SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 8
Download to read offline
University of Duhok
College of Engineering
Civil Department
Soil Mechanics – Practical
Soil Laboratory
A Report About :
Determination of Field Density using
Sand Cone Method
Submitted By : Jameel Masoud
Lab. No. : 2
Group Name : ----
Testing Date : 11 / 2 / 2019
Submitting Date : 26 / 2 / 2019
Supervised By : Hussein
2018 – 2019
Introduction
Sand cone method is used for the determination for the in-situ dry density of
compacted soils, gravels and crushed rock materials in earth works and
pavement layers by the sand replacement method using a sand pouring cone. Its
basic principle is to measure the in-sit volume of hole from which the material
was excavated from the weight of sand with known density filling in the hole
Purpose:
The purpose of this test is to determine the field unit weight to compare it with
lab unit weight (to determine relative density).
Supplies and materials:
1) Sand cone apparatus.
2) Balance sensitive to 1g.
3) Base plate.
4) Tools for excavating a hole in the ground.
5) Clean and uniform graded sand ranged from sieve no.20 to no.30 such as
Ottawa sand.
6) Standard compaction mold.
7) Plastic air-tight bag for carrying wet excavated soil from field.
8) Metal tray with hole in the center.
9) Oven with temperature kept at 105-110o
C.
Sketch:
Sand cone apparatus. Metal tray Sensitive Balance
Oven Dry Plastic air-tight bag
Ottawa sand. Standard compaction mold.
Test Procedure
Laboratory Work :
1) Measure the weight of proctor mold + base, W1
2) Pour the sand into the compacted mold, then, level the
surface “don’t compact the sand during leveling it”
3) Measure the weight of proctor mold + base + sand, W2
4) Mewasure the weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand, W3
5) Close the valve attached to the cone, then, turn the cone and
gallon upside down on the tray, then open valve after sand
flows from gallon to the cone stop the valve, then, measure
the weight of plastic gallon +cone +sand, W4 (after use)
6) Measure the weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand , W5
(Before use)
Field Work :
1) Place the metal tray and fasten the 4 screw.
2) Dig up a 10 to 15 cm deep hole.
3) As you are digging the hole put the excavated soil into
plastic bag to don’t lose the soil moisture.
4) Having the valve closed turn the gallon + cone upside down
and place the cone in the center of hole and open the valve
so that sand flows down to the hole.
5) After flow of sand stop close the valve and pick the
assembly up, the sand in the cone will be poured into the
tray. The sand will be left there in the field.
6) Measure the weight of gallon + cone + sand, W6
Calculations and Results :
Table of calculation :
Test Steps Quantity
Determination of sand unit weight
Weight of mold + base, W1 4350 g
Weight of mold + base + sand, W2 5600 g
Volume, V1 948 cm3
Dry density of sand, 𝛾 sand 1.318565
g
cm3⁄
Determination of weight of sand to fill jar, cone and base
Weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand (before use), W3 6211 g
Weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand (after use) , W4 4748 g
sand to fill cone, Ws 1463 g
Result from Field Test
Weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand (before use), W5 6190 g
Weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand (after use), W6 2623 g
Weight of soil Sample (comes from hole) , Wh 2602.5257 g
Volume hole, V2 1595.674 cm3
Weight of evaporation dish, W7 870.1 g
Weight of evaporation dish +wet soil in field, W8 1037.88 g
Weight of evaporation dish + dry soil, W9 1015.66 g
Total Soil unit weight 1.630989
g
cm3⁄
Field water content 𝜔 15.26518 %
Field Dry unit weight 1.414988
g
cm3⁄
Laboratory max. Dry unit weight 1.94699
g
cm3⁄
Relative density 72.67557 %
In details:
Dry density of sand =
W2−W1
V1
=
5600−4350
948
=1.318565
g
cm3⁄
Sand to fill the cone = W3 − W4 = 6211 − 4748 = 1463 g
Volume of hole =
W5−W6−Ws
γ sand
=
6190−2623−1463
1.318565
= 1595.674 cm3
Total soil unit weight =
Wh
V2
=
2602.53
1595.674
= 1.630989
g
cm3⁄
Field water content =
W8−W9
W9−W7
=
1037.88−1015.66
1016.66−870.1
= 15.27 %
Field Dry unit weight =
Total Soil unit weight
1+
ω
100
=
1.630989
1+0.1527
= 1.415
g
cm3⁄
Relative density =
1.415
1.947
× 100 = 72.68 %
Discussion and Conclusion :
In this test we determine the Field Dry unit weight and field moisture
content of a given Place, finally we get a result after doing all procedure
accurate which is ( γof dry soil = 1.4149
𝑔
𝑐𝑚3
, R.D = 72.676 % ),
according to standard and the laboratory compaction test we can
compare our sample’s max. density with Field density to know is the
field compaction reach the acceptable level of compaction or not. From
Relative density it shows that soil is not compacted properly (it depend
on the importance of project). this result shows us with increase Water
content to a limit, the dry density will be increased but if passed from
limited (OMC) it will decrease the density because the solid soil volume
will replace with water volume (density of water less than density of soil)
therefore it decreases the density (we made the soil moist to a degree to
get approximately max. unit weight). The errors that occur during the
test is the comparing of two different soil sample, because the soil that
we tested in laboratory is not same as of soil that we used on field
compaction and another one is the weight of soil sample because we
doesn’t weight the soil sample that excavated from hole. we know that
if we do the test on many sample and then get the average, the result will
be very accurately.
In conclusion the purpose of this test is to determine the Field unit weight
and compare it with the Laboratory max. unit weight, now we can
compare the field compaction with lab max. density which is 72%.
finally, we know how to determine the lab compaction and how to check
the field compaction by using the relative density.
Q) State the objective and principle of the sand cone?
A) The Objective of this test is to determine the field unit
weight to compare it with lab unit weight (to determine
relative density).
The principle of sand replacement method is to measure
the in-situ volume of hole from which the material was
excavated from the weight of sand with known density
filling in the hole.
Q)Why is it important not to lose any soil from the excavated hole
during the sand cone method?
A) It’s important because it affect the moist unit weight of
soil and will change the relative density.

