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Basic Author Date (Harvard) Referencing

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A basic introduction to the rationale and practice of author/date a.k.a Harvard academic referencing

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Basic Author Date (Harvard) Referencing

  1. 1. Referencing: Author/date or “Harvard” 4 October 09
  2. 2. “ If I have seen a little further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants” Isaac Newton (letter to Robert Hooke, 5 February 1676) Poussin N (1658) Paysage avec Orion aveugle cherchant le soleil Metropolitan Museum of Art
  3. 3. “ If I have seen a little further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants” Isaac Newton (letter to Robert Hooke, 5 February 1676) Poussin N (1658) Paysage avec Orion aveugle cherchant le soleil Metropolitan Museum of Art Yes, this needs to be referenced too…
  4. 4. <ul><li>So instead of an uncontroversial canter through the research literature and its relevance for the post-compulsory sector, I have deliberately decided to provoke argument and perhaps even opposition in the hope of engaging readers in the main issues. 2 …… </li></ul>2. I learned this from Karl Popper who, in his autobiography, wrote of ‘my custom, whenever I am invited to speak in some place, of trying to develop some consequences of my views which I expect to be unacceptable to the particular audience. For I believe that there is only one excuse for a lecture: to challenge. It is the only way in which speech can be better than print’. [Popper K Unended Quest. Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1976, p.124]
  5. 5. That quotation was from; <ul><li>Coffield F (2008) Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... London; Learning and Skills Network </li></ul><ul><li>Or, in the text itself— </li></ul><ul><li>(Coffield, 2008) </li></ul>
  6. 6. That quotation was from; <ul><li>Coffield F (2008) Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... London; Learning and Skills Network </li></ul><ul><li>Or, in the text itself— </li></ul><ul><li>(Coffield, 2008) </li></ul>The structure of the flag is where the system gets its name from; Author/Date (Also known outside the US as the “Harvard system” – but no formal connection with Harvard University)
  7. 7. <ul><li>This is not the place to explore all the unintended consequences of such a funding mechanism, but among them is certainly the rise of a risk-averse approach to management, with ever closer control being exercised over staff roles and teaching practices (Coffield, 2008). At the micro-level of the classroom, this is reinforced by the technology …. </li></ul><ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>Boud D and Feletti G (1998) The Challenge of Problem-based Learning (2nd edn.) London; Kogan Page </li></ul><ul><li>Coffield F (2008) Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority… London; Learning and Skills Network </li></ul><ul><li>DfES (2004) Equipping our teachers for the future: Reforming initial teacher training for the learning and skills sector London; Department for Education and Skills. Available to download from http://www.lluk.org/3009.htm (accessed 8 September 2008) … </li></ul>The “flag” in the text; Author’s surname and date The full reference at the end Hadfield P and Atherton J (2008) “Beyond compliance: accountability, assessment and anxiety, and curricular structures to help students engage with troublesome knowledge” in C Rust (ed.) Improving Student Learning; through the curriculum Oxford; Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development 2009 pp 158-170
  8. 8. <ul><li>Coffield, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Not “Frank Coffield” or “Prof. Coffield” </li></ul><ul><li>Hadfield and Atherton, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Not “Peter and James, 2008” </li></ul><ul><li>But “Zander, et al. 2008” </li></ul><ul><li>Not “Zander, Boustedt, Eckerdal, McCartney, Mostrom, Ratcliffe and Sanders (2008)” </li></ul><ul><li>If you are using a direct quotation then you need to specify the page number(s), too. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The full citation <ul><li>Coffield F </li></ul><ul><li>(2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... </li></ul><ul><li>London; </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Skills Network </li></ul>Separated onto different lines for clarity here; in practice on normal lines. All the authors, with initials (conventions about punctuation vary, chiefly so journal editors can prevent authors from submitting exactly the same manuscript to several journals)
  10. 10. The full citation <ul><li>Coffield F </li></ul><ul><li>(2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... </li></ul><ul><li>London; </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Skills Network </li></ul><ul><li>The date is important. </li></ul><ul><li>it appears in the flag so helps locate this text in the bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>it differentiates between several writings by this author </li></ul>
