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Seizure and epilepsy
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  1. 1. DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Leaning outcome • Establish whether a sick animal has a disease of the nervous system.
  2. 2. Introduction to Diseases the Nervous System Definition  The nervous system is the part of an animal’s body that organizes its behavior, and transmits signals /signs between different body areas.  The nervous system in simple definition, is the system which controls everything the animal do, including breathing, walking, feeling and ect… How?  Usually nerves carry the messages to and from the body. Then the brain can understand them and take action. That why the nervous system controls everything the animal do.
  3. 3. Introduction to Diseases the Nervous System cont… Function of the nervous system:  Maintain the body’s spatial relation with its environment/ balance animal’s body with its environment. These functions are performed / done by several divisions of the nervous system such as:  The sensorimotor system responsible for the maintenance of normal posture/ position and gait/ walk  The automonic nervous system controlling the activity of smooth muscle and endocrine glands (internal environment of the body)  The sensory system of special senses.  The psychic system which controls the animals mental state.
  4. 4. Introduction to Diseases the Nervous System cont… The sensorimotor system: is the system which controlling the body movement and the joints. The automonic nervous system : is a component of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary physiologic processes including heart rate, blood pressure, respiration & digestion. The sensory system : those sensory system confined to the head, and are responsible for the five special senses of sight, hearing, equilibrium, taste and smell’ • The nervous system basically receives internal and external stimuli and translates it into activity and consciousness. e.g……
  5. 5. Introduction to Diseases the Nervous System cont… Important / why the study of nervous system diseases To differentiate primary and secondary disease of the nervous system. why? because both the prognosis/ diagnosis and the treatment will differ with the cause. Types of the nervous system diseases  Primary  Secondary Differentiation of nervous system diseases  In the primary nervous disease of the nervous system the lesion is usually an anatomical or relating to anatomy / bodily structure with serious long range consequences/ take time .  While in the secondary nervous lesion , at least in its early stages is more likely to be functional/ more practical or useful, and therefore more responsive to treatment as long as the defect in the primary organ can be corrected.
  6. 6. Introduction to Diseases the Nervous System cont… Neurological / Nervous examination in large animals has not been practiced as much as in humans and small animals (pets), why?  large size or nature of the animal which also react badly.  Maybe difficult to examine an ataxic beef cow which is still able to walk and attack the examiner.  Aggressive, paretic bull in sunlight can be difficult to examine because the light affect the eye & will make pain.  The principle of large animal neurology ( is the study that deals with the anatomy, function, and organic disorders of nerves and the nervous system).  Is to be able to know the common diseases of the nervous system by correlating the clinical findings with the location and nature of the lesion.
  7. 7. Introduction to Diseases the Nervous System cont… Some considerations/ attention in the neurological examination • Due to the limitations in the neurological examination of large animals the important is placed on the history and epidemiological findings why? Many of the diseases have epidemiological characteristic which gives the clinician a clue/ idea to the possible causes e.g  Viral encephalitis of horses ( inflammation of the brain, often due to infection) occurs with a peak incidence during the insect season.  Lead poisoning is most common in calves after they have been turned out into pasture.  Polioencephalomalacia ( is a common neurologic disease of ruminants) occurs in grain-fed feedlot (the main animal housing unit) cattle.
  8. 8. Introduction to Diseases the Nervous System cont… Response of nervous tissue to injury Nervous tissue responds to injury in two broad ways:  Depressed activity When there are certain aspects of the disease that may be slow in animals.  Exaggerated activity Outside the normal behavior of the animal or loss of control. • But the result is the same in both activity's, whether the disturbance is conductive or discharge. • These two ways, Subdivided into 4 modes of nervous dysfunction.
  9. 9. Introduction to Diseases the Nervous System cont… excessive or exaggerated activity 1. Excitation or irritation signs Excitability of nerve cells can be increased by many factors e.g stimulant drugs, ( are class of drugs that speed up messages traveling between the brain and body), inflammation, and mild degrees of those conditions which in severity result in depression. • However, mild or early anoxia may result in increased excitability while continued or severe anoxia will cause depression of function or even death of the nerve cell.
