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SfAA2016 Extended RQI Presentation

  1. 1. Rapid Qualitative Inquiry (RQI): A Tool for Facilitating Team-based Cross-cultural Intersections of Peoples and Ideas James Beebe Portland State University and the Center for Rapid Qualitative Inquiry WEDNESDAY 8:00-11:50
  2. 2.  Second Edition published October 2014.  Can be ordered from Rowman and Littlefield or from  The Rowman and Littlefield web site includes prepublication reviews and other updates.  Link to the Rowman and Littlefield website  http://rapidqualitativeinqu
  3. 3. The Second Edition  The RAP/RQI approach is a tool in the practitioner’s kit, and this book is an excellent introduction to the perspective and approach. It also provides an easily accessible introduction to students in methods classes because it is possible to conduct one or more complete studies through the course of a semester-long class. The book is to be recommended. Writing is described as clear and straightforward. Makes explicit use of systems thinking and reflects sophisticated research in socioecology, and Ecosystems. — Qualitative Health Research
  4. 4. The Second Edition  Beebe’s Rapid Qualitative Inquiry is a timely addition to the contemporary applied anthropologist’s skillset and toolbox. This book is a must read for interdisciplinary teams conducting timely and responsible research that seeks to identify and solve real-world problems in the twenty-first century.— Guillermina Gina Núñez-Mchiri, University of Texas at El Paso  In addition to the ample discussion of how to do this kind of research—including extensive examples of real researchers using RAP/RQI— Beebe delves into the why issues in a way that I have rarely seen. — Juliana McDonald, University of Kentucky
  5. 5. Definition RQI is a team-based, applied research approach that (a) focuses on getting the insider’s or emic perspective, (b) uses multiple sources and triangulation, and (c) uses iterative data analysis and additional data collection to quickly, usually in less than several weeks, develop a preliminary understanding of a situation.
  6. 6. Definitions of rap (as in rap music) that apply to RQI To talk freely and frankly. To communicate with participants using their vocabulary and rhythm.
  7. 7. CONTEXT: RQI, RAP, Mini-RAP, and Related Approaches  RQI-Newest generation rapid qualitative research.  RAP-Rapid Assessment Process, qualitative research methodology, direct parent of RQI, (see Beebe 2001) but with significant differences.  Mini-RAP- Educational activity for learning RQI and qualitative research. NOT a research methodology or approach.
  8. 8. CONTEXT: RQI, RAP, Mini-RAP, and Related Approaches  Other related research methodologies and approaches- sharing many, but not all, of the characteristics of RQI. Rapid Assessment Procedures, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Rural Appraisal, Rapid Rural Appraisal, Rapid Appraisal, Rapid Ethnography, and others.
  9. 9. RQI and RAP  The shift from calling the approach Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) to calling it Rapid Qualitative Inquiry (RQI) reflects both a reconceptualization and refinement of the earlier perspective based on extensive use by users, reflection on what is unique about the approach, and advances in the field of qualitative research.
  10. 10. RQI, Second Edition, and RAP  A new chapter covers the use of technology that can dramatically speed up and enhance rapid research processes  The “Additional Readings” at the end of each chapter and the “Essential RQI/RAP Library” at the end of the “Introduction” are such that the second edition could be a core reading in an applied research methods course drawing in additional resources to elaborate specific methods.” –Qualitative Health Research (2016)  Significant expansion of the chapter on the RQI family tree to provide context.  A final chapter organized around key points relating to rigor and some thoughts about the future of RQI.
  11. 11. When Rapid Qualitative Inquiry is Most Appropriate Where issues are not yet well defined. Where there is not sufficient time or other resources for long-term, traditional qualitative research.
  12. 12. RQI can be used • To make preliminary decisions about interventions or changes. • To make decisions about additional research. • For monitoring and evaluation. • To investigate intersectionality. • In qualitative research classes to develop expertise and skills.
  13. 13. RQI and Intersectionality  RQI can facilitate exploring cross-cultural intersectionality of peoples and ideas by (a) identifying the different categories that are used to define the intersectionality and (b) making individuals aware of the vocabulary they are using and the meaning associated with different words.
  14. 14. RQI and Intersectionality  RQI could be relevant to exploring the different categories that an individual uses to define their identity and the “emic” meaning the individual associates with the options in a category.
