« s i
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melboume, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo, Delhi
Cambridge Univers...
a |j :í i8F;*¡T
I Table of Contents
I n t r o d u c t io n ..................................................................
Chapter Contents
Begin at the Beginning
Q j THINKING ABOUT WRIT1NG ..........................................................
CHAPTER2 A Person Im portant to You
| J GETTING STARTED .....................................................................
QQj REVISING YOUR W RITING......................................................................................... 42
A A...
CHAPTER 5 H o lid a y s
D GETTING STARTED . . . . .......................................................... , 6 4
A Pictu...
3 EDITING YOUR WRITING . . ..................................................................................................
O PREPARING THE FIRST D R A F T .............................................................................................
0 FOLLOWING U P ..........................
A Share your writing . . . . . . .
B Check your progress . . . . .
Q uick Check...
1
Introduction
THE WRITERS AT WORK SERIES
The Writers at Work series takes high beginning to high intermediate-level
writi...
ABOUT WRITERS AT WORK: THE PARAGRAPH
Chapter struciure
Each chapter is divided into the following fíve parts:
I Getting St...
• "Sharing Your Writing" activities at the end of each chapter engage students
in sharing their final drafts.
• "Quick Che...
I would like to express my appredation to the many people who have made
this second edition a reality. I would first like ...
Begin at the
Beginning
[ ou are a wnfer. Ybu are a wnfer jft yeur own 5 1|
I .* fangpage, and soort^cíw#ie*a'i?sft!BF»i'á^...
THINKING ABOUT WRITING
Writers at Work: The Paragraph
ReaSons for writing
1 Th'ipk about writing in your native language. ...
revise organize]
(check ideas) ideas aiíd
plan writing
Step:.
write
C8SS
edit^check get ideas
grammar)
Answer these questi...
''"'"w q í’f a m in u té is
T h is is h o w I r e a lly
s > ( ¿ r i f e . y
Good writers move forward and backward between...
Chapter H
i |
A Morning
Person or a
Night Person?
■ ¡L
ü
D B i ^ á í n a narninghop; r e ' jhigpí bettes í EJo v
PP^uífik&...
GETTING STARTED
A Picture this
a b o u t e a c h p h o t o g r a p h w ith H s jflp $ § ? ¡c > ;r» in a s m a l l g r o u ...
BRAINSTORMING
piié wiy'to 'gei jde.is-foi svlHin¿is to biaiiistórm.
H ra irisíom m g 'nicihs to tliínk abóiíla topic and
w...
U PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT
A Organize your ideas
ORGANIZING IDEAS
Aftex-you brainsiprm /^u^íí; Ea^-jiíany^idéásoiLyourpap...
Practice
Look at each group of words and phrases about a main idea. Put an X next to the
irrelevant word or phrase. The fi...
Your turn /*z^
Follow these steps to check for any irrelevant ideas in your chart on page 8.
1 Are all of your ideas relev...
“■*-M ÍA*<ví*i
^jVüoIO
Night
N íght-ís th e b e st tim e fo r m e. in th e e y é n in g /J c a li m y .frje n d s ; VVe g ...
B S IéBit ín o y o u r ;wfsiting
A Focus on sentence grammar
EDITING
parigfapb^yoiL^e-reááyió;edi¿it: ^¿rmeáns
ta f^se^o^'...
Practice
Which of these words can be subjects and which words can be verbs? Write the words
in the correct columñ in the c...
Practice 0
Look back at Practice 3 on page 12. Dóés every sentence have a subject and a.verb?
Check your answers with your...
Daylight Savin g Tim e
/
/n the United States, we have daylight saving time for half of the year. in
A
late spring, we put...
B Edit your writing
Use the Editing Checklist below to edit your second draft. Follow these steps.
1 Underiine all of the ...
FOLLOWING UP
A Share your writing
Follow these steps to share your writing.
1 Put eveiyone's papers on desks or tables in ...
Chapter
2
Q GETT1NG STARTED
A Piciure this
fmswer the ^liesti<||fiíafcotiMi|h}pb^t<pg|áph with IrgB- s or in a smali^ótip ¿
Writers ...
B Get ideas
To prepare for writing, study these words for describing personality.
Describing personality
Write four words ...
To prepare for writing, -study these words for describing people.
Describing appearance
Age
young middle-agea oíd
Shape
ne...
Eyes dark brown light brown blue green
Men
Appearance
unattractive/ugly
Fealures
 beard moustache
Yourturn ^ 
Write four w...
BRAINSTORMING
ideasfor writing. When'you brainstorin,; tryto
•list as good idea:pr á bad idea. Write
down all ofyóurjdefas...
PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT
A Organize your ideas
!^pi|a^^Í^t® eg||p^S^^^^i|p® ||D ÉsinSp||^te^^géM ^T^orgánize:>^:
sfcyeur ...
B Plan your writing
In Engíish,^ paiagrap&is iisnal/yáboutlm eíinam idea.The topic sentence tells us
the mam idea-^t;i¿ us...
| ~L
Practice 0 w jsíon ssbuoieca
Each group of sentences has one topic sentence and three supporting sentences. Write
a T...
Practice
Read the student paragraph below. Then, read the sentences that follow the paragraph.
Check (/) all the sentences...
G Write the first draft ^
Get comfortable, relax, and think about your important person. Use your list o f
categories to w...
3 Is there a topic sentence about the main idea? If there is a topic sentence, underline
it and write TS above it. If ther...