  11. 11. The full citation <ul><li>Coffield F </li></ul><ul><li>(2008a) </li></ul><ul><li>Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... </li></ul><ul><li>London; </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Skills Network </li></ul>If you refer to several items from the same author in the same year, identify them (both in the flag and the citation) as “a”, “b”…
  12. 12. The full citation <ul><li>Coffield F </li></ul><ul><li>(2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... </li></ul><ul><li>London; </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Skills Network </li></ul>The title! But it’s not that simple. We’ll come back to that
  13. 13. The full citation <ul><li>Coffield F </li></ul><ul><li>(2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... </li></ul><ul><li>London; </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Skills Network </li></ul>Place of publication. Why? Because there may be different editions with subtle variations in spelling, local examples, currency, pagination, etc.
  14. 14. The full citation <ul><li>Coffield F </li></ul><ul><li>(2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... </li></ul><ul><li>London; </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Skills Network </li></ul>Publisher, at that location, although…
  15. 15. The full citation <ul><li>Coffield F </li></ul><ul><li>(2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... </li></ul><ul><li>London; </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Skills Network </li></ul><ul><li>(available; https://crm.lsnlearning.org.uk/user/order.aspx?code=080052&src=XOWEB accessed 3 October 09) </li></ul>In this case, it is also a free download from the web, so show that, including the date you checked its availability
  16. 16. The full citation <ul><li>Coffield F </li></ul><ul><li>(2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... </li></ul><ul><li>London; </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Skills Network </li></ul>That’s fine for a simple book, but…
  17. 17. <ul><li>Proper academic stuff is more complicated than that, especially; </li></ul><ul><li>Individual papers in edited collections </li></ul><ul><li>Articles in journals </li></ul><ul><li>The net </li></ul>
  18. 18. The full citation <ul><li>Coffield F </li></ul><ul><li>(2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority... </li></ul><ul><li>London; </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Skills Network </li></ul>The title! But it’s not that simple. We’ll come back to that <ul><li>OK, but the title of what ? </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever will help you </li></ul><ul><li>Find a volume on a shelf </li></ul><ul><li>Find a paper in a volume </li></ul>
  19. 19. Paper in a collection… <ul><li>Hadfield P and Atherton J (2008) “Beyond compliance: accountability, assessment and anxiety, and curricular structures to help students engage with troublesome knowledge” in C Rust (ed.) Improving Student Learning; through the curriculum Oxford; Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development 2009 pp 158-170 </li></ul>This is the volume you can find in the library catalogue or on the shelf. It’s conventionally in italics or underlined .
  20. 20. Paper in a collection… <ul><li>Hadfield P and Atherton J (2008) “Beyond compliance: accountability, assessment and anxiety, and curricular structures to help students engage with troublesome knowledge” in C Rust (ed.) Improving Student Learning; through the curriculum Oxford; Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development 2009 pp 158-170 </li></ul>This is the article you would look for inside the volume; conventionally the title is in quotation marks.
  21. 21. Article in a journal… <ul><li>Kinchin I and Hay D (2005) “Using concept maps to optimize the composition of collaborative student groups: A pilot study” Journal of Advanced Nursing 51 (2) July pp. 182-187 </li></ul>This is the volume you can find in the library catalogue or on the shelf. It’s conventionally in italics or underlined .
  22. 22. Article in a journal… <ul><li>Kinchin I and Hay D (2005) “Using concept maps to optimize the composition of collaborative student groups: A pilot study” Journal of Advanced Nursing 51 (2) July pp. 182-187 </li></ul>This is the article you would look for inside the volume; conventionally the title is in quotation marks.
  23. 23. Article in a journal… <ul><li>Kinchin I and Hay D (2005) “Using concept maps to optimize the composition of collaborative student groups: A pilot study” Journal of Advanced Nursing 51 (2) July pp. 182-187 </li></ul>The standards for citing volumes and editions are highly inconsistent and a nightmare. Which is OK because they don’t matter much in practice.
  24. 24. It’s in the Handbook! Appendix 2 And on-line at ATHERTON J S (2008) Doceo; Assignment Presentation Guidelines [On-line] UK: Available: h ttp://www.doceo.co.uk/academic/assignment_presentation.htm   Accessed: 3 October 2009

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