  15. 15. Rapid Qualitative Inquiry and Qualitative Research Is Qualitative Research. Shares many of the characteristics of case study and ethnography.
  16. 16. Is Based on a Broad Understanding of Qualitative Research As noted in a recent review in Qualitative Health Research(2016) RQI draws out and navigates the many conflicting perspectives on qualitative research and identifies the implications of these perspectives for RQI. The RQI is described as “more a research design” than an approach to “methods.”
  17. 17. Differs from traditional qualitative research INSTEAD OF LONG-TERM FIELDWORK Uses teams of 2 to 5 individuals with different discipline backgrounds. When appropriate, includes insiders on the team. Uses intensive, team interaction. Explicitly divides time between data collection and data review/ analysis before additional data collection.
  18. 18. RQI cannot be done by one person.
  19. 19. The objective of RQI is to develop understanding as opposed to finding a single truth.
  20. 20. Emic and Etic The goal is to understand the categories the local people use for dividing up their reality and identifying the terms they use for their categories. The categories used by the local people are referred to as “emic.” The categories used by outsiders including researchers who are not insiders, are “etic” categories. Examples: colors, land “ownership,” soils.
  21. 21. Emic and Etic Qualitative research such as RQI can improve quantitative research by identifying the categories used by the insiders.
  22. 22. Qualitative Research including RQI Should not be used for estimating numbers or percents. Quantitative research is the appropriate research methodology when numbers or percents are needed
  23. 23. Results can be produced in • as few as about five days, • but usually requires several weeks. • Longer time in the field usually produces better results.
  24. 24. Stories NOT Answers The goal is to get the insiders to tell their stories and NOT answer the questions of the outsiders.
  25. 25. Semi-structured Interviews Relaxed, semi-structured interviewing that provides respondents with time to think can elicit stories.
  26. 26. Stories Should be Collected from a Purposeful Sample. This often Requires Seeking Out: • the poorer, • less articulate, • more upset, and • those least like the members of the RQI team.
  27. 27. Teamwork RQI is based on Interdisciplinary team interaction throughout the research, from question formulation, to research, analysis, and write-up.
  28. 28. Teamwork The success of RQI depends upon the quality of the teamwork.
  29. 29. Intensive teamwork Intensive teamwork for both the data collection and analysis is an alternative to prolonged fieldwork.
  30. 30. Team interviewing RQI uses group discussion involving all members of the team and the local participants (team interviewing), NOT sequential interviewing by individual members of the team.
  31. 31. Technology to Improve Quality and Speed  Transcribing software  Social media  Analysis software  File collaboration  Document capture  Video SMART PHONES
  32. 32. Successful RQI Members of the RQI team need to recognize: • They don’t know enough to ask questions, • They don’t know enough to provide the answers, but • They do know enough to want to empower others to solve their own problems.
  33. 33. Practice Group Discussion/Interview  Possible topic: What is the biggest threat to the quality of higher education?  NOTE: This is NOT research, but is an educational tool.
  34. 34. Iterative Analysis and Additional Data Collection Time is divided between • blocks used for collecting information and • blocks when the team does data analysis and considers changes in the next round of data collection.
  35. 35. Analysis Analysis begins with the first round of data collection. Analysis involves: • Coding the data, • Displaying relationships in the data, and • Drawing conclusions.
  36. 36. Practice Mini-RAP  A Mini-RAP is not a research methodology. It is a way to learn to do Qualitative Research and RQI.  Groups of 4 or 5 persons.  Topic: What would be necessary to improve gender equity in your organizations.  Most Mini-Raps are based on two 15 minute interviews, but this can be expanded.
  37. 37. Practice Mini-RAP  One member of the group will be the person interviewed during the first interview.  A second member of the group will be the person interviewed during the second interview.  The other members of the group will be the research team
  38. 38. Practice Mini-RAP  The interview team prepares for the interview by identifying a list of topics (often confused with a list of research questions, but should not be in the form of questions).  Importance of getting stories and not answers to questions.
  39. 39. Practice Mini-RAP  Round one. Minimum of 15 minutes.  STAY RELAXED!  Keep up with time.  TAKE NOTES. Normally would use a voice recorder-maybe smart phone.
  40. 40. Practice Mini-RAP  After the first round. Entire team meets to discuss: (a) what needs to be changed in the way interview was conducted (speed, interaction between members of the team, leading the witness, focus on getting stories). (b) what was learned in the interview, how does this influence what is asked in the second round. (c) what might be some tentative preliminary conclusions.
