JOINING IMAGESSome forms of editing creates collage, avariety of images combined to createmeaning.Lord of The Rings The Return of the King -Smeagol and Deagol:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wxN2Mewamj0&feature=related
TEMPO #1Editors created tempo through the length of each shot.Long takes slow down the tempo of the scene.Chantal Akerman films often consisted of long takes with thecamera fixed in one place, at a medium distance from thesubject.La Captive (2000):http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ddp5-E7HniY&feature=fvwrelShort takes quicken the pace and intensityStanley Kubrick - The Shininghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDpipB4yehk
TEMPO #2Studies suggest that shots are gaining pace in comparison toThe Golden age of Hollywood.The average shot length was 5.15 seconds it is now 4.75seconds.The change of length can be seen when you compare LaCaptive and The Shining.This is due to the fact that films are now electronically cutand not hand cut.
PROBLEMS WITHTEMPOIt takes the average person 3 seconds to adjust to a shotchange. Brandt has argued“…..if the audience takes 3 seconds to adjust to a new scene, what happens when the average shotlength is so short that the audience is never given a chance to catch up”The tendency to rely on such rapid editing in recent filmsmay explain why younger audience are not interested toolder films.
SHOT TRANSITIONSAnother way editors adjust the tempo is shot transitionsCut from A to B, Fade in/fade out and Dissolve (overlapping) areall common shot transitions.Cut for A to B is seen in most films to this day. It is simply a cutfrom one thing to another:http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&NR=1&v=A3ZbnfXEuycFade in/fade out are known fading in or out from black or whitewhere as dissolve is a fade out into another shot. SamPeckinpah’s Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid is a good example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OuZLRoUn5Bc&feature=related
FADESFades alter the pace of the film as pause the action.Fades rarely occur in films. When they do it is to presentmemory or fantasy.Sam Peckinpah’s Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid is again agood example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OuZLRoUn5Bc&feature=related
TIMING OF A SHOTAnother editing technique is timing of shotsCut away to emphasis a persons reaction or response forexampleCut away to a newspaper on the table when presented innarrativeCutting from a two shot to a close up for reaction or a closeup to a long shot for landscape effect
NAPOLEON DYNAMITEHTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=PMMAW5A7POUAttributes to editing: Techniques Used:• Collage • Medium two shot (friendship/companionship) vs. Close up (disappointment)• Tempo • The takes in the sequence vary therefore the tempo being unbalanced and constantly changing but they are long enough not to be action packed.• Timing • The timing and continuity of the shots is flowing and the shots are long but well timed to not get bored.
EDITING AND TIMINGNarrative sequencing is either linear or medias res.In linear editing the story is told as it happens whereas‘Medias res’ is the term used when narrative is jumbled up (FightClub for example)Linear: Apocalypse now -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=njfbVrYn4CU In this examplewe see the story being told as it is no flashbacks or jumbling up of thescenes.Medias res: Fight club - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ze9-wg9k7AU In this example at the start your watching the end and atthe end your watching the start but told in a different way because ofwhats gone on in the film.
CONDENSING /EXPANDING TIMECollages condense timeRocky uses ‘condensed editing’ when training for his fightspeeding up hours, days or years in the characters lives.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IwvoTDoO9HgExpanding – overlapping shots of a single actionExample: Someone pressing a button shot from 3 angles andshown after each other to portray time but also nerves in theperson pressing it
ARRANGING THEORDER OF EVENTSMedia ResEvents taking place in the present are interrupted by images thathave taken place in the past.FlashbacksRare occasions there are flash-forwardsBy their nature ‘flash forwards’ can be confusing as they can onlybe understood once the event has occurred on scene. Easy Rider – Captain America is interrupted as hetalks by a shot of burning debris on the side of the road. Only later will viewers realise that the debris is from CA motorcycle crash at the end of the film
TIME AND SPACE Editing draws the viewers attention to the detailClose up (example of the very first ‘close up’ used in film http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2X_BZpnWFcEstablishingExample: Return of the Kinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wVXIVtIBMnA&feature=fvwrelGandalf is riding with Pippin to Minas TirithThis drawers the viewers attention to a number of things; be it theemotional tenor of a conversation, the object of a characters gaze,important detail in the mise en scene and the group dynamics of ascene
SHOT REVERSE SHOTShot reverse shot can be a conversation between two people orone speaks to the other listening.The rule is: the actors will never speak directly to the viewer asthis destroys the illusion of a naturally unfolding storyCameras are normally slightly angles to the side rather thanusing point of view shotshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cvof8mI6pXk
EYE LINE MATCHThe match cut uses the characters line of sight.Powerful storytelling devise as it draws the viewers into acharacters thought process and emotional state.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OGyFPbNg03wCutawaysUnlike eye line match a cut away is not character centered, the onscreen appearance of an object does not depend on the characterhaving to ‘see it’ in the previous shot.
CREATING MEANINGOUTSIDE THE STORYContinuityContinuity is a film term that suggests that a series of shots should be physicallycontinuous, as if the camera simply changed angles in the course of a singleevent. For instance, if in one shot a beer glass is empty, it should not be full in thenext shot.The 180° RuleMedia College say the rule of line-crossing is sometimes called the 180° rule. Thisrefers to keeping the camera position within a field of 180°.Soviet MontageFilm110 says Soviet montage is a type of film theory focused on understandingand creating cinema using specific film editing techniques. The theory wasconceived in the Soviet Union during the 1920s and was pioneered by such Sovietdirectors as Alexander Dovzhenko and Sergei Eisenstein. Though many of thesedirectors disagreed about montage, Eisensteins thinking was eventually viewed as"soviet montage." Eisensteins essays on film form and film theory revolutionizedthe view of film from simple entertainment to intellectual artwork. However, theywere a hybrid of the theories collectively established by several Soviet directors.