  10. 10. Introduction to Diseases the Nervous System cont… b. Irritation  may result from many causes such as inflammation of nervous tissue caused by bacteria, viruses, certain nerve poisons, anoxia and edema. The major signs of irritation of the nervous tissue are:  Grass tetany: is a high fatal disease associated with low levels of magnesium in the blood.  whole body convulsions in the motor system and
  11. 11. Introduction to Diseases the Nervous System cont… excessive or exaggerated activity cont.. 2- Release signs • This occurs when the lower nervous centers (LMN) are released from inhibitory effects of the higher centers (HMN). Depressed activity 1- Paralysis due to tissue destruction. This is seen when there is depression of activity of the nervous tissue due to absence or may result from failure to supply of oxygen and other essential nutrients as seen in failure of local circulation or infection of nerve cell leading to death or anoxia.
  12. 12. Introduction to Diseases the Nervous System cont… Depressed activity cont… 2- Nervous shock This results from temporal loss of function of the nervous tissue , this lead to the damage of the nerve cell.  Diagnosis of nervous conditions present difficulty but analysis of the time in development of nervous disease can give information.
  13. 13. Manifestations of nervous disease Diseases of the nervous tissue can manifest in six different ways:- 1. Abnormalities of mental state. 2. Involuntary movement. Is the movement which the animal do it, without will, or conscious control. 3. Abnormalities of posture and gait. Abnormal gait or a walking abnormality is when the animal unable to walk in the usual way. Abnormal posture is chronic abnormal positions of the animal’s body. 4. Paralysis. Is the loss of the ability to move/ fell anything, in the part or most of the animal’s body. 5. Disturbance in sensation including visual dysfunction. 6. Abnormalities of autonomic system. Is abnormalities of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary physiologic processes including heart rate, blood pressure, respiration & digestion.
  14. 14. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… 1. Abnormalities of Mental state • These are usually manifestations of change in behavior and demeanor. Abnormalities of Mental state is can be in general excitement or depression. A. General excitation states Additionally, general excitation states is subdivided into manifestations of mania, frenzy and aggressive behavior, which are manifestations of general excitation of the cerebral cortex which governs behavior. cerebral cortex, this area of the brain is highly susceptible to increased intracranial / brain pressure and anoxia.  Intracranial pressure mean brain pressure.
  15. 15. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… A. General excitation states : is subdivided into manifestations of 1. MANIA: is marked by periods of great excitement & over activity. • Is a condition seen with increased activity of the brain due to increased stimuli characterized by exaggerated behavior in activity.  In mania the animal acts in a bizarre way and appears to be unaware of its surroundings. Mania behaviors / how the animal behavior with Mania? Mania behaviors include:  licking,  chewing of foreign objects,  constant bellowing with abnormal voice
  16. 16. Manifestations of nervous disease cont…  Apparent blindness,  walking into objects/surrounding without fear,  drunken gait.  A state of confusion can be seen. Diseases characterized by mania.  Encephalitis such as the furious form of rabies, Aujeszky’s disease in cattle. Encephalitis: is inflammation of the brain, often due to infection, the infection may be bacterial or viral in some cases, encephalitis may be the result of an immune system disorder. Aujeszky’s disease: is a contagious viral disease that primarly affects pigs.  Degenerative disease of the brain e.g early polioencephalomalacia: is a common neurologic disease of ruminants.
  17. 17. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… Diseases characterized by mania.  Toxic and metabolic diseases of the brain such as nervous acetonemia, Acetonemia: also call ketosis, is a disease commonly seen either in high production dairy cows, or in any cows on a poor diet & the disease is caused by a deficiency of glucose in the blood & in body tissues.  pregnancy toxemia also known as fatty liver syndrome, occurs when the breakdown product of fat, called ketones, build up in the brain and become toxic & commonest in fat pregnant cows.  acute lead poisoning  severe hepatic insufficiency especially in horses. Is usually places the animal in a difficult nutritional position& threatens the function of all organ system as well as immune mechanisms.
