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developing problem solving skills


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activity based learning, for managers to develop problem solving skills.

Published in: Business

developing problem solving skills

  1. 1. Developing Problem Solving Skills 1
  2. 2. "The measure of success is not whether you have a tough problem to deal with, but whether it is the same problem you had last year." John Foster 2
  3. 3. What do u think you will achieve at the end of this training ? 3
  4. 4. Modular setup PROBLEM This training is divided into three modules, serving as building blocks. PROBLEMSOLVING SKILLS Advice and •Problem alternative •Problem solving skills approach •Advice and alternative approach 4
  5. 5. problem 5
  6. 6. What is a ‘problem’ 6
  7. 7. • an intricate unsettled question• difficulty in understanding or accepting• a question raised for inquiry, consideration, or solution• A perceived gap between the existing state and a desired state, or a deviation from a norm or a standard 7
  8. 8. Problems arising in work place can be avoided easily if we bring into consideration that • "What do we do?" • "For whom do we do it?" • "How do we excel?" 8
  9. 9. Problems in a work place Work place problemsinterpersonal intrapersonal 9
  10. 10. Activity 1come up with one experience where you faced an intrapersonal or interpersonal conflict, in your daily life.Also share the approach you took to resolve the issue(5 mins) 10
  11. 11. Activity 2come up with one experience where you faced an intrapersonal or interpersonal conflict, while you are at work.Also share the approach you took to resolve the issue(5 mins) 11
  12. 12. Activity 3 Answer the following questions1. Do you feel that stress is a problem?2. Do you feel your boss can be a cause of most of your problems?3. If the chair at your workstation is uncomfortable, what will you do?4. The person sitting next to you is not very hygiene conscious, what is the best possible approach to communicate it to him?5. Do you ever feel you are being discriminated based on your gender?6. Incase your peer is doing something wrong,do you believe blowing the whistle is the best policy?7. “politicking is the best policy to move up in your organization”….Agree/disagree?(10 mins) 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. Develop problem solving skills 14
  15. 15. • Problem solving is a key skill, and its one that can make a huge difference to your career. At work, problems are at the center of what many people do every day. Youre either solving a problem for a client (internal or external), supporting those who are solving problems, or discovering new problems to solve.• The problems you face can be large or small, simple or complex, and easy or difficult to solve. Regardless of the nature of the problems, a fundamental part of every managers role is finding ways to solve them 15
  16. 16. There is a solution to everyproblem, it depends on how YOU handle it 16
  17. 17. Before we start!You must understand who you are and what is your identity.“you can buy everything, but your skin. One can never be successful till he is comfortable in his own skin…” (unknown) 17
  18. 18. Extension of Man ( McLuhan 1911-1980)SkinFashionInteriorCarExteriorAccording to McLuhan, we are surrounded by skins to show who we are or where we belong socially. Every skin gives protection, esteem and expresses identity. 18
  19. 19. Basic steps to solve a problem 1. Define the problem 2. Generating alternatives 3. Evaluating and selecting alternatives 4. Implementing solutions 19
  20. 20. Define the problemThe key to a good problem definition is ensuring that you deal with the real problem – not its symptomsFor example, if performance in your department is substandard, you might think the problem is with the individuals submitting work. However, if you look a bit deeper, the real problem might be a lack of training, or an unreasonable workload. 20
  21. 21. Tip: broaden you horizons, look at every angleAt this stage, its also important to ensure that you look at the issue from a variety of perspectives. If you commit yourself too early, you can end up with a problem statement thats really a solution instead. For example, consider this problem statement: "We have to find a way of disciplining of people who do substandard work." This doesnt allow you the opportunity of discovering the real reasons for under- performance. WHAT TO DO ??????? 21
  22. 22. Work through the layers of a problem to uncover whats really is going on 5 whys Appreciation/brain storming Root cause analysis 22
  23. 23. 5 whys technique• The 5 Whys is a simple problem-solving technique that helps you to get to the root of a problem quickly• the 5 Whys strategy involves looking at any problem and asking: "Why?" and "What caused this problem?“• Benefits of the 5 Whys include:1.It helps you to quickly determine the root cause of a problem.2.Its simple, and easy to learn and apply. 23