Practice 0
Read each sentence fragment and identify the problem. Write NS for no subject, NV
for no verb, or NSV for no su...
Practice £•
Read the following pairs. of sentences. In each pair, one sentence is a fragment. Correct
the fragment either ...
Practice 0
Write RO next to the run-on sentences and CS next to correct sentences.
1 I want to own a company some day I ho...
Practice
In this paragraph, some of the sentences are run-ons. To correct the run-on sentences,
add periods and capital le...
B Edit your writing
Use the Editing Checklist below to edit your second draft. Follow these steps.
1 Underline all of the ...
□ FOLLOWING UP
A Share your writing
Exchange papers with a partner. Read and talk about your papers. Compare your
importan...
1
■"Ü?••■É¡g§fsí'°:i?j ^ p p y p M »
„ JL onStínriá^Woht'Our weefcend Iwesacefcísaally *j
^ ,^ ~ W # i^ á£s^ w arfe:^ Weef...
GETtING STARTED
A Picture this
' Answer the questions about each photograph with your dass or in a small group.
1 Where is...
B Get ideas
classes
hate it! 2 loud aíarw docks
Your íurn ^
C-hoose one weekend day, either Saturday or Sunday, and make y...
PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT . . y: V:. o y ■
A Organize your ideas
Follow these steps to organize your ideas for your paragr...
Draft B
Saturday
' of the week for me. í usually;
wáke üp wash my car. f eat lunch. I ; ;
:d ó ñ 't eat breákfasí¡op; Satu...
Practice Q
Write the transitions in the paragraph below. Some sentences have several possible
answers. Write only one. Be ...
My Sunday / m l
Tñis [^abbut myJSuhday. j .
^o’cípck;'“TjSen;^ S ai|g ín cn ^
university, We
go'tq;a grócéry storeto buyfo...
EDITING YOUR WRITING
A Focus on sentence grammar
Read a student's paragraph about her favorite weekend day, Saturday. Can ...
COORDINATINGCONJUNCTiONS
_Twó simple sentences can join together to forai a compound sentence. When.
two sentences áre joi...
Practice 2 3
Join each pair of simple sentences to make one compound sentence. Use a
I H H H J H n i i 3 & 1 A i 1» ; tP p...
Practice
This paragraph has no puncíuation. Add periods and commas to make simple and
compound sentences. Add capital lett...
Your turn
Now look at your own paragraph about the weekend. Did you write any compound
sentences? Can you join any simple ...
I H IM .O W IM G UP
A Share your writing
B Follow these steps to share your writing in small groups.
1 Get into a small gr...
Q offl&ftiTÍes whéfi fríeñd&’afTcf fam fy are at a party
j^J^ttírrgstbuncftheSfiñsrtabre, of^justrefax’thg *
tbgefft^v tef...
Q gETTING STARTED
A Picture this
Answer the questions about each photograph with your dass or in a small group.
2 Writers ...
B Get ideas
TALKING TOGETIDEAS
Talking WithLothers isá good wayJo get idéasfóryour writing. W héhyoutelía
stoiy; you try’t...
B Plan your writing
Practice
Read this student's paragraph. It is an interesting story, but it leaves the reader with
many...
Afteraboutanhourandáha|f,Icouldn’tkeepquietanymore. Itwastoofunny.
Istartedtolaugh,andthenmysisterunderstoodthatIhadmade.t...
E l REVISING YOUR WRITING
A Analyze a paragraph
Read a students first draft below, and answer the questions. Then, talk ab...
Your turn
When you get your paragraph back, reread it. Then, answer these questions.
1 Are there any question marks on it?...
y
RUN-ON SENTENCES
A common writing mistake is the compound run-on
sentence does not usually have more
is probably a compo...
CORRECTING A RUN-ON SENTENCE
A-mn:on sentence is :^ o pr more independent clauses incoiré^y/jomeci
|together. To coírert a...
Practice Q
This student's paragraph has both simple and compound sentences, but there are
many run-on sentences in it. Cor...
the well. 7I cried and called my mom, then ! fell asleep.
8A fter a long time, I woke up, I was still ¡n the well, I start...
Write your final draft, induding your changes and corrections. Use correct format.
I FOLLOWING UP____
A Share your writing...
¡§i
T J ofidayafTheyare dtffeseoffrorn-aff-otherrfays of r"
X X theyemWfiénwetí'earthéworcfholicfay.we,tfíinkfí
^ofspecial...
' 1 1 gjl^ÍN G STARTED
A Picture this
Answer the questions about each photograph with your class or in a small group.
Gei ...