  18. 18. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… 1. Abnormalities of Mental state cont… 2. Frenzy: is a state or period of uncontrolled excitement or wild behavior. Is characterized by:  Violent activity with little regard for surroundings.  The animals movements are uncontrolled.  Dangerous to others & often accompanied by aggressive physical attacks. Examples of frenzy in diseases of the nervous system / diseases of the nervous system which characterized by frenzy include:  Encephalomyetides such as Aujeszky’s diseases Encephalomyetids: is inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. Aujeszky’s diaease: is a contagious viral disease that primarily affects pigs.
  19. 19. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… Examples of frenzy in diseases of the nervous system / diseases of the nervous system which characterized by frenzy include:  Hypomagnesemic tetany of cattle and sheep Hypomagnesemic tetany : is a complex metabolic disturbance characterized by hypomagnesemic, and hypomagnesemic is an electrolyte disturbance caused when there is a low level of serum magnesium in animal ‘body.  poisoning with ammoniated roughage in cattle. Examples of frenzy in diseases of other body systems  acute pain of colic in horses  Extreme cutaneous irritation such as seen in photosensitization in cattle.
  20. 20. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… 1. Abnormalities of Mental state cont… 3. Aggressive behavior  Aggressiveness' and willingness to attack other animals and objects is characteristic of the early signs of rabies and aujeszky’s disease in cattle  In cows during post parturient hysteria  In later stages of chronic hypoxia in any spp  In some mares and cows with case of -cell tumors in the ovary.
  21. 21. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… B. Depressive Mental States Include: Samnolence, lassitude, sycope and coma Samnolence: sleepiness, the state of feeling drowsy, ready to sleep. Lassitude: is a state of physical or mental weariness ; lack of energy. Sycope: brief loss of consciousness caused by a fall in blood pressure. Coma: is state of prolonged unconsciousness that can caused by several problems such as : traumatic head, injury, stork, drug, coma is a medical emergency. • They are all manifestations of depression of cerebral cortex function in various degrees and occur as a result of those influences which depress nervous function generally, as well as those, which specifically affect behavior, probably via the limbic system.
  22. 22. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… 2. Involuntary movement Involuntary movements are due to involuntary muscle contractions which develop from: fasciculations shivering& tremor tetany convulsions. Fasciculations: are involuntary rapid muscle twitches ( occur when there is low magnesium levels, or due to medication side effects) that are too weak to move a limb, but are easily to seen or to palpated. Shivering : Abnormal behavior, shaking slightly and uncontrolled as a result of being the animal cold, excited or a symptom od serious problem. Tremor: A tremor is a shaking movement in one or more parts of animal’s body.
  23. 23. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… 2. Involuntary movement cont… Tetany: is a symptom characterized by the involuntary contraction of muscles that usually results from low calcium levels in the animal’s blood. Convolution: is a condition in which muscles contract and relax quickly and cause uncontrolled shaking of the body.
  24. 24. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… 3. Abnormalities of posture and gait 1. Posture Abnormal position , is evident in animals with pain- related conditions including backache- stress- related illnesses. Often is a result of hoof injury / damage which leads to increased pain. • Posture is evaluated with the animal at rest. Abnormal postures may be adopted / seen occasionally by animals in pain , but in diseases of the nervous system the abnormality is usually continuous and repeatable. Abnormalities of posture include:  Deviation of the head and neck from the normal position.  Rotation of the head and neck from the normal position.  drooping of the lips, eyelids, cheeks and ears.  Head pressing and assumption of a dog-sitting posture are further examples.
  25. 25. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… 3. Abnormalities of posture and gait cont… 2. Gait Gait is assessed when the animal is moving. Neurological gait abnormalities have two components: A. Weakness B. Ataxia. Weakness (paresis): Is a condition of muscular weakness caused by nerve damage or disease. Is evident:  when an animal drags its limbs  has damaged hooves  When an animal bears weight / or put weight on a weak limb, the limb often trembles and the animal may even collapse on that limb because of lack of support.