  24. 24. In this example, the problem is that your client, Telenor, is unhappy. Using the 5 Whys, you go through the following steps to get to the cause of the problem:• Why is our client, Telenor, unhappy? Because we didnt deliver our services when we said we would.• Why were we unable to meet the agreed-upon timeline or schedule for delivery? The job took much longer than we thought it would.• Why did it take so much longer? Because we underestimated the complexity of the job.• Why did we underestimate the complexity of the job? Because we made a quick estimate of the time needed to complete it, and didnt list the individual stages needed to complete the project.• Why didnt we do this? Because we were running behind on other projects. We clearly need to review our time estimation and specification procedures. 24
  25. 25. Activity (group)• Your boss/ supervisor is unhappy with the team’s review on calls, from the quality control department. Using the 5 Whys technique list down a series of 5 questions with logical answers to define the actual problem and solution (10 mins) 25
  26. 26. Appreciation/ Brainstorming• Appreciation helps us uncover factors that we might have ordinarily missed, and it can be very useful for brainstorming solutions to problems• Starting with a fact, you first ask the question "So what?" - in other words, what are the implications of that fact? Why is this fact important?• You then continue asking that question until you have drawn all possible conclusions from it. 26
  27. 27. ExampleYouve just found out that your departments budget is going to be cut by 25 percent next year. This is a huge cut, and you want to make sure that youve uncovered all the implications before you start to brainstorm possible solutions.• Statement: Our departments budget is going to be cut 25 percent starting January 1. So what?• So the only way to accommodate that cut is to reduce our spending dramatically. So what?• So were probably going to have to cut staff, and well definitely have to cut spending on supplies, research, and staff parties. So what?• So staff morale is probably going to drop, especially if I have to lay off members of our team. So what?• So Ill need to come up with plenty of low-cost ways to boost morale without spending money. So what?• So Ill need to start thinking about this tomorrow, since the new budget will go into effect in two months, and I want to be able to manage the 27 consequences when I let the team know.
  28. 28. Root Cause Analysis• Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is a popular and often-used technique that helps people answer the question of why the problem occurred in the first place.• Root Cause Analysis seeks to identify the origin of a problem. It uses a specific set of steps, with associated tools, to find the primary cause of the problem, so that you can:1.Determine what happened.2.Determine why it happened.3.Figure out what to do to reduce the likelihood that it will happen again. 28
  29. 29. BUT WHAT ARE THE CAUSES??????? 29
  30. 30. Youll usually find three basic types of causes:• Physical causes – Tangible, material items failed in some way (for example, a printer stopped working).• Human causes – People did something wrong. or did not do something that was needed. Human causes typically lead to physical causes (for example, no one cleaned the head of the printer and it stopped working). 30
  31. 31. • Organizational causes – A system, process, or policy that people use to make decisions or do their work is faulty (for example, no one person was responsible for the printer’s maintenance, and everyone assumed someone else had cleaned the head). (Relate it to AbacusConsulting) 31
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  33. 33. 5 step problem solving processDefine the problem Collect data Define possible causal factors Define the root cause Recommend and implement solutions 33
  34. 34. Step One: Define the Problem• What do you see happening?• What are the specific symptoms?Step Two: Collect Data• What proof do you have that the problem exists?• How long has the problem existed?• What is the impact of the problem?Step Three: Identify Possible Causal Factors• What sequence of events leads to the problem?• What conditions allow the problem to occur?• What other problems surround the occurrence of the central problem? 34
  35. 35. Step Four: Identify the Root Cause(s)• Why does the causal factor exist?• What is the real reason the problem occurred?• Use the same tools you used to identify the causal factors (in Step Three) to look at the roots of each factor. These tools are designed to encourage you to dig deeper at each level of cause and effect.Step Five: Recommend and Implement Solutions• What can you do to prevent the problem from happening again?• How will the solution be implemented?• Who will be responsible for it?• What are the risks of implementing the solution? 35
  36. 36. Activity (group)For the past couple of months the employees of your organization are not coming to the office on time and are leaving early without informing the higher authority. The monthly targets are not being met either.Use all the tools that you have learnt so far to come up with the actual problem/s and solution/s. Critical analysis shall be well appreciated .(20 mins) 36
  37. 37. If you believe that you can damage, then believe that you can fix Thank You 37