Self-Portrait as a Heel, Part Two 1982
  9. 9. Jean Michel Basquiat Jean-Michel Basquiat (1983) Notary
  10. 10. Jean Michel Basquiat Jean-Michel Basquiat (1983) Hollywood Africans
  11. 11. Jean-Michel Basquiat (1982) Native Carrying Some Guns, Bibles, Amorites on Surfari.
  12. 12. How “Essential” is Femininity? “Legislators, priests, philosophers, writers, and scientists have all striven to show that the subordinate position of woman is willed in heaven and advantageous on earth.” (De Beauvoir 1949) “All agree in recognising the fact that females exist in the human species; today as always they make up about one half of humanity. And yet we are told that femininity is in danger; we are exhorted to be women, remain women, become women. It would appear, then, that every female human being is not necessarily a woman; to be so considered she must share in that mysterious and threatened reality known as femininity. It this attribute something secreted by the ovaries?” (Ibid)
  13. 13. How „Essential‟ is femininity? “the [feminine] stereotype is a product of a patriarchal culture which constructs male dominance through the significance it attained to sexual difference.” (Parker and Pollock 1981, p.16)
  14. 14. Have there always been homosexuals?
  15. 15. Have there always been Homosexuals?  “Foucault did not suggest that sexual relationships between people of the same sex did not exist before the 19th Century. In the Renaissance period, for example, sexual practices such as sodomy were condemned by the church and prohibited by law, whether between men and men or men and women. But the crucial difference between this early form of regulatory sexual practices and that of the late 19th century lies in the latter‟s claim to identify what Foucault called a „species‟, an aberrant type of human being defined by preverse sexuality.” (Spargo p.18)
  16. 16. “Foucault ... Insisted that the category of the homosexual grew out of a particular context in the 1870s and that, like sexuality generally, it must be viewed as a constructed category of knowledge rather than as a discovered identity.” (Ibid, p.17) “... The most important feature of writing on women was that it attributed natural explanations to what were in fact the result of ideological attitudes” (Parker and Pollock 1981, p.10)
  17. 17. More than being a case of the „simple‟ repression of one group of people by another, power is implicit in the way „we‟ come to „know‟ the world. For this reason postmodernism, bound up with an „incredulity‟ towards Grand Narratives and „truths‟, is incredibly hard to define. To be marginalised is to be held apart from the „centres‟ of knowledge production and representation. Multiculturalism, Feminism and Queer theory are, for these reasons, very important aspects of the de-centralising process defined as postmodernism. Moreover, they might be seen to be only prominent examples in much broader field of marginalisation.
  18. 18. Bibliography  De Beavoir, S (1949) The Second Sex, at http//www.marxists.org/reference/subject/ethics/de-beavoir/2nd- sex/introduction.htm [Accessed 05/05/2009]  Foucault, M ([1976] 1998) The History of Sexuality: Vol 1. London, Penguin.  Heller, S (ed.) (1999) Design Literacy. New York, Allworth Press.  Hooks, B (1994) Outlaw Culture. London, Routledge.  Oguibe, O ([1996] 2005) In the ‘Heart of Darkness’, in Kocur, Z and Simon Ling (eds.) Theory in Contemporary Art since 1985, Oxford, Blackwell Publishing  Owens, C ([1983] 1994) The Discourse of Others: Feminists and Postmodernism. In Owens, C. Beyond Recognition: Representation, Power, and Culture, Bryson, S et al. (eds.) London, University of California Press.  Parker, R and Griselda Pollock (1981) Old Mistresses: Women, Art and Ideology. New York, Pantheon Books.  Pearlman, A (2003) Unpackaging the Art of the 1980s. London, The University of Chicago Press.  Jones, A (ed.)(1996) Sexual Politics: Judy Chicago’s Dinner Party in Feminist Art History. London, University of California Press.

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