  26. 26. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… B. Ataxia  Ataxia is an unconscious, causing incoordination when the animal moves.  Ataxia is manifest as a swaying from side to side of the pelvis.  Ataxia may also appear as a weaving of the affected limb during the swing (walk) phase of the stride ( long step).
  27. 27. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… 4. Paralysis. Is the loss of the ability to move/ fell anything, in the part or most of the body of animal. • The type of paralysis is often indicative of the site of the lesion. Examples  A lesion of the upper motor neuron causes:  loss of voluntary movement  Increased tone of limb muscles  Increased spinal reflexes  A lesion of the lower motor neuron causes:  paralysis with loss of voluntary movement  Decreased tone of the limb muscles  Absence of spinal reflexes
  28. 28. Manifestations of nervous disease cont… 4. Disturbance in sensation including visual dysfunction Lesions of the sensory system are rarely diagnosed in animals, except for those affecting sight & because of the impossibility of measuring subjective responses. 6. Abnormalities of autonomic system. Is abnormalities of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary physiologic processes including heart rate, blood pressure, respiration & digestion.
  30. 30. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM  Heart  Blood vessels  Blood
  32. 32. CIRCULATORY FAILURE  Failure of the heart to eject blood from venous return.  Ventricular outflow is not equal to inflow.  Circulatory equilibrium is not maintained.  Blood accumulates in the venous circulation
  33. 33. Forms of circulatory failure  Congestive heart failure  Acute heart failure  Peripheral circulatory failure
  34. 34. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE  Heart is unable to maintain circulatory equilibrium due to intrinsic defects. Symptoms I. Dilatation of the vessels II. Pulmonary or subcutaneous edema III.Cardiac enlargement IV.increased heart rate
  35. 35. Congestive heart failure  Etiology ◦ Diseases which interfere with heart action  Myocarditis, myocardial dystrophy, neoplasms of the heart  Endocardial abnormalities  Pericardial abnormalities – pericarditis, hydropericardium ◦ Diseases in which there is increased blood flow load  Congenital defects of the heart and blood vessels  Pulmonary emphysema  Pneumonia  Pneumothorax  Hypertension  Anoxia and toxaemia
  36. 36. Congestive heart failure  Etiology Myocarditis: is disease condition which affected myocardium, myocardium is a heart muscles. myocardial dystroph: abnormal growth of the heart or myocardial. neoplasms of the heart: abnormal growth of the cell in heart. Endocardial abnormalities: Endocardial means inside the heart, endocardial abnormalities is an abnormal heart condition. Pericardial abnormalities: Pericardial or Pericardium is a membrane, or sac that surrounds the heart, it holds the heart and help it work properly, pericardial abnormalities is abnormal growth of pericardial.
  37. 37. Congestive heart failure. Etiology cont…. Pericarditis: is a disease condition or inflammation of pericardium, is can be from a virus or other infection. Hydropericardium: the medical definition of the hydropericardium is a condition where excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardial cavity, Congenital defects: A birth defects or a conditions present at birth. Pulmonary emphysema: the word emphysems is a lung condition that causes shortness of breath.
  38. 38. Congestive heart failure. Etiology cont…. Pneumonia: Pneumonia can be define as inflammation of lung tissue. Pneumothorax: Is a condition in which air enter/ access space between the lung and the chest wall or chest cavity. Hypertension: High blood pressure. Anoxia: Failure of tissues to receive enough oxygen. Toxaemia: Blood poisoning by toxins from a local bacteria infection.
  39. 39. Congestive Heart Failure  Clinical signs Left ventricular failure  increased depth and rate of respiration at rest  Cough  severe dyspnea and cyanosis  heart rate is increased Right ventricular failure  Heart rate is increased  Sub-cutaneous edema limited to the ventral surface of the body  Ascitis  hydrothorax  Hydropericardium
  40. 40. Congestive Heart Failure cont… Clinical signs Dyspnea: Is a medical term for shortness of breath/ difficult breathing. Cyanosis: A bluish discoloration of skin resulting from poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood. Ascitis: the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, causing abdominal swelling. Hydrothorax: Hydropericardium: An excess of watery fiuid in the pericarial cavity.