More Related Content

What's hot

Unconfined Compression Test
Unconfined Compression TestUnconfined Compression Test
Unconfined Compression TestLove Sharma
 
Experiment no 03 setting time of cement.
Experiment no 03 setting time of cement.Experiment no 03 setting time of cement.
Experiment no 03 setting time of cement.Sayed Sajid H.Zidani
 
Permeability test
Permeability testPermeability test
Permeability testRaz Azad
 
Permeability Test of soil Using Constant and Falling Head Method
Permeability Test of soil Using Constant and Falling Head MethodPermeability Test of soil Using Constant and Falling Head Method
Permeability Test of soil Using Constant and Falling Head MethodJameel Academy
 
Making and curing concrete test specimens in the
Making and curing concrete test specimens in theMaking and curing concrete test specimens in the
Making and curing concrete test specimens in theFarrukh Khan
 
Standard Compaction Test | Jameel Academy
Standard Compaction Test | Jameel AcademyStandard Compaction Test | Jameel Academy
Standard Compaction Test | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Unconsolidated Undrained Test
Unconsolidated Undrained TestUnconsolidated Undrained Test
Unconsolidated Undrained TestPsyful Bappi
 
Lecture 7 stress distribution in soil
Lecture 7 stress distribution in soilLecture 7 stress distribution in soil
Lecture 7 stress distribution in soilDr.Abdulmannan Orabi
 
Density, (relative density) specific gravity & absorption of coarse aggre...
Density, (relative density) specific gravity & absorption of coarse aggre...Density, (relative density) specific gravity & absorption of coarse aggre...
Density, (relative density) specific gravity & absorption of coarse aggre...Muhammad Saleem
 
Sieve Analysis of Fine & Coarse Aggregate | Jameel Academy
Sieve Analysis of Fine & Coarse Aggregate | Jameel AcademySieve Analysis of Fine & Coarse Aggregate | Jameel Academy
Sieve Analysis of Fine & Coarse Aggregate | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Proktor compaction
Proktor compactionProktor compaction
Proktor compactionNatalie Ulza
 
Geotechnical Engineering-I [Lec #24: Soil Permeability - II]
Geotechnical Engineering-I [Lec #24: Soil Permeability - II]Geotechnical Engineering-I [Lec #24: Soil Permeability - II]
Geotechnical Engineering-I [Lec #24: Soil Permeability - II]Muhammad Irfan
 
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #3: Direct Shear Test)
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #3: Direct Shear Test)Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #3: Direct Shear Test)
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #3: Direct Shear Test)Muhammad Irfan
 
Problems on bearing capacity of soil
Problems on bearing capacity of soilProblems on bearing capacity of soil
Problems on bearing capacity of soilLatif Hyder Wadho
 
Proctor compaction test
Proctor compaction testProctor compaction test
Proctor compaction testFaizan Tanoli
 
Lecture 8 consolidation and compressibility
Lecture 8  consolidation and compressibilityLecture 8  consolidation and compressibility
Lecture 8 consolidation and compressibilityDr.Abdulmannan Orabi
 
Shrinkage Limit Test
Shrinkage Limit TestShrinkage Limit Test
Shrinkage Limit TestSOURABH PAL
 
Examples on total consolidation
Examples on total  consolidationExamples on total  consolidation
Examples on total consolidationMalika khalil
 
Bulk Density & Voids in Aggregate | Jameel Academy
Bulk Density & Voids in Aggregate | Jameel AcademyBulk Density & Voids in Aggregate | Jameel Academy
Bulk Density & Voids in Aggregate | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
DIRECT SHEAR TEST
DIRECT SHEAR TESTDIRECT SHEAR TEST
DIRECT SHEAR TESTBahzad5
 

What's hot (20)

Unconfined Compression Test
Unconfined Compression TestUnconfined Compression Test
Unconfined Compression Test
 
Experiment no 03 setting time of cement.
Experiment no 03 setting time of cement.Experiment no 03 setting time of cement.
Experiment no 03 setting time of cement.
 