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Writers at work

  1. 1. « s i
  2. 2. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melboume, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo, Delhi Cambridge University Press ^ 32 Avenue of theAmericas, New Yode, N Y 10013-2473,tüSA www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/978052154j228 © Cambridge University Press 2005 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to theprovisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge UniversityPress. Firstpublished 2005 7th printing 2008 ' i Printed in the United States ofAmerica A catalog recordfo r thispublication is availablefrom the British Library 1 Library o fCongress Cataloging in Publication Data Singleton, Jill. Writers at work. The paragraph / Jill Singleton. p. cm. ¡ isbn 978-0-521-54522-8 (pbk.) 1. English language-Textbo'oks for foreign speakers. 2. English language - Paragraphs Problems, exercises, etc. I. Title: Paragraph. H. Title ISBN' 978-0-521-54522-8 paperback Cambridge¿Jniversity Press has no responsibility for I the persistence of accuracy of u r ls for extemal or ‘ ' third-partyInternet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. ¡ Art directión and book design: Adventure House, NYC Layout services: Page Designs International Illustration credits: Rick Powell V Photo credits: page 2: O Alamy; page 6: © Paul Barton/Corbis, © Alamy, '© GDT/Getty, © Paul Barton/Corbis; page 20: © Joe Polillio/Getty, ©..Martin Barraud/Getty, © Annie Mane Musselman/Gettv, © Punchstock; page 38: © Brian Bailey/Gétty,' ©'punchsíock, © Richard T. Nowitz/'Corbis, © Justin Pum&ey/Gerty; page 52: © Corbis, fe) Tom & Dee Aon McCarthy/Corbis, © George Logan/Getty; page 64: © Punchstock, ÓMark L. Stephenson/Corbis, © Ariel Skelley/Corbis; page 78: © Gabe Palmeiy’Corbijs, © Robert Llewellyn/'Alamy; page 88: © Michael Melford/Getty, © Punchstock, © Ddug Armand/Geny; page 98: © Brown W. Camión IQ/Getíy, © Puachsiock, © Jóse Luis Pelaez IncJCorbis: page 112: © JeffGreenberg/Alamy. © Sean Cayton/Thej Image Works. © James Cheadle/Alamy
  3. 3. a |j :í i8F;*¡T I Table of Contents I n t r o d u c t io n ..............................................................................................xiii A c k n o w lé d g e m e n ts ................ ................... xvíi B e g in a t th e B e g i n n i n g ...................... 1 Chapter 1 A M o m in g P e rso n o r a jSfight P e r s o n ? ...................... 5 Chapter 2 A P e rso n Im p o rta n t to Y o u ........................ 19 Chapter 3 T h e W e e k e n d J..........................í f Chapter 4 A S ca ry o r F u n n y E x p e r ie n c e ............................................, , ü Chapter 5 H o lid a y s . , , .................... ..............63 Chapter 6 T e llin g S t o r i e s J . .............................. 77 Chapter 7 A F av o rite P la ce ...................................... ... ,%7 Chapter8 T h e Id e a l S p o a s e . *..............- •* - - ■>■>'*.>■ ■ Chapter 9 W h a t's Y o u r O p in ió n ? j ................................................. „ , . i f l Q u ic k C h e c k .........................‘ ...................................................... st Ü
  4. 4. Chapter Contents Begin at the Beginning Q j THINKING ABOUT WRIT1NG .............................................................................................................. 2 A Reasons.for w riting....................................................... 2 B Thoughts about writing . '.................................................................................................................. 2 0 THE WRITING PROCESS............................................................................................... 3 A Steps for writing..................................................... The writing process*.................. 3. B Using the writing process.................................................................................................................. 3 GETT1NG STARTED ................................................. . . . 6 A Picturethis B Get ideas CHAPTER1 A M orning Person o r a'N ight Person? i I I I— I I I 6 ....................................................Brainstorm ing.................................................... .7 H PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT ......................................................................................................... 8 A Organize your.sdeas . . . . ................................. Organizing ideas.......................................... 8 B Plan your writing .................................................. The main id e a ........................................ • 8 C Write the first d r a ft..................................... ... The first d r a f i.................................... 10 DJI REVIS1NG YOUR W R fflN G .....................................’ fie v is in g ......................................................... 10 A Analyze a paragraph......................................................................... . . 10 B Revise your w ritin g ............................Revhing with a p a rtn e r.....................................11 ; íl -n C Write the secoíid draft ............................. . . . . .. . . . ..............................................• * | 3 EDIT1NG YOUR ^ÍRITING ........................................................... ........................................ 12 * j • j n A Focus on seníence gram m ar...............................£tiiiin g ...........................................................; l¿ Simple seniences B Edit your writing........................ . • .................................... C Write the final jir a ft........................................................................................................................ . 16 FOLLOWING Ü F ....................................................................................................................................1' A Share your wrinng. . . . ! .............................................................................................................. ‘ / B Check your progresí 11 rTne Items inthis coiumn referte the titiss of the information box.ss that appearthrougñouíthe ccok. vi W riters at "Work: The Paragraph
  5. 5. CHAPTER2 A Person Im portant to You | J GETTING STARTED ................................................................................... .;« ! A Picturethis ........................... 20 B Get ideas ..............................................Brainstorming .................................................21 E | PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT ..................................... ^ . W A Organize your ideas..............................................Organizing by catego ry......................... 25 B Pfan your writing ........................................ Topic sentence and supporting sentences . . 26 C Write the first d r a ft...................... . '................. 29 H 2 REVISING YOUR WRITIÑG 7 ! . . . / ‘I’ . . ............ '• '■ $ A Anaiyze a paragraph......................................! ................................................. .................................29 B Revise your writing . . . ........................................................■. . 29 C Write the second draft i' í , :2 M M . . ■• ■. . . 30 m EDITING YOUR WRiTiNG ...............¡ ........................... .............................................. . 30 A Focus on sentence gram mar......................J . . Fragm ents........................................................... 30 ¡ Correcting a fragment ’í Run-on sentences B Edit your writing . . C Write the final draft Q F0LL0WING U P .............................................. 36 A Share your writing........................................... ¡.j..................................................... 36 v B Check your progress.....................................f.i. . .............................. 36 k CHAPTER3 The W eekend |l ■ H-Q ETTm G ^m RTED . t-.: .............................................. • A Picíure this ...........................................![...................................... 38 I B Get ideas ....................................................... . An idea w e b ................. ..........................i 39 = . j _ y 0 PREPAñING THE FIRST DRAFT .....................¡.................................................. .................- .i-S * A Organize your ideas............................................ Organizing by iimeo r d e r............................. 40 i! B Pian your writing .......................................... ¡. . Transitions.....................................................40 C Write the first d raft.......................... 42 Table of Contents VII