  41. 41. Congestive Heart Failure  Differential Diagnosis - Brisket disease - Hypoproteinemia in parasitic diseases - Peritonitis - Jaundice and photosensitization may be present) - Rupture of the urinary bladder (acute pain no cardiac involvement Holstein with brisket disease
  42. 42. Congestive Heart Failure cont… Differential Diagnosis: A list of possible condition that could be causing the symptoms. Brisket disease: is the right heart failure Hypoproteinemia: Is the lack of protein in the body Peritonitis: disease condition or inflammation of the peritoum. Photosensitization:
  43. 43. ACUTE HEART FAILURE Animal suddenly falls and loses conscious ness with or without convulsion s.  Etiology ◦ Cardiac tamponade. ◦ Excessive tachycardia ◦ Falling disease of cattle due to copper deficiency ◦ Enzootic muscular dystrophy due to vit E and Se deficiency ◦ When IV injections are given too quickly ◦ Lightening stroke ◦ Electrocution ◦ Excessive bradycardia caused by heart block due to myocardium diseases or iv injection of Ca in RX of milk
  44. 44. ACUTE HEART FAILURE Etiology Cardiac tamponade: when the fluid builds in the space around the heart/ cardiac, these fluids prevents it from performing well, this condition called.... Excessive tachycardia: Repaid heart beats / is the medical term for a heart rate over 100 per minute. Enzootic muscular dystrophy: is disease which common in young calves& usually known as white muscle disease, its happed due… Excessive bradycardia: low heart beats or when the heart is too slow
  45. 45. Acute heart failure Clinical manifestation  Dyspnea  Staggering and Falling  Death within sec or mins of first appearance of the signs  Great paleness of the mucous membranes  DEATH is followed by deep asphyxia gasps  In enzootic muscular dystrophy it is not regular and examinea by  Difficult respiration  Dyspnea  Pulmonary Oedema  Paleness of the mucous Diagnosis  May be confused with primary diseases of the nervous system but on examination there may be 1. Excessive tachycardia or excessive bradycardia 2. Membranes will be pale 3. There is no pulse 4. Mild convulsions if present
  46. 46. Acute Heart failure Treatment  Not possible in animals because it has a short course  In excessive anaesthesia stop giving the anaesthetic  Stop excessive fluid therapy
  47. 47. PERIPHERAL CIRCULATORY FAILURE  Occurs when cardiac output is reduced because of failure of venous return ◦ Decrease in blood flow results in Anoxia and decreased tissue function.  etiology ◦ Vasogenic ◦ Hematogenous
  48. 48. PERIPHERAL CIRCULATORY FAILURE  Vasogenic ◦ Dilation of blood vessels ◦ Blood pools in blood vessels Occurs in shock And milk fever  Hematogenic ◦ There is decrease in circulatory blood volume Occurs in hemorrhage, dehydration and fatal stages of shock
  49. 49. Peripheral circulatory failure Clinical manifestation  Animal is generally depressed  Weakness and listlessness  Body temperature will be subnormal  Heart rate is increased  Pulse abnormalities and weak pressure  Coldness  Mucous membranes may be pale  Respirations are fast but shallow Treatment  For vasogenic failure give e.g adrenalin  In haematogenous failure replace fluid  Shock- give plasma  Haemorrhage – blood transfusion  Dehydration- give isotonic electrolytes  Oxygen therapy where possible
  50. 50. Peripheral circulatory failure  Diagnosis ◦ Detection Of signs of circulatory failure without detection of abnormalities in the heart
  51. 51. Special examination of the CVS techniques of examination of the heart and pulse. 1. Physical examination Physical examination of animals with suspect heart disease should pay special attention to: heart rate,  Intensity of heart sounds;  pulse, venous pulsation at the jugular inlet occurrence and timing of sounds
  52. 52. Special examination of the CVS cont… 2. Heart sounds / stethoscope The sequence of heart beat can be described as du-LUBB DUP boo. The sequence of heart sound can be understood thus: because the third and fourth heart sounds intensity is less than the first and second. In many animal species, only two heart sounds are heard.