Permeability test
Permeability testPermeability test
Permeability test
 
Permeability Test of soil Using Constant and Falling Head Method
Permeability Test of soil Using Constant and Falling Head MethodPermeability Test of soil Using Constant and Falling Head Method
Permeability Test of soil Using Constant and Falling Head Method
 
Making and curing concrete test specimens in the
Making and curing concrete test specimens in theMaking and curing concrete test specimens in the
Making and curing concrete test specimens in the
 
Standard Compaction Test | Jameel Academy
Standard Compaction Test | Jameel AcademyStandard Compaction Test | Jameel Academy
Standard Compaction Test | Jameel Academy
 
Unconsolidated Undrained Test
Unconsolidated Undrained TestUnconsolidated Undrained Test
Unconsolidated Undrained Test
 
Lecture 7 stress distribution in soil
Lecture 7 stress distribution in soilLecture 7 stress distribution in soil
Lecture 7 stress distribution in soil
 
Density, (relative density) specific gravity & absorption of coarse aggre...
Density, (relative density) specific gravity & absorption of coarse aggre...Density, (relative density) specific gravity & absorption of coarse aggre...
Density, (relative density) specific gravity & absorption of coarse aggre...
 
Sieve Analysis of Fine & Coarse Aggregate | Jameel Academy
Sieve Analysis of Fine & Coarse Aggregate | Jameel AcademySieve Analysis of Fine & Coarse Aggregate | Jameel Academy
Sieve Analysis of Fine & Coarse Aggregate | Jameel Academy
 
Proktor compaction
Proktor compactionProktor compaction
Proktor compaction
 
Geotechnical Engineering-I [Lec #24: Soil Permeability - II]
Geotechnical Engineering-I [Lec #24: Soil Permeability - II]Geotechnical Engineering-I [Lec #24: Soil Permeability - II]
Geotechnical Engineering-I [Lec #24: Soil Permeability - II]
 
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #3: Direct Shear Test)
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #3: Direct Shear Test)Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #3: Direct Shear Test)
Geotechnical Engineering-II [Lec #3: Direct Shear Test)
 
Problems on bearing capacity of soil
Problems on bearing capacity of soilProblems on bearing capacity of soil
Problems on bearing capacity of soil
 
Proctor compaction test
Proctor compaction testProctor compaction test
Proctor compaction test
 
Lecture 8 consolidation and compressibility
Lecture 8  consolidation and compressibilityLecture 8  consolidation and compressibility
Lecture 8 consolidation and compressibility
 
Shrinkage Limit Test
Shrinkage Limit TestShrinkage Limit Test
Shrinkage Limit Test
 
Examples on total consolidation
Examples on total  consolidationExamples on total  consolidation
Examples on total consolidation
 
Bulk Density & Voids in Aggregate | Jameel Academy
Bulk Density & Voids in Aggregate | Jameel AcademyBulk Density & Voids in Aggregate | Jameel Academy
Bulk Density & Voids in Aggregate | Jameel Academy
 
DIRECT SHEAR TEST
DIRECT SHEAR TESTDIRECT SHEAR TEST
DIRECT SHEAR TEST
 

Similar to Determination of Field Density Using Sand Cone Method | Jameel Academy

Ge lab manual
Ge lab manualGe lab manual
Ge lab manualPoojaCP4
 
Determination of in situ density of soil
Determination of in situ density of soilDetermination of in situ density of soil
Determination of in situ density of soilSumanHaldar8
 
Ex 6 b field density by sand replacement method
Ex 6 b field density by sand replacement methodEx 6 b field density by sand replacement method
Ex 6 b field density by sand replacement methodbhimaji40
 
Site Investigation and Example of Soil Sampling
Site Investigation and Example of Soil SamplingSite Investigation and Example of Soil Sampling
Site Investigation and Example of Soil SamplingJoana Bain
 
Foundation Engineering Lab Manual
Foundation Engineering Lab ManualFoundation Engineering Lab Manual
Foundation Engineering Lab ManualErankajKumar
 
Field density method (sand replacing method)
Field density method (sand replacing method)Field density method (sand replacing method)
Field density method (sand replacing method)Faizan Tanoli
 
Index properties of soil and Classification of soils(Geotechnical engineering)
Index properties of soil and Classification of soils(Geotechnical engineering)Index properties of soil and Classification of soils(Geotechnical engineering)
Index properties of soil and Classification of soils(Geotechnical engineering)Manoj Kumar Kotagiri
 
Standard proctor test
Standard proctor testStandard proctor test
Standard proctor testRaz Azad
 
Ex 8 standard proctor test
Ex 8 standard proctor testEx 8 standard proctor test
Ex 8 standard proctor testbhimaji40
 
Sand Replacement Test : GNDEC
Sand Replacement Test : GNDECSand Replacement Test : GNDEC
Sand Replacement Test : GNDECanoopsingh93
 
Field density test
Field density testField density test
Field density testEngrMahmud3
 
Mud weight density1
Mud weight density1Mud weight density1
Mud weight density1HazharDuhoki
 
3 Most Important In-situ Soil Tests for Construction Works
3 Most Important In-situ Soil Tests for Construction Works3 Most Important In-situ Soil Tests for Construction Works
3 Most Important In-situ Soil Tests for Construction WorksSHAZEBALIKHAN1
 
Soil Enginnering.pptx
Soil Enginnering.pptxSoil Enginnering.pptx
Soil Enginnering.pptxDurgeshSahu70
 

Similar to Determination of Field Density Using Sand Cone Method | Jameel Academy (20)

Sand replacement
Sand replacementSand replacement
Sand replacement
 
Test for sand
Test for sandTest for sand
Test for sand
 
Ge lab manual
Ge lab manualGe lab manual
Ge lab manual
 
Determination of in situ density of soil
Determination of in situ density of soilDetermination of in situ density of soil
Determination of in situ density of soil
 