  6. 6. QQj REVISING YOUR W RITING......................................................................................... 42 A Analyze a paragraph .................................................. 42 B Revise your w riting ..................... 43 C Write the second draft .............................. 43 2 3 EDITING YOUR W RITING......................................................................................................................44 A Focus on sentence gram mar................................. Compound sentences.................................44 Coordinating conjunctions B Edit your writing...................................................................................................................................48 C Write the final d ra ft.............................. 48 0 FOLLOW1NG UPj . . 49 A Share your writing........................................... ............................................................................... . 49 B Check your progress ................................. N.........* ................................................4^ CHAPTER4 A ¡Scary or Funny Experience GETT1NG STARTED A Picturethis B Get ideas 52 .................. .52 Talking to get ideas . . . -53 Q PgEPARING TH|E FIRST D R A F T ...................................................................................................... ■53 A Organize your ideas.......................’ ......................................................................................... 53 B Plan your wíiting ................................. DetaHs . .......................................................... . 54 C Write the first d ra ft............................................. .......................................• ........................... . 55 |T | REVISING YOUR WRITING................. .................. ^ ; ■56 A Analyze a pajragraph .................................................V ................................... ..................56 B-fievise-yGüP-wfít-iflg- . . 56 C Write the sesond draft ................................................ A ..........................................................57 EDITING YOUR iWRITING.......................................................J .................... * A Focus on sentence grammar. ........................ . Compound sentences . . . . . 57 Run-on sentences Correcting a run-on sentence B Edit your wriong.................................................... 61 C Write the fina draft . . .................................................................................................................. FOLLOW1NG U P ............................................ 62 A Share your writing...........................................; . . . . . . . . . 62 ’kack your progrese TÍil Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  7. 7. CHAPTER 5 H o lid a y s D GETTING STARTED . . . . .......................................................... , 6 4 A Picturethis .................................................................................. 64 B Get ideas ............................................................................ 64 | 3 PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT .......................................................... ......................... 65 A Organize your ideas.................................... 65 B Plan your writing ................................................. Theconclusión.................................................66 C Write the first d r a ft............................................................................................ .68 REVISING YOUR WRITING.......................... 68 A Analyze a paragraph. J-........................................................................................ 68 B Revise your w ritin g ...................................................................■........................................................69 C Write the second draft ............................................................................. 69 E | EDITING YOUR WRITING.................................................... 69 A Focus on sentence gram m ar i . . . . Complex sentences........................... 69 Subordinating conjunctions i Punctuating complex sentences B Edit your writing ..............................J.................................................................................... . 75 C Write the final d ra ft............................... -...........................75 E l ’ fOLLOWING U P ......................................... i 76 A Share your writing................................... J ................................................................................. . • 76 B Check your progress............................. i ............................ v. 76 • CHAPTER 6 T e llin g S to rie s l-ffiFRNG-STAfiT-ED A Picturethis . ... ...................................N............................. . 78 bet ideas .......................................................[ i 79 * ■’ 'J ‘ ■ PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT A Organize your ideas............... B Plan your writing . ............... C Write the first draft ............ . 80 . 80 . 80 . 80 REVISING YOUR W RITING.................................................................................................. 81 A ñnaíyze a paragraph ..........................................................................................................................81 B Revise your w ritin g ........................ . 8 1 O Write the second draft .................. 82 Table of Coníenís
  8. 8. 3 EDITING YOUR WRITING . . ........................................................................................................ 82 A Focus on sentence gram m ar...................................Dependent clause fragm ents........................82 Correcting a fragment B Edit your writing.............................................................................. 84 C Write the final d ra ft.......................... 85 3 FOL1QWING U P ..........................................................................................................................86 A Share your writing........................................................................... 86 B Check your progress............................................................................................................. 86 CHAPTER7 A Favorite Place H GETT1NG STARTED........................................... 88 A Picturé this .............................. ^ 88 B Get ideas; ..................................................................................... 0 PREPARlNG(jÍHE FIRSTDRAFT .................................................................................. A Organize your ideas.................................................Describing a place.........................................89 B Plan youriwriting ..................................................................................................... C Write the jírst d ra ft..................... 90- H REVISING YOUR W RITING......................................................................................... A Analyze a.paragraph ................. - .........................- . . . . 91 B Revise yóur w riting........................................................................................................ • - • ■91 C Write the second draft ....................... . . . .................................................... 92 á % EDITING YÓ.UR W RITING........................................... 92 A Focus on|sentence gram m ar................................. Ftepositionsof place .........................92 _B y^ypwriting - — :--------— .... 