  53. 53. Special examination of the CVS cont… Variation in heart sound intensity A decrease in intensity of heart sound generation occurs in disease where there is poor venous return, fatal heart failure in cattle or peripheral vascular failure in all species. The intensity of heart sounds may increase with metabolic diseases.  Intensity of the first heart sound is increased by exercise, fear.
  54. 54. Special examination of the CVS Muffling Muffling of heart sounds due to displacement of the heart by increased fluids in the pericardium increased subcutaneous fat. Heart or pulse rate (per minute) Species Normal range Horse 30 - 40 Cattle 60 - 80 Calf < 3 months 100 - 120 Sheep and Goat 70 - 90 Pig 60 - 100
  55. 55. Manifestations of Heart failure  Abnormalities of cardiac rate and rhythm ◦ Tachycardia  Pain, excitement, hyperthermia, administration of adrenargic drugs ◦ Bradycardia  Space occupying lesions, vagus indigestion, diaphragmatic hernia, Clostridium perfringens type D ◦ Arythmia  Irregularities of heart rhythms ◦ Gallop rhythms  Duplication of the heart sounds to give tripple sounds instead of a double sound.  Cardiac enlargement ◦ Severe exercise ◦ Valvular lesions ◦ Chronic anaemia ◦ Inefficient myocardial contractions This is detected by  Careful auscultation and palpation of apex beats . audible apex beat  Percussion if enlargement is extreme in small animals and boundaries of the heart can be determined.  Use of x-rays, fluoroscope or ultra sound  If animal is dead post mortem is done and the heart will be large, rounded and flabby
  56. 56. DISEASES OF THE HEART 1) Myocardial asthenia 2)Cardiac rupture 3)Valvular diseases 4)Cor Pulmonale 5)Endocarditis 6)Pericarditis
  57. 57. 1. MYOCARDIAL ASTHENIA  Weakness of the heart muscles ◦ Results from myocarditis and conditions which cause it. a)Infections  FMD, Black Quarter and infectious equine anemia, Naval ill and strangles Above, mottles necrotic lesions and Below, sudden death in calves . FMD
  58. 58. 1. MYOCARDIAL ASTHENIA CONT... FMD, Food & Mouth Disease: A contagious viral disease of cattle & sheep, causing ulceration of the hoofs & around the mouth. Black Quarter or Black leg: Is abacterial disease which usually observed in young cattle, & fatal caused by clostridium chauvoei. infectious equine anemia: Is a bloodborne viral disease transmitted primarily through insects particularly horse flies. Naval ill: Is a disease condition which are common in young lambs born& is more common during poor weather. strangles: Is a highly contagious bacterial disease, its characterized by swelling of lymph nodes& formation of abscesses in the in the head & neck
  59. 59. 1. MYOCARDIAL ASTHENIA b) Parasites  by migrating larvae of Strongylus vulgaris c) Degenerative lesions ◦ Myocardial dystrophy due to Vitamin E deficiency in calves ◦ Severe Copper deficiency in cattle ◦ Piglet anemia due to Iron deficiency ◦ Cases of Selenium,  Myocardial lesions due to Stronglylus vulgaris
  60. 60. 1. MYOCARDIAL ASTHENIA d) Other conditions ◦ Oesinophilic myositis in dogs. ◦ Myocardial infarction due to occlusion of coronary arteries in horses ◦ Tumours of the heart reported in dogs. May be primary or metastatic ◦ Ossification of the right atrium. Occurs in horses as a result of T.B infection in horses. ◦ Lymphomatosis. Clinical manifestation  In primary stages there is decreased exercise tolerance  Increased heart rate.  In later stages there may be sudden death due to cardiac syncope  Signs of congestive heart failure e.g. Generalized oedema.  Cardiac enlargement.