Ex 6 b field density by sand replacement method
Ex 6 b field density by sand replacement methodEx 6 b field density by sand replacement method
Ex 6 b field density by sand replacement method
 
Site Investigation and Example of Soil Sampling
Site Investigation and Example of Soil SamplingSite Investigation and Example of Soil Sampling
Site Investigation and Example of Soil Sampling
 
GE Lab manual.pdf
GE Lab manual.pdfGE Lab manual.pdf
GE Lab manual.pdf
 
Foundation Engineering Lab Manual
Foundation Engineering Lab ManualFoundation Engineering Lab Manual
Foundation Engineering Lab Manual
 
GT Lab Manual
GT Lab ManualGT Lab Manual
GT Lab Manual
 
Field density method (sand replacing method)
Field density method (sand replacing method)Field density method (sand replacing method)
Field density method (sand replacing method)
 
Index properties
Index propertiesIndex properties
Index properties
 
Index properties of soil and Classification of soils(Geotechnical engineering)
Index properties of soil and Classification of soils(Geotechnical engineering)Index properties of soil and Classification of soils(Geotechnical engineering)
Index properties of soil and Classification of soils(Geotechnical engineering)
 
Standard proctor test
Standard proctor testStandard proctor test
Standard proctor test
 
Ex 8 standard proctor test
Ex 8 standard proctor testEx 8 standard proctor test
Ex 8 standard proctor test
 
Sand Replacement Test : GNDEC
Sand Replacement Test : GNDECSand Replacement Test : GNDEC
Sand Replacement Test : GNDEC
 
Field density test
Field density testField density test
Field density test
 
INDEX PROPERTIES OF SOIL
INDEX PROPERTIES OF SOILINDEX PROPERTIES OF SOIL
INDEX PROPERTIES OF SOIL
 
Mud weight density1
Mud weight density1Mud weight density1
Mud weight density1
 
3 Most Important In-situ Soil Tests for Construction Works
3 Most Important In-situ Soil Tests for Construction Works3 Most Important In-situ Soil Tests for Construction Works
3 Most Important In-situ Soil Tests for Construction Works
 
Soil Enginnering.pptx
Soil Enginnering.pptxSoil Enginnering.pptx
Soil Enginnering.pptx
 

More from Jameel Academy

تێبينى لسەر كاڕێ دانانا ديوارێ بلوكى | Jameel Academy
تێبينى لسەر كاڕێ دانانا ديوارێ بلوكى  | Jameel Academyتێبينى لسەر كاڕێ دانانا ديوارێ بلوكى  | Jameel Academy
تێبينى لسەر كاڕێ دانانا ديوارێ بلوكى | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
بەشێن ئەندازيارى بنياسە ! | Jameel Academy
بەشێن ئەندازيارى بنياسە ! | Jameel Academyبەشێن ئەندازيارى بنياسە ! | Jameel Academy
بەشێن ئەندازيارى بنياسە ! | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
دەرئێخستنا پارە و بڕا مەوادێن د ئاڤاهى دا دهێنە بكارئينان | Jameel Academy
دەرئێخستنا پارە و بڕا مەوادێن د ئاڤاهى دا دهێنە بكارئينان  | Jameel Academyدەرئێخستنا پارە و بڕا مەوادێن د ئاڤاهى دا دهێنە بكارئينان  | Jameel Academy
دەرئێخستنا پارە و بڕا مەوادێن د ئاڤاهى دا دهێنە بكارئينان | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
چاوا (Stairs) دهێنە ديزاينكرن ؟ | Jameel Academy
چاوا (Stairs) دهێنە ديزاينكرن ؟ | Jameel Academyچاوا (Stairs) دهێنە ديزاينكرن ؟ | Jameel Academy
چاوا (Stairs) دهێنە ديزاينكرن ؟ | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Accident study (Traffic Engineering) | Jameel Academy
Accident study (Traffic Engineering) | Jameel AcademyAccident study (Traffic Engineering) | Jameel Academy
Accident study (Traffic Engineering) | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
How to Integrate an Equation | Jameel Academy
How to Integrate an Equation | Jameel AcademyHow to Integrate an Equation | Jameel Academy
How to Integrate an Equation | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Consolidation of Soil Test | Jameel Academy
Consolidation of Soil Test | Jameel AcademyConsolidation of Soil Test | Jameel Academy
Consolidation of Soil Test | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Foundation Types | Jameel Academy
Foundation Types | Jameel AcademyFoundation Types | Jameel Academy
Foundation Types | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Determination Of Dip Angle
Determination Of Dip AngleDetermination Of Dip Angle
Determination Of Dip AngleJameel Academy
 