  41. 41. Practice Mini-RAP  Round two: Different person is interviewed Builds on lessons learned in round one.
  42. 42. Practice Mini-RAP  After the second round, the team reviews lessons learned and continues to work on identifying possible conclusion.  May decide qualitative research is not appropriate for the type of questions being investigated.  Entire team working together produces the report.
  43. 43. Mini-RAP vs RQI  RQI is the research approach.  Mini-RAP is one way to learn qualitative research or RQI.  RQI requires multiple long interviews over many days.  Mini-RAP is based on two short interviews.  RQI implemented with rigor can make significant contributions to understand an issues.
  44. 44. Use of RQI in Qualitative Research Courses  Review of the Second Edition in Qualitative Health Research (2016) noted that this book could be a core reading in an applied research methods course and provides an easily accessible introduction to students in methods classes because it is possible to conduct one or more complete studies through the course of a semester-long class.  The Second Edition includes instruction on the use of RQI in research classes.
  45. 45. Ethical Issue: Bogus Empowerment In addition to the ethical issues associated with qualitative research  RQI encourages people to falsely believe that their input will be acted upon.  The RQI team needs to keep their promises and make promises that they can keep.  The RQI team needs to avoid the temptation of engaging in hyperbole about the democratic nature of the situation.
  46. 46. Examples of the Use of RQI (and very similar approaches)  Higher Education New Dean for Student Services—Revealed lack of agreement on who were the students and what were the services.  Proposal to convert agricultural cooperatives to for-profit organizations—Revealed tremendous variability with some successes and confusion by managers on difference between productivity and production.
  47. 47. Examples of the Use of RQI (and very similar approaches)  Labor as a constraint to increased agricultural production—Revealed many farmers close to urban centers spend increasing time off the farm and need innovations to part-time farmers.  Fish consumption in culturally distinct communities  Role of social science in the Pacific fishery management  Sustainability of a commercial fishing community in California
  48. 48. Published Examples of RQI SAMPLES FROM MORE THAN 165 PUBLISHED REPORTS  Retention of Fulani Muslim girls in school (Balde 2004)  Mobile learning to teach reading to 9th grade students (Brown, L 2008)  Exploring HIV/AIDS knowledge and behavior of university students in Botswana (Brown, M et al.2008)  Education and identity formation in Zimbabwe Mpondi 2004)
  49. 49. Published Examples of RQI  Youth, trash, and work in an African city (Thieme 2010)  Adult learning experience in a teacher certification program (Walsh et al. 2005)  Evidence-based nursing practice (Angus and O’Brien-Pallas 2003)  Computerized clinical decision support (Ash et al. 2013)
  50. 50. Published Examples of RQI  Sampling hard-to-reach youth on sexually transmitted diseases (Auerswald et al. 2004)  Home delivery in rural Ethiopia (Bedford et al. 2012)  Use of prenatal micronutrients supplements by working class Filipino women (Daack- Hirsch and Gamboa 2011)  Prescription opioid abuse in an urban setting (Inciardi et al. 2009)
  51. 51. Published Examples of RQI  HIV-infected patients in a clinical care setting (Morin et al. 2004)  Patient care using a panel approach (Neuwirth et al. 2007)  Rapid assessment of existing HIV prevention programs (Solomon et al. 2007)  Community interventions and AIDS (Trotter and Singer 2005)
  52. 52. Published Examples of RQI  Developing cross-cultural competency in the military (Caligiuri et al. 2011)  Perspectives on rehabilitation of patients with polytruma (Friedemann-Sanchez et al. 2008)  Rapid assessment and security sector reform (Last 2005)  Provider perspective on treating veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (Sayer 2009)
  53. 53. Published Examples of RQI  Rapid ethnographic assessment in the military (Schultz et al. 2009)  Evaluation of total force fitness programs in the military (Walter et al. 2010)  Improving the credibility of weather forecasts (Pennesi 2007)  The private press and democracy in Ethiopia (Bonsa 2003)
  54. 54. The major challenge Confusing rapid with rushed.
  55. 55. RQI/RAP is an idea whose time has come. ? Only if not oversold and only if implemented rigorously.
  56. 56. Additional Information  Visit the web site:  Contact me:  Facebook  Blog  Book Review, Qualitative Health Research 2016 1- 2, John Brett