Crct review packet answers


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Crct review packet answers

  1. 1. Name: _____________________ CRCT Review – Social StudiesPart One Directions: Please use a separate sheet of paper OR note cards to answer questions 1-58 below.LATIN AMERICA and CANADA1. Who were the Aztecs and where did they settle? Ancient civilization of Latin America – Located in the valley of Mexico2. Who were the Incas and where did they settle? Ancient civilization of Latin America – Located along western coast of S. America3. What was the Columbian Exchange? The moving of animals, plants, people, and diseases from the Old World (Europe) to the New World (Americas) and from the New World to the Old World4. Who were Hernan Cortez and Francisco Pizarro? Cortez – Conquistador who conquered the Aztecs Pizarro – Conquistador who conquered the Incas5. Who were Montezuma and Atahualpa? Montezuma – Aztec leader Atahualpa – Incan leader6. Why does Quebec want to be an independent nation? Some Quebec citizens feel they are losing their French culture.7. What two countries colonized Canada? France and Great BritainIndependence Movements8. Who is Miguel Hidalgo? Country? Catholic priest who helped lead Mexico’s fight for independence9. Who is Toussaint Louverture? Country? Former slave who helped Haiti gain their independence10. Who is Simon Bolivar? Countries? Known as el libertador, he helped many south American countries become independent, including his home country of Venezuela20th Century11. Who is Fidel Castro and how did he change Cuban History? He overthrew the Cuban government in 1959, and has been dictator up until 2008. He refuses to let people in Cuba have freedoms or leave the country.12. Who are the Zapatistas? A rebel group in Mexico that fought for the rights of Native Mexicans13. What is NAFTA and how does it affect Mexico, US, and Canada? North American Free Trade Agreement – Allows them to trade w/out tariffsCulture14. Who are the Inuits? The native people of Canada15. What is the primary religion practiced and the primary language spoken in Latin America? Christianity and Spanish16. What languages are spoken in Canada? 1
  2. 2. French & EnglishEUROPE:17. What was the Age of Exploration and how did it affect the world? The time period when many European nations were trying to venture out and acquire new territories and resources. The cultures of these countries impacted the places they explored and colonized.18. Who are Prince Henry the Navigator, Henry Hudson, and Christopher Columbus? Prince Henry – Poruguese explorer who helped discover many breakthroughs in mathematics and naval technology. Columbus – Italian-born explorer who sailed for Spain. Gets credit for discovering America. Henry Hudson – Dutch explorer; explored New York and Canada; Hudson Bay is named after him.WWI19. What were the Causes of the War? 3 main causes and 1 main event Causes: Nationalism, Colonialism, and Alliances Main event: The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand20. What were the results of the War? The Austria-Hungary empire was dismantled. The Ottoman Empire was destroyed. Russian Revolution would take place in 191721. What was the Treaty of Versailles? Treaty that ended WWI21. How did the War affect Germany? Germany was blamed for starting the war and was asked to pay for the damage leaving the country in financial ruins.WWII22. What is Nazism? The belief by the Nazi party that the German race is superior to other races and ethnicities.23. What is Fascism? A radical form of nationalism that promotes political violence24. Who were the Axis Powers? Germany, Italy, and Japan25. Who were the Allied Powers? Great Britain, USA, Russia, France, and China26. What caused WWII to take place? Treaty of Versailles was the main cause because it punished Germany and they ended up poor and humiliated27. What was the Holocaust? The attempted extermination of the Jews by Hitler and the Nazis.28. Who were Hitler, Mussolini, Roosevelt, Truman, Churchill and Stalin? Hitler – Leader of Germany Mussolini – Leader of Italy 2
  3. 3. Roosevelt – U.S. President at the start of WWII Truman – U.S. President who made decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan Churchill – Prime Minister of Great Britain Stalin – Leader of RussiaRussian Revolution29. Who was Vladmir Lenin? Led the 1917 Russian revolution and took over control of Russia30. What was the Russian Revolution? The takeover of Russia by Lenin – it led to a communist government in Russia31. Who was Czar Nicholas II? The last Russian emperor’ he was overthrown by Lenin.32. Who was Joseph Stalin? Head of Russia during WWIICold War33. What happened at Chernobyl? Nuclear plant exploded, killing many and damaging the environment permanently34. What was the Cold War? Countries involved? A time of tension, but no direct warfare from 1945-1991, b/w U.S. & U.S.S.R35. What happened to Berlin after WWII? It was divided up w/ the Soviet Union occupying east Berlin, and France, the UK, and the U.S. dividing up West Berlin.36. What was the impact of the fall of Berlin Wall? It symbolized the end of communist rule in Germany.Europe Culture37. What is the European Union and how has it helped Europe after the Cold War? It has united European countries, promoting free trade and developing a common currency.AUSTRALIA38. Who were the Aborigines? The indigenous (native) people of Australia39. What was Australia first used as by the British? A penal colony – a place to send prisoners40. Where do most Australian’s live and why? Along the coast because the climate inside Australia is too dryGOVERNMENT41. What is an autocracy? One ruler makes all decisions – citizens have no say42. What is an oligarchy? Small group of people run the country – citizens have little or no say43. What is a democracy? Power is given to the people by voting44. What system of government (autocracy, oligarchy, democracy) do the following countries have-Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, Canada, Australia, Germany, Russia, and United Kingdom? All have democracies except Cuba has an oligarchy (communist) 3
  4. 4. 45.What is a unitary power structure? Power lies in the hands of a central government46. What is a confederation? Small independent states/countries have power over a smaller central government47. What is a federation? Power is divided amongst a central and local governments48. How is power distributed (unitary, confederation, federation) in the following countries have-Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, Canada, Australia, Germany, Russia, and United Kingdom? Mexico – Federal Brazil – Federal Cuba – Unitary Canada – Unitary Australia – Federal Germany – Federal Russia – Federal United Kingdom - Unitary49. What is a parliamentary democracy? Democracy where the Prime Minister is elected by the legislature50. What is a presidential democracy? Democracy where the people elect representatives and a President.51. Which countries have a parliamentary democracy- Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, Canada, Australia,Germany, Russia, and United Kingdom? Canada, Australia, Germany, and the United Kingdom52. Which countries have a presidential democracy- Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, Canada, Australia,Germany, Russia, and United Kingdom? Mexico, Brazil, and RussiaECOMONIC SYSTEMS53. What are the four economic systems? Describe each. Traditional – Customs and beliefs answer the economic questions Command – Government makes all decisions, answers 3 questions Market – NO government involvement at all (no pure market economies) Mixed – Combination of command and market economies54. What are the 3 economic questions that every country must answer? What to produce? How to produce? For whom to produce?55. What are the 3 economic trade barriers? Describe each. Tariff – Tax on imported goods Embargo – Refusing trade with another country (usually politically motivated) Quota – A limit on the number of an import that can enter a country56. What are the 4 factors of economic growth (hint—they impact a country’s GDP)? Give an exampleof each. 1 – Natural resources available, 2 – Entrepreneurship, 3 – Investment in capital goods, and 4 – Investment in human capital57. What is Gross Domestic Product? A country’s total amount of goods and services produced in a year58. What is the purpose of currency exchange? So that countries can trade with one another 4