Discharge Under a Sluice Gate | Jameel Academy
Discharge Under a Sluice Gate | Jameel AcademyDischarge Under a Sluice Gate | Jameel Academy
Discharge Under a Sluice Gate | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Discharge Over a Vee-Notch Weir | Jameel Academy
Discharge Over a Vee-Notch Weir | Jameel AcademyDischarge Over a Vee-Notch Weir | Jameel Academy
Discharge Over a Vee-Notch Weir | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Discharge Over a broad Crested Weir | Jameel Academy
Discharge Over a broad Crested Weir | Jameel AcademyDischarge Over a broad Crested Weir | Jameel Academy
Discharge Over a broad Crested Weir | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Center of Pressure on Vertical Fully Submerged Plate | Jameel Academy
Center of Pressure on Vertical Fully Submerged Plate | Jameel AcademyCenter of Pressure on Vertical Fully Submerged Plate | Jameel Academy
Center of Pressure on Vertical Fully Submerged Plate | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Pressure Measurement by Weight and Bourdon Gauge | Jameel Academy
Pressure Measurement by Weight and Bourdon Gauge | Jameel AcademyPressure Measurement by Weight and Bourdon Gauge | Jameel Academy
Pressure Measurement by Weight and Bourdon Gauge | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Stability of A Floating Body | Jameel Academy
Stability of  A Floating Body | Jameel AcademyStability of  A Floating Body | Jameel Academy
Stability of A Floating Body | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Center of Pressure on Vertical Partially Submerged Plate | Jameel Academy
Center of Pressure on Vertical Partially Submerged Plate | Jameel AcademyCenter of Pressure on Vertical Partially Submerged Plate | Jameel Academy
Center of Pressure on Vertical Partially Submerged Plate | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Impact Of Jet | Jameel Academy
Impact Of Jet | Jameel AcademyImpact Of Jet | Jameel Academy
Impact Of Jet | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Soundness of Hydraulic Cement Paste | Jameel Academy
Soundness of Hydraulic Cement Paste | Jameel AcademySoundness of Hydraulic Cement Paste | Jameel Academy
Soundness of Hydraulic Cement Paste | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement | Jameel Academy
Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement | Jameel AcademyNormal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement | Jameel Academy
Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 
Compressive strength and Flexural of Hardened Concrete | Jameel Academy
Compressive strength  and Flexural of Hardened Concrete | Jameel AcademyCompressive strength  and Flexural of Hardened Concrete | Jameel Academy
Compressive strength and Flexural of Hardened Concrete | Jameel AcademyJameel Academy
 

More from Jameel Academy (20)

تێبينى لسەر كاڕێ دانانا ديوارێ بلوكى | Jameel Academy
تێبينى لسەر كاڕێ دانانا ديوارێ بلوكى  | Jameel Academyتێبينى لسەر كاڕێ دانانا ديوارێ بلوكى  | Jameel Academy
تێبينى لسەر كاڕێ دانانا ديوارێ بلوكى | Jameel Academy
 
بەشێن ئەندازيارى بنياسە ! | Jameel Academy
بەشێن ئەندازيارى بنياسە ! | Jameel Academyبەشێن ئەندازيارى بنياسە ! | Jameel Academy
بەشێن ئەندازيارى بنياسە ! | Jameel Academy
 
دەرئێخستنا پارە و بڕا مەوادێن د ئاڤاهى دا دهێنە بكارئينان | Jameel Academy
دەرئێخستنا پارە و بڕا مەوادێن د ئاڤاهى دا دهێنە بكارئينان  | Jameel Academyدەرئێخستنا پارە و بڕا مەوادێن د ئاڤاهى دا دهێنە بكارئينان  | Jameel Academy
دەرئێخستنا پارە و بڕا مەوادێن د ئاڤاهى دا دهێنە بكارئينان | Jameel Academy
 
چاوا (Stairs) دهێنە ديزاينكرن ؟ | Jameel Academy
چاوا (Stairs) دهێنە ديزاينكرن ؟ | Jameel Academyچاوا (Stairs) دهێنە ديزاينكرن ؟ | Jameel Academy
چاوا (Stairs) دهێنە ديزاينكرن ؟ | Jameel Academy
 
Accident study (Traffic Engineering) | Jameel Academy
Accident study (Traffic Engineering) | Jameel AcademyAccident study (Traffic Engineering) | Jameel Academy
Accident study (Traffic Engineering) | Jameel Academy
 
How to Integrate an Equation | Jameel Academy
How to Integrate an Equation | Jameel AcademyHow to Integrate an Equation | Jameel Academy
How to Integrate an Equation | Jameel Academy
 
Consolidation of Soil Test | Jameel Academy
Consolidation of Soil Test | Jameel AcademyConsolidation of Soil Test | Jameel Academy
Consolidation of Soil Test | Jameel Academy
 
Foundation Types | Jameel Academy
Foundation Types | Jameel AcademyFoundation Types | Jameel Academy
Foundation Types | Jameel Academy
 
Determination Of Dip Angle
Determination Of Dip AngleDetermination Of Dip Angle
Determination Of Dip Angle
 
Discharge Under a Sluice Gate | Jameel Academy
Discharge Under a Sluice Gate | Jameel AcademyDischarge Under a Sluice Gate | Jameel Academy
Discharge Under a Sluice Gate | Jameel Academy
 
Discharge Over a Vee-Notch Weir | Jameel Academy
Discharge Over a Vee-Notch Weir | Jameel AcademyDischarge Over a Vee-Notch Weir | Jameel Academy
Discharge Over a Vee-Notch Weir | Jameel Academy
 
Discharge Over a broad Crested Weir | Jameel Academy
Discharge Over a broad Crested Weir | Jameel AcademyDischarge Over a broad Crested Weir | Jameel Academy
Discharge Over a broad Crested Weir | Jameel Academy
 
Center of Pressure on Vertical Fully Submerged Plate | Jameel Academy
Center of Pressure on Vertical Fully Submerged Plate | Jameel AcademyCenter of Pressure on Vertical Fully Submerged Plate | Jameel Academy
Center of Pressure on Vertical Fully Submerged Plate | Jameel Academy
 
