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University of Duhok
College of Engineering
Civil Department
Fluid Mechanics – Practical
Fluid Laboratory
A Report About :
Impact of Jet
Student Name : Jameel Masoud Jameel
Class : B
Date of Experimental : 27 / 4 / 2018
Date of Submitting : 10 / 5 / 2018
Experiment No. : 4
Procedures :
1) Make sure that jet Apparatus is leveled, note the Jockey Weight,
Diameter of Nozzle, Height between Nozzle and plate and any
note that required for calculation.
2) Put the flat surface to the jet instrument to make a flat surface
against water jet.
3) Open the water valve and let the water to move throgh nozzle,
move the jockey weight at a specific point,note it and level the
ruler line by using the water speed (valve open) until the ruler line
balanced as a horiznotal line.
4) For each times for changing the position of jockey weight note
the volume and time of amont of water To determine the dicharge
(Q).
5) Then by repeating the procedure just changing the position of
jockey weight on the ruler.
6) Then repeat the procedure with changing the flat surface to
hemispherical surface to calculate the force acting onn the surface
(plate).
Calculations and Results :
Note : ( 𝐃) = 𝟏𝟎𝐦𝐦 , 𝐒 = 𝟑𝟓𝐦𝐦 , 𝐋 = 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝐜𝐦 , 𝐌 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝐤𝐠
A)For Flat Surface :
Example: If Volume = 5 lt . Time = 25.14 sec . y = 0.01m
-The Jet Force can be calculated using the following formula :
Q =
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒
=
5
1000⁄
25.14
= 0.0001989 𝑚3
/𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 =
𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎
=
0.0001989
𝜋
4
×(0.01)2
= 2.534 𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐
V𝑖𝑛 = √ 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡
2
− 2 × 𝑔 × 𝑆 = √2.5342 − 2 × 𝑔 × 0.035 = 2.866 𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝐹𝑡ℎ = 𝜌 × 𝑄 × 𝑉𝑖𝑛 = 1000 × 0.0001989 × 2.866 = 0.570 𝑁
𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡 = 4 × 𝑔 × 𝑦 = 4 × 𝑔 × 0.01 = 0.392 𝑁
Details Table :
Volume (L) Time (sec) Y (m) Q (m3
/sec) Vout (m/s) Vin (m/s) Fact (N) Fth (N)
5.000 25.140 0.010 0.0001989 2.534 2.866 0.392 0.570
5.000 16.460 0.020 0.0003038 3.870 7.144 0.785 2.170
5.000 13.520 0.030 0.0003698 4.711 10.754 1.177 3.977
5.000 11.380 0.050 0.0004394 5.597 15.320 1.962 6.731
5.000 9.540 0.070 0.0005241 6.677 21.945 2.747 11.501
y = 0.2186x + 0.322
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0
ActualForce(N)
Theory Force (N)
Relationship Between Actual and theory force
B) For Hemispherical Surface :
Example: If Volume = 5 lt . Time = 26.53 sec . y = 0.02m
-The Jet Force can be calculated using the following formula :
Q =
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒
=
5
1000⁄
26.53
= 0.0001885 𝑚3
/𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 =
𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎
=
0.0001885
𝜋
4
×(0.01)2
= 2.401 𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐
V𝑖𝑛 = √ 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡
2
− 2 × 𝑔 × 𝑆 = √2.4012 − 2 × 𝑔 × 0.035 = 2.539 𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝐹𝑡ℎ = 2 × 𝜌 × 𝑄 × 𝑉𝑖𝑛 = 2 × 1000 × 0.0001885 × 2.539 = 0.975 𝑁
𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡 = 4 × 𝑔 × 𝑦 = 4 × 𝑔 × 0.02 = 0.785 𝑁
Details Table :
Volume (L) Time (sec) Y (m) Q(m3
/sec) Vout (m/s) Vin (m/s) Fact (N) Fth (N)
5.000 26.530 0.020 0.0001885 2.401 2.539 0.785 0.957
5.000 15.150 0.050 0.0003300 4.204 8.494 1.962 2.803
5.000 12.400 0.080 0.0004032 5.137 12.849 3.139 5.181
5.000 10.700 0.100 0.0004673 5.953 17.374 3.924 8.119
5.000 10.070 0.120 0.0004965 6.325 19.660 4.709 9.762
y = 0.447x + 0.5846
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0
ActualForce(N)
Theoty Force (N)
Relationship Between Actual and theory force
Discussion and Conclusion :
In this test we determine the force acting on the surface by an fluid jet
and making the ratio between the actual and theoretical Force, finally we
got a result after doing all procedure accurate which is the force in the
flat and hemispherical surface, as shown in our result that force acting
on the hemispherical surface is larger than that on flat surface with same
amount of water, with increasing water the jet of water at nozzle will be
increase and make a large force on the plate (Surface) and we found the
linear equation of Actual and theoretical force.
In conclusion the purpose of this test is to determine the actual and
theoretical force on the two difference surface and compare actually with
theory, and compute the equation between it. Finally, we know that how
test was doing and how to compute the actual force using a nozzle.