95 C Write tfieliinaí d ra ft.................................................................................................. 96 ■ ■ E l FOLLOWING Ü F ............................................................. J .........................................................96 A Share yot r wntinq ........... : .................... 96 B Cneck your progress HAPTER3 The Ideal Spouse GETT1NG STARTED...................................................................... A Picturethis ................................................................................ B Get Ideas ............... Frsewriiíng Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  9. 9. O PREPARING THE FIRST D R A F T ........................................................................................................ 100 A Organize your ideas . ...................... Organizingbyim portance.......................100 B Plan your writing ................................................... Transitions................................................... 101 C Write the first d ra ft...........................................................................................................................103 D ] REVISING YOUR W RITING....................................... 103 A Analyze a paragraph..................................... 103 B Revise your w ritin g ...........................................................................................................................104 C Write the second draft ................................. 104 E l EDITING YOUR W RITING..................................................................... 105 A Focus on sentence gram m ar i . . . . . Sentence varieiy. . . ............................ 105 B Edit your writing.................................. .*...................................................................................... 108 C Write the final d ra ft..............................•.............. ............... v ........................108 H FOLLOWINGUP .................. . '.................................................................................. 109 A Share your writing .......................I .......................................................................................... 109 B Check your progress........................./ I ..........................................................................................109 CHAPTER9 W hat's Your O pinión? vGETTING STARTED............................./I......................................................................................112 A Picturethis ......................................... ; .......................................................................................... 112 B Get ideas ..........................■.............J ' ....................................... 113 1 • PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT ....................................................... I .......................... 114 A Organize your ideas............................í¡¡..............Quilines . . . . . . . . . . ...................... 114 B Plan your writing ............................j ’| ......................................................................V . . . . 118 -C - Write4he--áfs^daft - , . : . . . . : ...................... ^ - - ^ — 1-1^ REVISING YOUR WRITING A Analyze a paragraph . . . B Revise your writing . . . C Write the second draft . EDITING YOUR W RITING.......................... ¡................................................... 120 ! A Focus on sentence gram m ar.I ................................................................... 1 2 0 B Edit vcur writing.................................................................................................. 121 C Write the finaJ d ra ft................................................. .................................... 121 Table of Contents
  10. 10. 0 FOLLOWING U P .......................... A Share your writing . . . . . . . B Check your progress . . . . . Q uick Check H EDITING SYMBOLS . ............. 0 COMMON WRITING PROBLEMS A Verb probiem ( V ) ................... B Subjecí-verb agreement (S-V). C Sentence fragment (Frag) . . . D Run-on,sentence (RO) . . . . E Word fqrm (WF) . F Wrong yvord (WW) G Spellinc (SP) H Puncíuation (P) . l CapitaJi; :ation (C) ' lis Writers at Work: Tke Paragraph
  11. 11. 1 Introduction THE WRITERS AT WORK SERIES The Writers at Work series takes high beginning to high intermediate-level writing students through a process approach to writing. The series is intended primarily for adults whose first language is not English, but it may also prove effective for younger writers or for native speakers of English who are developing their competence as independent writers in English. Writers at Work: The Paragraph prepares high beginning to low inYermediate students to write well-organized !and accurate paragraphs. Writers at Work: The Short Composition prepares low iiitermediate to intermediate-level students to write well-constructed and acqurate short compositions. Finally, Writers at Work: The Essay prepares intermedíate to high intermedíate students to write fully-developed essays withjan introduction, body paragraphs, and a concjusion. Upon completion ofl the last book in the series, students will be ready for more advanced-level aqademic writing courses. The approach Competence in writing comes from knowing how to write as much as írom knowing what to write. That is why the Writers at Work books are organized •around the process o f writing. They teach students about the ^riting process and then guide them to use it as^they write. We believe that on<te students understand how to use the writing process in writing paragraphs7short compositions, and essays, they will gain the confidence they ñeed to advance to more complex writing tasks. ' i- In teadiing writing to lower leveljstudents, there is always the risk of sacrifidng creativity in order to achieve acciíracy, or vice versa. The Writers at Work books guide students through the writing process in such a way that their final pieces o f writing are not onlv expressive and rich in contení, but also dear and accurate Chapier sirueiure Each chapter is aivided ínto the fdllowing five parís: I Gettlng Started I Students are stimulaíed to íhink about the topic of the chapter. They generate.ideas that they can use later in their writing. II Preparing the First Draft Students organize. plan, and write their first draft. xiii
  12. 12. ABOUT WRITERS AT WORK: THE PARAGRAPH Chapter struciure Each chapter is divided into the following fíve parts: I Getting Started Students are stimulated to think about the topic of the chapter. They generate ideas that they can use later in their writing. !! Preparing the First Draft Students organize, plan, and write their first draft. Jil Revising Your Writing In this section, students analyze sample paragraphs and compositions, leam about key elements of writing, and apply those principies in revisions o f their first drafts. IV Editirjg Your Writing Students are introduced to selected aspects of grammar. They edit their writing for accurate grammar and write their final drafts. i V Following Up > Students share their writing with each other. Finally, they fill out a self-kssessment form, which allows them to track their progress as writers J¡ thr^jughout the course. Key íeatures • The )Dpok begins with an introductory sectión, "Begin at the Beginning," which introduces students to the ^vriting process, including its recursive nature. V í » The 'nine chapters of the book are thematic, each one dealing with a topic of personal interest. All of the activitiesVnd exercises in a chapter relate to üie t¿emerin~this Way, studifiiLs u ii discoyer vocabulario use in thek=oggmg -----------------4t- •writing on the theme. » Sámale paragraphs are presented for students to analyze, revise, and edit in preparation for working on their own writing. A major goal of the test is to heip students, bit by bit, to become inore profident at revising and editing theiríown writing. • * Systematic and cumuiative instmction in paragraph constroction and in building sentences is presented in a logical and manageable way. * Student interacüoQ is importaní in Writers at Work: The Paragraph. Throughout üie book, students are carefiilly guided to heip each other write more clearly and think more critically about writing.