Pressure Measurement by Weight and Bourdon Gauge | Jameel Academy
Pressure Measurement by Weight and Bourdon Gauge | Jameel AcademyPressure Measurement by Weight and Bourdon Gauge | Jameel Academy
Pressure Measurement by Weight and Bourdon Gauge | Jameel Academy
 
Stability of A Floating Body | Jameel Academy
Stability of  A Floating Body | Jameel AcademyStability of  A Floating Body | Jameel Academy
Stability of A Floating Body | Jameel Academy
 
Center of Pressure on Vertical Partially Submerged Plate | Jameel Academy
Center of Pressure on Vertical Partially Submerged Plate | Jameel AcademyCenter of Pressure on Vertical Partially Submerged Plate | Jameel Academy
Center of Pressure on Vertical Partially Submerged Plate | Jameel Academy
 
Impact Of Jet | Jameel Academy
Impact Of Jet | Jameel AcademyImpact Of Jet | Jameel Academy
Impact Of Jet | Jameel Academy
 
Soundness of Hydraulic Cement Paste | Jameel Academy
Soundness of Hydraulic Cement Paste | Jameel AcademySoundness of Hydraulic Cement Paste | Jameel Academy
Soundness of Hydraulic Cement Paste | Jameel Academy
 
Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement | Jameel Academy
Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement | Jameel AcademyNormal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement | Jameel Academy
Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement | Jameel Academy
 
Compressive strength and Flexural of Hardened Concrete | Jameel Academy
Compressive strength  and Flexural of Hardened Concrete | Jameel AcademyCompressive strength  and Flexural of Hardened Concrete | Jameel Academy
Compressive strength and Flexural of Hardened Concrete | Jameel Academy
 

Recently uploaded

Circuit Breakers for Engineering Students
Circuit Breakers for Engineering StudentsCircuit Breakers for Engineering Students
Circuit Breakers for Engineering Studentskannan348865
 
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & Modernization
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & ModernizationHistory of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & Modernization
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & ModernizationEmaan Sharma
 
Seizure stage detection of epileptic seizure using convolutional neural networks
Seizure stage detection of epileptic seizure using convolutional neural networksSeizure stage detection of epileptic seizure using convolutional neural networks
Seizure stage detection of epileptic seizure using convolutional neural networksIJECEIAES
 
SLIDESHARE PPT-DECISION MAKING METHODS.pptx
SLIDESHARE PPT-DECISION MAKING METHODS.pptxSLIDESHARE PPT-DECISION MAKING METHODS.pptx
SLIDESHARE PPT-DECISION MAKING METHODS.pptxCHAIRMAN M
 
Artificial intelligence presentation2-171219131633.pdf
Artificial intelligence presentation2-171219131633.pdfArtificial intelligence presentation2-171219131633.pdf
Artificial intelligence presentation2-171219131633.pdfKira Dess
 
21P35A0312 Internship eccccccReport.docx
21P35A0312 Internship eccccccReport.docx21P35A0312 Internship eccccccReport.docx
21P35A0312 Internship eccccccReport.docxrahulmanepalli02
 
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptxDynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptxMustafa Ahmed
 
Artificial Intelligence in due diligence
Artificial Intelligence in due diligenceArtificial Intelligence in due diligence
Artificial Intelligence in due diligencemahaffeycheryld
 
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference Modal
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference ModalCLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference Modal
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference ModalSwarnaSLcse
 
Maximizing Incident Investigation Efficacy in Oil & Gas: Techniques and Tools
Maximizing Incident Investigation Efficacy in Oil & Gas: Techniques and ToolsMaximizing Incident Investigation Efficacy in Oil & Gas: Techniques and Tools
Maximizing Incident Investigation Efficacy in Oil & Gas: Techniques and Toolssoginsider
 
Maher Othman Interior Design Portfolio..
Maher Othman Interior Design Portfolio..Maher Othman Interior Design Portfolio..
Maher Othman Interior Design Portfolio..MaherOthman7
 
NO1 Best Powerful Vashikaran Specialist Baba Vashikaran Specialist For Love V...
NO1 Best Powerful Vashikaran Specialist Baba Vashikaran Specialist For Love V...NO1 Best Powerful Vashikaran Specialist Baba Vashikaran Specialist For Love V...
NO1 Best Powerful Vashikaran Specialist Baba Vashikaran Specialist For Love V...Amil baba
 
What is Coordinate Measuring Machine? CMM Types, Features, Functions
What is Coordinate Measuring Machine? CMM Types, Features, FunctionsWhat is Coordinate Measuring Machine? CMM Types, Features, Functions
What is Coordinate Measuring Machine? CMM Types, Features, FunctionsVIEW
 
Research Methodolgy & Intellectual Property Rights Series 1
Research Methodolgy & Intellectual Property Rights Series 1Research Methodolgy & Intellectual Property Rights Series 1
Research Methodolgy & Intellectual Property Rights Series 1T.D. Shashikala
 
Basics of Relay for Engineering Students
Basics of Relay for Engineering StudentsBasics of Relay for Engineering Students
Basics of Relay for Engineering Studentskannan348865
 
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdfDiploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdfJNTUA
 
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)Ramkumar k
 
Software Engineering Practical File Front Pages.pdf
Software Engineering Practical File Front Pages.pdfSoftware Engineering Practical File Front Pages.pdf
Software Engineering Practical File Front Pages.pdfssuser5c9d4b1
 