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Impact Of Jet | Jameel Academy

  • 1. University of Duhok College of Engineering Civil Department Fluid Mechanics – Practical Fluid Laboratory A Report About : Impact of Jet Student Name : Jameel Masoud Jameel Class : B Date of Experimental : 27 / 4 / 2018 Date of Submitting : 10 / 5 / 2018 Experiment No. : 4
  • 2. Procedures : 1) Make sure that jet Apparatus is leveled, note the Jockey Weight, Diameter of Nozzle, Height between Nozzle and plate and any note that required for calculation. 2) Put the flat surface to the jet instrument to make a flat surface against water jet. 3) Open the water valve and let the water to move throgh nozzle, move the jockey weight at a specific point,note it and level the ruler line by using the water speed (valve open) until the ruler line balanced as a horiznotal line. 4) For each times for changing the position of jockey weight note the volume and time of amont of water To determine the dicharge (Q). 5) Then by repeating the procedure just changing the position of jockey weight on the ruler. 6) Then repeat the procedure with changing the flat surface to hemispherical surface to calculate the force acting onn the surface (plate).
  • 3. Calculations and Results : Note : ( 𝐃) = 𝟏𝟎𝐦𝐦 , 𝐒 = 𝟑𝟓𝐦𝐦 , 𝐋 = 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝐜𝐦 , 𝐌 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝐤𝐠 A)For Flat Surface : Example: If Volume = 5 lt . Time = 25.14 sec . y = 0.01m -The Jet Force can be calculated using the following formula : Q = 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 = 5 1000⁄ 25.14 = 0.0001989 𝑚3 /𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 0.0001989 𝜋 4 ×(0.01)2 = 2.534 𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐 V𝑖𝑛 = √ 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 2 − 2 × 𝑔 × 𝑆 = √2.5342 − 2 × 𝑔 × 0.035 = 2.866 𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝐹𝑡ℎ = 𝜌 × 𝑄 × 𝑉𝑖𝑛 = 1000 × 0.0001989 × 2.866 = 0.570 𝑁 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡 = 4 × 𝑔 × 𝑦 = 4 × 𝑔 × 0.01 = 0.392 𝑁 Details Table : Volume (L) Time (sec) Y (m) Q (m3 /sec) Vout (m/s) Vin (m/s) Fact (N) Fth (N) 5.000 25.140 0.010 0.0001989 2.534 2.866 0.392 0.570 5.000 16.460 0.020 0.0003038 3.870 7.144 0.785 2.170 5.000 13.520 0.030 0.0003698 4.711 10.754 1.177 3.977 5.000 11.380 0.050 0.0004394 5.597 15.320 1.962 6.731 5.000 9.540 0.070 0.0005241 6.677 21.945 2.747 11.501 y = 0.2186x + 0.322 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 ActualForce(N) Theory Force (N) Relationship Between Actual and theory force
  • 4. B) For Hemispherical Surface : Example: If Volume = 5 lt . Time = 26.53 sec . y = 0.02m -The Jet Force can be calculated using the following formula : Q = 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 = 5 1000⁄ 26.53 = 0.0001885 𝑚3 /𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 0.0001885 𝜋 4 ×(0.01)2 = 2.401 𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐 V𝑖𝑛 = √ 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 2 − 2 × 𝑔 × 𝑆 = √2.4012 − 2 × 𝑔 × 0.035 = 2.539 𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝐹𝑡ℎ = 2 × 𝜌 × 𝑄 × 𝑉𝑖𝑛 = 2 × 1000 × 0.0001885 × 2.539 = 0.975 𝑁 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡 = 4 × 𝑔 × 𝑦 = 4 × 𝑔 × 0.02 = 0.785 𝑁 Details Table : Volume (L) Time (sec) Y (m) Q(m3 /sec) Vout (m/s) Vin (m/s) Fact (N) Fth (N) 5.000 26.530 0.020 0.0001885 2.401 2.539 0.785 0.957 5.000 15.150 0.050 0.0003300 4.204 8.494 1.962 2.803 5.000 12.400 0.080 0.0004032 5.137 12.849 3.139 5.181 5.000 10.700 0.100 0.0004673 5.953 17.374 3.924 8.119 5.000 10.070 0.120 0.0004965 6.325 19.660 4.709 9.762 y = 0.447x + 0.5846 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 ActualForce(N) Theoty Force (N) Relationship Between Actual and theory force
  • 5. Discussion and Conclusion : In this test we determine the force acting on the surface by an fluid jet and making the ratio between the actual and theoretical Force, finally we got a result after doing all procedure accurate which is the force in the flat and hemispherical surface, as shown in our result that force acting on the hemispherical surface is larger than that on flat surface with same amount of water, with increasing water the jet of water at nozzle will be increase and make a large force on the plate (Surface) and we found the linear equation of Actual and theoretical force. In conclusion the purpose of this test is to determine the actual and theoretical force on the two difference surface and compare actually with theory, and compute the equation between it. Finally, we know that how test was doing and how to compute the actual force using a nozzle.