  13. 13. • "Sharing Your Writing" activities at the end of each chapter engage students in sharing their final drafts. • "Quick Check," an editing and grammar reference at the end of the book, introduces students to useful editing symbols and covers the most common basic writing errors. It can be used by students when editing their writing or by teachers as extra heip for an individual student. No writing text can encompass the great variety of activities in a writing dass. In addition to the carefully sequenced writing assignments in the text, it is essential that students do a good deal of unstructured writing in order to increase their fluency and comfort in writing in English. Activities such as joumals, dialogue joumals, and informal letter-writing and e-mailing are vital to the growth of the students' writing ability. It is highly-recommended that the teacher indude such activities in the dass. A FINAL NOTE V Introduction
  14. 14. I would like to express my appredation to the many people who have made this second edition a reality. I would first like to thank all of my students at the English Language Center of Towson University for their generosity in sharing their writing and insights. I am very grateful, too, to the teachers and siaff o f ‘ the ELC for their continued heip and support over the years. Special thanks go tq Mary Jo;Lindeman, teacher at the ELC, fór all the time and thought she unstintingly gave to this revisión. Many thanks to the following students for gradously allowing me to use - their writing in this book: Sami Al-Weháibi, Osama Bulbul, Maria Coronado, Jéeyeon Jang, Hyung Kyu Kang, Hee Seung Lee, Shan Yih Liu, Aymeric Menargues, Myung Hwan Moon, Jin Seok Park, Jeongin Pu, Diana Rangel, Jung Youii Sim, In-Hyuk Song, Nuraputra Sudrajat, Yoji Yamada, and Shu-Hui Yang. At Cambridge University Press, I would especially like to thank Bemard Seal, commissioning editor, whose visión and persistence tumed an idea into reality. Than'ks also go to the project editor, Helen Lee; and to the copyeditor, Linda JLiDegtri for all their heip and hard work. Many thanks also to Ann Strauch, series co-author, who has been such a pleasure to work with. Jenriifer Bixby, freelance development editor, deserves special thanks'for her kindness and thoughtfulness, which made our work together both pleasant and -productive. Appijeáation is also due to Don Willkms, the .compositor, and to the designers at Adyenture House for their care and nard work. I amf^rateful to tñe iollowing reviewers fór their thoüghtful critiasms and •- helpfúl suggestions: Randee Falk; Joe McVeigh; Catherine Salín, Columbus Academy; and Larry Sims, University of California at Irvine, Extensión.Torai: Mosi support'ana for keeping me írom "working on the book 24/7/' as Rob said. of all, thank vou to my husband Phil and my son Rob for your unfailing
  15. 15. Begin at the Beginning [ ou are a wnfer. Ybu are a wnfer jft yeur own 5 1| I .* fangpage, and soort^cíw#ie*a'i?sft!BF»i'á^|tsf> < I Jrityotif nghvé tenouagei voif’arerprcbábfya goocfwrrec ^ d litw tirr^ P éryoH-roa 'SrorFc1r - '■ |>; W esjiwfry ajiñew Vau wrife? Dtfyotf ever thrnfcabouE f Ptow!c|lTfakaYébTw^ífig betSér? . ■ j '
  16. 16. THINKING ABOUT WRITING Writers at Work: The Paragraph ReaSons for writing 1 Th'ipk about writing in your native language. When do you write? Do you take notes, e-mail your friends, or make a list for the grocery store? Write your answers in tlhe chart in your native language, not in English. th your dass, talk about your answers. Together, make a list of when people in tir dass write and whv thev write. Thoiigíiís abouí writing Answer these questions on a sepaiate piece of paper. Then talk about your answers with a partner or with your dass.. 1 Is writing easy or hard for you? Do you love it or hate it? Why? 2 Do you ónly write when you have to, pr do you sometimes wriíe for ílin? 3 What will heip you become a better writer?