Involute of a circle,Square, pentagon,HexagonInvolute_Engineering Drawing.pdf
Involute of a circle,Square, pentagon,HexagonInvolute_Engineering Drawing.pdfInvolute of a circle,Square, pentagon,HexagonInvolute_Engineering Drawing.pdf
Involute of a circle,Square, pentagon,HexagonInvolute_Engineering Drawing.pdfJNTUA
 
Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters ee3404.pdf
Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters ee3404.pdfInterfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters ee3404.pdf
Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters ee3404.pdfragupathi90
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Circuit Breakers for Engineering Students
Circuit Breakers for Engineering StudentsCircuit Breakers for Engineering Students
Circuit Breakers for Engineering Students
 
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & Modernization
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & ModernizationHistory of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & Modernization
History of Indian Railways - the story of Growth & Modernization
 
Seizure stage detection of epileptic seizure using convolutional neural networks
Seizure stage detection of epileptic seizure using convolutional neural networksSeizure stage detection of epileptic seizure using convolutional neural networks
Seizure stage detection of epileptic seizure using convolutional neural networks
 
SLIDESHARE PPT-DECISION MAKING METHODS.pptx
SLIDESHARE PPT-DECISION MAKING METHODS.pptxSLIDESHARE PPT-DECISION MAKING METHODS.pptx
SLIDESHARE PPT-DECISION MAKING METHODS.pptx
 
Artificial intelligence presentation2-171219131633.pdf
Artificial intelligence presentation2-171219131633.pdfArtificial intelligence presentation2-171219131633.pdf
Artificial intelligence presentation2-171219131633.pdf
 
21P35A0312 Internship eccccccReport.docx
21P35A0312 Internship eccccccReport.docx21P35A0312 Internship eccccccReport.docx
21P35A0312 Internship eccccccReport.docx
 
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptxDynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
 
Artificial Intelligence in due diligence
Artificial Intelligence in due diligenceArtificial Intelligence in due diligence
Artificial Intelligence in due diligence
 
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference Modal
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference ModalCLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference Modal
CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES - Cloud Reference Modal
 
Maximizing Incident Investigation Efficacy in Oil & Gas: Techniques and Tools
Maximizing Incident Investigation Efficacy in Oil & Gas: Techniques and ToolsMaximizing Incident Investigation Efficacy in Oil & Gas: Techniques and Tools
Maximizing Incident Investigation Efficacy in Oil & Gas: Techniques and Tools
 
Maher Othman Interior Design Portfolio..
Maher Othman Interior Design Portfolio..Maher Othman Interior Design Portfolio..
Maher Othman Interior Design Portfolio..
 
NO1 Best Powerful Vashikaran Specialist Baba Vashikaran Specialist For Love V...
NO1 Best Powerful Vashikaran Specialist Baba Vashikaran Specialist For Love V...NO1 Best Powerful Vashikaran Specialist Baba Vashikaran Specialist For Love V...
NO1 Best Powerful Vashikaran Specialist Baba Vashikaran Specialist For Love V...
 
What is Coordinate Measuring Machine? CMM Types, Features, Functions
What is Coordinate Measuring Machine? CMM Types, Features, FunctionsWhat is Coordinate Measuring Machine? CMM Types, Features, Functions
What is Coordinate Measuring Machine? CMM Types, Features, Functions
 
Research Methodolgy & Intellectual Property Rights Series 1
Research Methodolgy & Intellectual Property Rights Series 1Research Methodolgy & Intellectual Property Rights Series 1
Research Methodolgy & Intellectual Property Rights Series 1
 
Basics of Relay for Engineering Students
Basics of Relay for Engineering StudentsBasics of Relay for Engineering Students
Basics of Relay for Engineering Students
 
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdfDiploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
 
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)
Theory of Time 2024 (Universal Theory for Everything)
 
Software Engineering Practical File Front Pages.pdf
Software Engineering Practical File Front Pages.pdfSoftware Engineering Practical File Front Pages.pdf
Software Engineering Practical File Front Pages.pdf
 
Involute of a circle,Square, pentagon,HexagonInvolute_Engineering Drawing.pdf
Involute of a circle,Square, pentagon,HexagonInvolute_Engineering Drawing.pdfInvolute of a circle,Square, pentagon,HexagonInvolute_Engineering Drawing.pdf
Involute of a circle,Square, pentagon,HexagonInvolute_Engineering Drawing.pdf
 
Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters ee3404.pdf
Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters ee3404.pdfInterfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters ee3404.pdf
Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters ee3404.pdf
 