  61. 61. 1. MYOCARDIAL ASTHENIA CONT.. Other Conditions which cause it…. Oessiophilic myositis in dog: Is a disease condition which affected immune system of the dogs,& attack the special muscle protein. That is present in these muscles. Myocardial infarction: myocardial infarction(MI) Commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to the coronary artery of the heart causing damage to the heart. Occlusion of coronary arteries: Is a condition when one or more of the coronary arteries suddenly completely blocked, a heart attack ( injury to the heart muscle). Lymphomatosis: is the presence of multiple lymphomas in the body of animal specifically lymphoid nods. cardiac syncope: Is a brief loss of consciousness ( from few seconds to few minutes. Its caused by decreased blood flow to the brain.
  62. 62. 1. MYOCARDIAL ASTHENIA Differential Diagnosis  Endocardial lesions or congenital cardiac defects.  Pericarditis  Myocardial lesions  Hydro pericardium Its go with by muffling of heart sounds.  Certain lesions of the thoracic cavity may cause congestive heart failure and displacement of the heart e.g. lesions like abscesses, tumors and diaphragmatic hernia. Treatment  Treat primary cause if identified  Try supportive and symptomatic treatment to reduce congestive heart failure.
  63. 63. 2. CARDIAC RUPTURE May be due to  Sharp objects enter the reticulum, diaphragm pericardium in to the heart  In horses due to verminous arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris  In pigs rupture of the aorta has been recorded in copper deficiency  In foals where there is difficult parturition, pericardium may rupture causing cardiac tamponade leading to acute heart failure  In Cardiac rupture the pericardial sac fills with blood and animal dies of acute heart failure.
  64. 64. CARDIAC RUPTURE CONT… Reticulum: is the second stomach of a ruminants. Diaphragm: located below the lungs, is the major muscle of respiration. Difficult parturition: difficult birth. cardiac tamponade:
  65. 65. 3. VALVULAR DISEASES  Interfere with blood flow through cardiac orifices Etiology  Acute or chronic endocarditis  Laceration or detachment of valves during severe exercise in calves  Fenestration of aortic and pulmonary in young and new borne foals  Excessive cardiac dilatation results in to dilatation of valvular orifices.
  66. 66. 3. VALVULAR DISEASES CONT… Endocarditis: is a condition in which the tissues lining the inside of the heart& the heart valves become inflamed ( red& swollen). Pleuritic rubs; is a breath sound heard in dianosis of the lung. Pericardial rubs: audible medical sigh used in the diagnosis of pericarditis. Pericarditis: is inflammation of the pericardium.
  67. 67. 3. VALVULAR DISEASE Clinical signs - include moderate cardiac dilatation, valvular insufficiency, and stenosis and blocked blood flow. Diagnosis  Clinical diagnosis depends on detection of a cardiac murmur of endocardial origin  Valvular murmurs.
  68. 68. 3. VALVULAR DISEASE Differential Diagnosis ◦ Pleuritic rubs ◦ Pericardial rubs ◦ Murmurs caused by congenital defects are usually very loud and do not replace the normal heart sounds and can be heard in specific sites. Treatment ◦ No specific treatment ◦ Treat for myocarditis and endocarditis ◦ Reduce congestive heart failure
  69. 69. 4. COR PULMONALE  Heart disease associated with the lungs  Results from increase in workload secondary to increased vascular resistance and pulmonary hypertension Etiology  Alveolar hypoxia reported in cattle and it is suspected to be genetic.  Pulmonary hypertension .