  17. 17. revise organize] (check ideas) ideas aiíd plan writing Step:. write C8SS edit^check get ideas grammar) Answer these questions on a piece of paper. Then talk about your answers with a partner or with your dass. 1 Do you use any of these s;:eps when you write something for a dass? Which steps do you use? 2 Good writers do not use tie writing process for eveiy tánd of writing. For example, if you write a phone message, you do not revise and edit. What other kinds of writing do not need the writing process? Give several examples. A Steps for writing Look at these pictures. They show the steps that good writers use when they write a paragraph or short composition, but they are not in the correct order. Number the pictures to show the correct order. 1
  18. 18. ''"'"w q í’f a m in u té is T h is is h o w I r e a lly s > ( ¿ r i f e . y Good writers move forward and backward between ihe steps. For example, when you are writing your paragraph, you may think of a better way to organize your ideas. Thats good! That is how experienced writers really write. With this book, you will improve your writing by using the writing process. Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  19. 19. Chapter H i | A Morning Person or a Night Person? ■ ¡L ü D B i ^ á í n a narninghop; r e ' jhigpí bettes í EJo v PP^uífik&tó^vvak&tfpíeáyfc Ifte^oVi,ngMr"sTay up-fafeáfnfgsB^iífe^b a m0mrff)deT|oB orWtífgfl : •^erstm^7¡'VV'' -- 1 ■>'- T .................: iri if e - c b á p íe i; you >M torito a p aragrap n jfe a fe th e tim e Opicíay tíia i v il» ik a % e b e s í You vmlf telí why you &Ke the ■ g r ^ fe if|||íáncf w haí y a u d o n ihe m orniag or|| ■SrnSfit
  20. 20. GETTING STARTED A Picture this a b o u t e a c h p h o t o g r a p h w ith H s jflp $ § ? ¡c > ;r» in a s m a l l g r o u p . w m mF W ' 'm ísm ■ i » V— SÉ S . r S 1 What ís happening in the photograph? photograph feel? 3 Do you like to c 11íe activity in the photograph’ night or in the rcoming? Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  21. 21. BRAINSTORMING piié wiy'to 'gei jde.is-foi svlHin¿is to biaiiistórm. H ra irisíom m g 'nicihs to tliínk abóiíla topic and wrifc; dówn as niany icli-as as pqssü»!e-in .. list. VVhea yóu l>ra>i)stoiin,'w!.ite werd.s orplinísesV-Yo .don'i rtéed (ó w¡ite-senU'íices'Sonic ideas vviil'.bé gcióo otes, and otbers.wii! ni)¡ Beusef.d..Ojuí.'lisV. a!l o í ihe nicas that yoü l an ihink oí. Laioi;ybii ■ raiidioose the ideas.thal vóü want to.usr The., nippp.rtaní iitini! viteM p itfeaín ágrm i^ b wrñc:; idoWn§§§riiariy ¡deas ;¡s pósSiblc.' • Follow these steps to get ideas for your paragraph. . ipifedasswramstptan a b ü t the .♦■taftis rrwmmg and m#& On'ÉJe boífti or on a large sheet of paper, write all of the ideas in á dass list. Write down words and phrases abóut why ypu like it, what you do, and how you feel about the moming and the night. 2 Now dedde if you will write about the moming or the night. Cirde Moming or Night in the box below. 3 Lqok at th%fdáH¡ listl __ use in ydur paragrapl' 4 Add any more words that are important for your paragraph. Be sure that you havé words to tdl why yoü like the moming or the night, what you do then, and how you of ii^Síífe, the b|| b|if»8 «opy#e wcastó ítist'you want to M om ing / N ig h t B Get ideas Chapter 1: A Moming Person or a Night Person? - 1111MTT111ITIIIII1111I!1"II1I1I1II1
  22. 22. U PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT A Organize your ideas ORGANIZING IDEAS Aftex-you brainsiprm /^u^íí; Ea^-jiíany^idéásoiLyourpaper. But you .are not yoü: need write rábout &st, seGond/ anci tlurd? V^én yóü thinlc about'and deade th^ethings, ypu áre organizing yot^ idéas/ ]:j<¿j. Circle your topic, Moming person or Night person. Then use the chart to heip you ¡ organize your ideas. Write yoür words from the box ón page 1 into the difíerent i categories. You can add more ideas. Morning person / Night person ^ W £ * I * f S V V, ■-------- :--- V Plan your writing THEMAIN IDEA In English/ each paragraph shouid be about only one main idea. The mam idea is what the paragraph is about All of the sentences in the paragraph shouid be about the main ideaL'Jfaseñférice is"abóüí- themain idea,; it is' a relevant sentence: Relevant means related to or about the main idea. If a sentence is not about the main idea, the sentence. is.inelevani;(not relevant).. You shouid always. take íiielevant sentences. but of your paragraph. • Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  23. 23. Practice Look at each group of words and phrases about a main idea. Put an X next to the irrelevant word or phrase. The first one is done for you. 1 moming 3 evening a breakfast X_. bgo dancing c read the paper d newday 4 night a dinner b watch the news c pretty sunrise d wash dishes a sunshine b dahomework c relax d cali family and fiiends Practice In each group of sentímees below, one of the sentences is irrelevant Put an X next to the irrelevant sentence. a It is quiet and peaceful early in the moming. b I like the fresh feeling in the air. —------- c I go jogging then because there are few cars on the roads. d Some péople are tired and cranky in ti^e moming. 2 ---------- a My cat íbves the night, of course. i I b He goes huntins for mice then. c Dead m íe make me sick. d He also nghts with other cats at night I J a My sistencan't keep her eyes open aírer ten at night. b í think tne best time of the day is after midnight c I love to stay up and watch oíd movies on TV. d It is also a good time to read and listen to music. a I like to have a snack and read the newspaper. b My brother gets home at 4:30. c Late anemoon is my favorité'time of day. d I Usually relax for an hour. c Chapter 1: A Moming Person or a Night Person?