Determination of Field Density Using Sand Cone Method | Jameel Academy

  • 1. University of Duhok College of Engineering Civil Department Soil Mechanics – Practical Soil Laboratory A Report About : Determination of Field Density using Sand Cone Method Submitted By : Jameel Masoud Lab. No. : 2 Group Name : ---- Testing Date : 11 / 2 / 2019 Submitting Date : 26 / 2 / 2019 Supervised By : Hussein 2018 – 2019
  • 2. Introduction Sand cone method is used for the determination for the in-situ dry density of compacted soils, gravels and crushed rock materials in earth works and pavement layers by the sand replacement method using a sand pouring cone. Its basic principle is to measure the in-sit volume of hole from which the material was excavated from the weight of sand with known density filling in the hole Purpose: The purpose of this test is to determine the field unit weight to compare it with lab unit weight (to determine relative density). Supplies and materials: 1) Sand cone apparatus. 2) Balance sensitive to 1g. 3) Base plate. 4) Tools for excavating a hole in the ground. 5) Clean and uniform graded sand ranged from sieve no.20 to no.30 such as Ottawa sand. 6) Standard compaction mold. 7) Plastic air-tight bag for carrying wet excavated soil from field. 8) Metal tray with hole in the center. 9) Oven with temperature kept at 105-110o C.
  • 3. Sketch: Sand cone apparatus. Metal tray Sensitive Balance Oven Dry Plastic air-tight bag Ottawa sand. Standard compaction mold.
  • 4. Test Procedure Laboratory Work : 1) Measure the weight of proctor mold + base, W1 2) Pour the sand into the compacted mold, then, level the surface “don’t compact the sand during leveling it” 3) Measure the weight of proctor mold + base + sand, W2 4) Mewasure the weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand, W3 5) Close the valve attached to the cone, then, turn the cone and gallon upside down on the tray, then open valve after sand flows from gallon to the cone stop the valve, then, measure the weight of plastic gallon +cone +sand, W4 (after use) 6) Measure the weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand , W5 (Before use) Field Work : 1) Place the metal tray and fasten the 4 screw. 2) Dig up a 10 to 15 cm deep hole. 3) As you are digging the hole put the excavated soil into plastic bag to don’t lose the soil moisture. 4) Having the valve closed turn the gallon + cone upside down and place the cone in the center of hole and open the valve so that sand flows down to the hole. 5) After flow of sand stop close the valve and pick the assembly up, the sand in the cone will be poured into the tray. The sand will be left there in the field. 6) Measure the weight of gallon + cone + sand, W6
  • 5. Calculations and Results : Table of calculation : Test Steps Quantity Determination of sand unit weight Weight of mold + base, W1 4350 g Weight of mold + base + sand, W2 5600 g Volume, V1 948 cm3 Dry density of sand, 𝛾 sand 1.318565 g cm3⁄ Determination of weight of sand to fill jar, cone and base Weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand (before use), W3 6211 g Weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand (after use) , W4 4748 g sand to fill cone, Ws 1463 g Result from Field Test Weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand (before use), W5 6190 g Weight of plastic gallon + cone + sand (after use), W6 2623 g Weight of soil Sample (comes from hole) , Wh 2602.5257 g Volume hole, V2 1595.674 cm3 Weight of evaporation dish, W7 870.1 g Weight of evaporation dish +wet soil in field, W8 1037.88 g Weight of evaporation dish + dry soil, W9 1015.66 g Total Soil unit weight 1.630989 g cm3⁄ Field water content 𝜔 15.26518 % Field Dry unit weight 1.414988 g cm3⁄ Laboratory max. Dry unit weight 1.94699 g cm3⁄ Relative density 72.67557 %
  • 6. In details: Dry density of sand = W2−W1 V1 = 5600−4350 948 =1.318565 g cm3⁄ Sand to fill the cone = W3 − W4 = 6211 − 4748 = 1463 g Volume of hole = W5−W6−Ws γ sand = 6190−2623−1463 1.318565 = 1595.674 cm3 Total soil unit weight = Wh V2 = 2602.53 1595.674 = 1.630989 g cm3⁄ Field water content = W8−W9 W9−W7 = 1037.88−1015.66 1016.66−870.1 = 15.27 % Field Dry unit weight = Total Soil unit weight 1+ ω 100 = 1.630989 1+0.1527 = 1.415 g cm3⁄ Relative density = 1.415 1.947 × 100 = 72.68 %
  • 7. Discussion and Conclusion : In this test we determine the Field Dry unit weight and field moisture content of a given Place, finally we get a result after doing all procedure accurate which is ( γof dry soil = 1.4149 𝑔 𝑐𝑚3 , R.D = 72.676 % ), according to standard and the laboratory compaction test we can compare our sample’s max. density with Field density to know is the field compaction reach the acceptable level of compaction or not. From Relative density it shows that soil is not compacted properly (it depend on the importance of project). this result shows us with increase Water content to a limit, the dry density will be increased but if passed from limited (OMC) it will decrease the density because the solid soil volume will replace with water volume (density of water less than density of soil) therefore it decreases the density (we made the soil moist to a degree to get approximately max. unit weight). The errors that occur during the test is the comparing of two different soil sample, because the soil that we tested in laboratory is not same as of soil that we used on field compaction and another one is the weight of soil sample because we doesn’t weight the soil sample that excavated from hole. we know that if we do the test on many sample and then get the average, the result will be very accurately. In conclusion the purpose of this test is to determine the Field unit weight and compare it with the Laboratory max. unit weight, now we can compare the field compaction with lab max. density which is 72%. finally, we know how to determine the lab compaction and how to check the field compaction by using the relative density.
  • 8. Q) State the objective and principle of the sand cone? A) The Objective of this test is to determine the field unit weight to compare it with lab unit weight (to determine relative density). The principle of sand replacement method is to measure the in-situ volume of hole from which the material was excavated from the weight of sand with known density filling in the hole. Q)Why is it important not to lose any soil from the excavated hole during the sand cone method? A) It’s important because it affect the moist unit weight of soil and will change the relative density.