  70. 70. 4. COR PULMONALE Cor pulmonale: is defined as alteration in the structure & function of the right ventricle (RV) Of the heart caused by a primary disorder of the respiratory system. That why the disease... vascular resistance: is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow. Hypoxia: hypoxia is deficiency in amount of oxygen reaching the tissues. Pulmonary vascular bed: describes the blood vessels of the lungs. A thrombi and emboli of pulmonary vessels: A thrombi is a blood clot that forms in a vein. Emboli is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in the lung. Emphysema: A condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged causing breathlessness,
  71. 71. 4. COR PULMONALE Etiology cont’d  With persistent hypoxia , This mechanism may produce a right heart failure in cattle living in high altitude resulting in a syndrome known as Brisket disease  Pulmonary hypertension can also result from partial destruction of the pulmonary vascular bed  A thrombi and emboli of  Chronic pneumonia and emphysema Treatment  Move to where there is oxygen
  72. 72. 5. ENDOCARDITIS May interfere with blood flow from the heart by causing STENOSIS or insufficiency of the heart valves Etiology Bacterial infection e.g.  α- hemolytic streptococci  Corynebacterium pyogenes  Infection usually results from suppurative lesions in form of an embolus from other parts of the body .  Seen also in metritis and mastitis.  In horses-Actinobacillus equi, Streptococci equi  In lambs –Streptococci spp ,E.coli
  73. 73. 5. ENDOCARDITIS Cont… Endocarditis: is a condition in which the tissues lining the inside of the heart& the heart valves become inflamed ( red& swollen). Stenosis: mean narrowing. Embolus: objects/ anything moves through the blood vessels until it reaches a vessel that is too small to let it pass. Metritis: is defined as inflammation of the uterus. Mastitis: is defined as inflammation of the udder. Lymphomatosis: the presence of multiple lymphomals in the body specifically: lymphoid leukosis.
  74. 74. 5. ENDOCARDITIS Pathogenesis  Endocarditis may be mural or valvular , ulcerative or vegetative.  It may develop and interfere with normal passage of blood through the cardiac orifices resulting in congestive heart failure.  Vegetative lesions may become detached and cause embolic endocarditis with production of abscesses in organs  At this stage interference with blood flow is severe Clinical findings  Moderate fever due to bacterial infection.  Secondary involvement with, embolic pneumonia, myocarditis .  There is usually loss of condition  Increase in heart rate
  75. 75. 5. ENDOCARDITIS Clinical signs cont’d  Cardiac murmur  In acute cases , hematological examination shows a marked leukocytosis .This is indicative of severe anaemia.  In chronic cases no abnormality will be shown  Culture organisms from blood particularly at peak fevers  At necropsy direct valvular smears can be made. Differential Diagnosis  Lymphomatosis  Tumour growth in the endocardium. Animal does not respond to Treatment like in bacterial endocarditis. Treatment  Broad spectrum antibiotics e.g. penstrep  If lesion are so extensive they may not treatment because drug does not reach them. 
  76. 76. 6. PERICARDITIS  Inflammatory fluid accumulates in the heart sac or the exudates organizes to form restrictive adhesions and is followed by congestive heart failure.
  77. 77. 6. PERICARDITIS Etiology  In cattle common cause is -Penetration of the pericardium by an infected foreign body from the reticulum -Infections like Pasteurellosis and tuberculosis  In horses it follows by a blood born infection e.g in strangles or tuberculosis  In sheep pasteurella  In pigs pasteurella, salmonella, streptococci and glassers disease Pathogenesis In early stages • There is hyperhemia, • Formation of adhensions Treatment consists of anti- inflammatories. Most cases are mild and usually improve on their own. Treatment for more severe cases may include medication & rarely surgery.
  78. 78. 6. PERICARDITIS Pericarditis: is inflammation of the pericardium. Pasteurellosis: is a zoonotic disease its caused by infection with bacteria of the Pasteurella genu. Glasser disease in pig: an infectious disease of pig, often acute caused by bacteria. Hyperemia: is an increased amount of blood in the vessels of an organ or tissue in the body. It can affect many different organs, including…
  79. 79. 7. CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES a) Ectopia cordis, heart outside the thoracic cavity b) Ventricular sceptal defect c) Teratology of fallot d)Patent foramen ovale e) Patent ductus arteriosus f) Coarctation of the aorta Persistent right aortic arch Seen in dogs.  Characterized by vomiting after taking food.  Aorta passes to the right of the oesophagus and pulmonary artery and yet ligamentum arteriosus remains. The ligamentum arteriosus will press on the oesophagus which is caught in a ring and therefore food cant go far thus vomiting. Diagnosis  -vomiting of un digested food  -palpate the dilated oesophagus  -radiography with barium Treatment  -correct surgically by cutting the ligamentum arteriosus