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Ending up with a Federation
(and not something else)
Jakub Jermář
@jjermar
Ambiguity of Federation
Ambiguity of Federation
Historical misnomers
United States of America (union of citizens)
Swiss Confederation (actually a ...
Ambiguity of Federation
Historical misnomers
United States of America (union of citizens)
Swiss Confederation (actually a ...
What is a federation?
What is a federation?
Preston King in Federalism and Federation:
An institutional arrangement, taking the form of a sovere...
What is a federation?
Preston King in Federalism and Federation:
An institutional arrangement, taking the form of a sovere...
Think of two levels of republican government
sharing citizens.
Think of two levels of republican government
sharing citizens.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R
State level, powers α –...
Think of two levels of republican government
sharing citizens.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R
A B C D E F G H I J K L...
Think of two levels of republican government
sharing citizens.
Federation
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R
A B C D E F ...
Think of two levels of republican government
sharing citizens.
E F G
H I J K L
P Q R
M N O
A B C D
Think of two levels of republican government
sharing citizens.
Not a federation
E F G
H I J K L
P Q R
M N O
A B C D
Deeper integration
EU treaty reform
Political/fiscal/defense union
Europhiles
Looser integration
Free trade treaty
EEA/EFT...
“There are no examples in the world that we can
follow because we are the example.”
“There are no examples in the world that we can
follow because we are the example.”
– Jean-Claude Juncker, 2015
“We the People of the United States, in Order to
form a more perfect Union, establish Justice,
insure domestic Tranquility...
“We the People of the United States, in Order to
form a more perfect Union, establish Justice,
insure domestic Tranquility...
Daniel Elazar in Exploring Federalism:
The Swiss, however, managed to recoup and learn from the American
experience so tha...
Are we somehow less able than the Swiss?
In conclusion
● Fixing the EU is a waste of time
● There is no path from the EU to a federation
● Inertia makes people rel...
In conclusion
● Fixing the EU is a waste of time
● There is no path from the EU to a federation
● Inertia makes people rel...
Thank you!
Ending up with a federation (and not something else)
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Ending up with a federation (and not something else)

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Slides illustrating the difference between the concept of a federation and a republic with that of the present EU.

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Ending up with a federation (and not something else)

  1. 1. Ending up with a Federation (and not something else) Jakub Jermář @jjermar
  2. 2. Ambiguity of Federation
  3. 3. Ambiguity of Federation Historical misnomers United States of America (union of citizens) Swiss Confederation (actually a federation)
  4. 4. Ambiguity of Federation Historical misnomers United States of America (union of citizens) Swiss Confederation (actually a federation) Modern confusion Constitutional Treaty (creative marketing name) Federation of States (oxymoron) Eurosceptics (want less integration BUT fear “federation”) Europhiles (want more integration BUT embrace “federation”) “Federalists” (shouldn’t they want a federation?) Superstate (everything is decided top-down) Federation vs. federalism vs. federal systems (different concepts)
  5. 5. What is a federation?
  6. 6. What is a federation? Preston King in Federalism and Federation: An institutional arrangement, taking the form of a sovereign state, and distinguished from other such states solely by the fact that its central government incorporates regional units in its decision procedure on some constitutionally entrenched basis.
  7. 7. What is a federation? Preston King in Federalism and Federation: An institutional arrangement, taking the form of a sovereign state, and distinguished from other such states solely by the fact that its central government incorporates regional units in its decision procedure on some constitutionally entrenched basis. Daniel Elazar in Exploring Federalism: The federalist alternative insists that no governments or states are sovereign as such – that political sovereignty resides in the people who delegate powers through constitutional devices on a limited basis to different governments as they see fit.
  8. 8. Think of two levels of republican government sharing citizens.
  9. 9. Think of two levels of republican government sharing citizens. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R State level, powers α – ω
  10. 10. Think of two levels of republican government sharing citizens. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R Federal level, powers α – δ State level, powers ε – ω
  11. 11. Think of two levels of republican government sharing citizens. Federation A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R Federal level, powers α – δ State level, powers ε – ω
  12. 12. Think of two levels of republican government sharing citizens. E F G H I J K L P Q R M N O A B C D
  13. 13. Think of two levels of republican government sharing citizens. Not a federation E F G H I J K L P Q R M N O A B C D
  14. 14. Deeper integration EU treaty reform Political/fiscal/defense union Europhiles Looser integration Free trade treaty EEA/EFTA/NATO Eurosceptics Axis of Confederation Axis of Confederation Number of Levels of Government Created by the People Strongerfederal government Federalists Weakerfederal government Federalists AxisofFederationAxisofFederation 2 1 Simplified field guideSimplified field guide to tellingto telling FederationsFederations from Confederationsfrom Confederations (and other similar(and other similar forms)forms) Confederation States establish common institutions and pursue their common goals in some areas. Confederation States establish common institutions and pursue their common goals in some areas. Federation Citizens create a new level of government to take care of their common interests. Federation Citizens create a new level of government to take care of their common interests. Federation Confederation Type of Government Republic Assembly of states Building Blocks Citizens States Founding Document Constitution Treaty Democratic1 Yes No Who is Sovereign Citizens States Power over States2 No Yes Enforceable Laws3 Yes No Levels of Government 2 1 (1) Does majority voting take place within one body politic? This is true in a federation, which is a single body politic, but false in a confederation, which is a union of several bodies politic and in which decisions for one member can be made by other members. (2) Does the union possess hierarchical powers over states? A federal government makes decisions only for itself whereas the assembly of states makes collective decisions for all member states of a confederation. (3) Can the common rules be easily enforced? This is true in a federation, in which the compliance with the law is enforced by the courts, and false in a confederation where the ultimate enforcement is by force. (Con) federation by name? Levels of government > 1 Made of citizens ? Is it a federation? No Could be
  15. 15. “There are no examples in the world that we can follow because we are the example.”
  16. 16. “There are no examples in the world that we can follow because we are the example.” – Jean-Claude Juncker, 2015
  17. 17. “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
  18. 18. “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
  19. 19. Daniel Elazar in Exploring Federalism: The Swiss, however, managed to recoup and learn from the American experience so that in 1848 they transformed their traditional federal system into a modern federation, borrowing heavily from the American model.
  20. 20. Are we somehow less able than the Swiss?
  21. 21. In conclusion ● Fixing the EU is a waste of time ● There is no path from the EU to a federation ● Inertia makes people reluctant to accept this ● We have been in denial for too long ● We need to let the EU go...
  22. 22. In conclusion ● Fixing the EU is a waste of time ● There is no path from the EU to a federation ● Inertia makes people reluctant to accept this ● We have been in denial for too long ● We need to let the EU go… ...and create ourselves a new level of republican government – a federation
  23. 23. Thank you!

Slides illustrating the difference between the concept of a federation and a republic with that of the present EU.

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