  24. 24. Your turn /*z^ Follow these steps to check for any irrelevant ideas in your chart on page 8. 1 Are all of your ideas relevant to your main idea? If an idea is irrelevant (not relevant)/ cross it out (if?ekvant-4dea). 2 Look at all your relevant ideas. Do you want to use them all? Cross out any ideas that you don't want to use. 3 Do you have any new ideas? Add any new ideas to your chart. 4 Now look at your chart and.think about writing a paragraph with your ideas. Decide what idea you want .to write about first, second, third, and so on. Number your ideas. . - . C Write the first draft Aftér yoú plan yourwritíng^yóu are readyáo write your"paragraphTor íhe b e tte r ./ .:/ ;.';>•ÉSg ¡j^gárasiÉgi; aS^ Write the first draft of your paragraph. Be sure to write about why you like the moming or the night, what you do then, and how you feel then. Use your chart to heip you. .. SfSps ¡si® KEMSMG A fte r’y a u 'w rite y o u r p a rá g fa p & ^ y ó tr m lfn e e d ^ to "re v is e in Revise-m eans;rc r d ife c k 1 y o u r id e a s- R e fo ré y o u -w ro te y o u r íir s t d r a ít y o ilp la n n e d y a u r w ritin g . D id .y o u - fó llo w y o u r-p ía n ? ' O r d id y o u ch a n g e v o u r p ía n w h rle yo u . w ro te ? A s k y o u rs e lf, - "O íd I say w h a t I w a m é d rró say^'PRevise does rrá t m e a n c h e ck yora? g ra m n ra n Y o u - w ill h ave ü m e ;io :d g ,th a í a ite ry o u - revise.; ^ .- . Read a student's first draít on the next page. It has not been révised or edited vet. It may have mistakes in organization and grammar. Answer the following questions. Then talk about your answers with your dass. ■ ¡j 1 What do you like about this paragraph? 2 Is the paragraph about one main idea?; 3 Are all of the sentences relevant to the main idea? Áre there any irrelevant sentencesí Writers at Work: The ParagTOph
  25. 25. “■*-M ÍA*<ví*i ^jVüoIO Night N íght-ís th e b e st tim e fo r m e. in th e e y é n in g /J c a li m y .frje n d s ; VVe g o to^ a c lu b . A n d h a ve a ;g o o d tim e . My : Hé , s tá y s H om e a n d s íu d ié k á ló n g tim e . W e ¡¡|gp ~i - v v - ; i ' .%: d n n k c ó ffe e a n d ;s m d ké . M y; b ro th e r thinks- I shg u íd -n ó t s m o k e . H e sáys f w ill W E o W r r . h o m e . A t h o m ‘e r £ p fs ilé n c e . I .jo o k p u t th e w in d o w . H o w be aU tifút ¡ s i t ó rrió o n l S o m é m e n fiá yé w á lk e d o n lt. I lo o k á t th e m o ó n . T h in k a b ó Ü t'rn y 'fu tu ré . T h e c lo c k says m íd n ig h f. E vé rythin g sile nt, B Revise your writing RBñSING WfTM^PAR | ^S®en v o ili^ se youiy ^fíine, do notcfieá^ am m arl 1? vExchaiige the first draft of your paiagraph with a partner. Read your partners paragraph, and answer these questions about it. 1 What do you like iabout your partner s paragraph? Put a star next to any ideas or sentences that you like. v 2 Read the paragraph again. Do all of the sentencies relate to the main idea? Does the paragraph have any irrelevant sentences? If you tnmk a sentence is irrelevant, put parentheses ( ) aróund it. Your turn''Z-, [¡ V Get your paragraph back from your partner. Reread your own paragraph, and answer these questions. , ^ 1 Did your partner nnd any irrelevant sentences? Do you agree that the sentences are irrelevant? If you agree, cross out the irrelevant sentences. 2 Are there any other irrelevant sentences that your partner did not find? 3 Check vour chart on page 8. Did you write about everything that you wanted to write about? Do you want tó add anything more to your paragraph? C Write the second draft ^ Rewrite your paragraph and make any changes-that vou need. Write a title at the top of your paragraph. Chapter 1: A Moming Person or a Night Person? 11
  26. 26. B S IéBit ín o y o u r ;wfsiting A Focus on sentence grammar EDITING parigfapb^yoiL^e-reááyió;edi¿it: ^¿rmeáns ta f^se^o^'ideas first If you reviseBrsCyoiriwiH.not waste.vourtime ;ed|tihgi^eleváníTsenteiícésv i i r H Practice Som e o f the sentences íroiñ the paragraph "Night" on page 11 do not have.correct sentence grammar. They make the paragraph difficult to read. Read these sentences from the paragraph. Write C for correct or I fox incorrect next to each sentence. You will check your answers later, in Practice 6 on page 14. 1 Night is the best tim e for me. 2 In the evening. 3 I cali my friends. . 4 We go to a club. 5 And have a good time. 6 Everything silent, serene, and perfect. ¡j¡| S ig lisfci^ e ry seaten cem sst haveaJsuhject and a Verbl.A senténcé with a . R ................... I , . m „ , * ........................ A abou t A'sim ple sentence Can háve - m o r e th ^ o i^ su b jecL . - ,■" k ’V £?»!■ ...i ■. -: : Tr0^ s >~ | ^ | -y g g p § £ % ; :Jad ^ -halss.the: morninG.. '¿ ¿ . 'Sr- y^' • - '■ •- ' ' •í/'v. ;' ■■■. ■; i : .She neveraeís ü(j or speaks0 anyone befara nine o*ctócfc.v -'••■'.s'/.-v. "s "5.: ' Everjfmoming, ñer mptherand faíner wake,up afsix o'clóesc t . ~ " , Thiey canl undersiand'Jácki& ' *' ¡ ¡' i i 12 Writers ai Work: The Paragraph
  27. 27. Practice Which of these words can be subjects and which words can be verbs? Write the words in the correct columñ in the chart. like snore roommate thinks Practice Underiine the subjects and -drcle-rj/g-rbs■i-n these-sentcncc3. Wiite-5-fbr-subj-ect for verb. The first sentence is done for you. 1 Dave(Iikes)aftern¡oons the best. 2 He gets up earlyjin the moming for his classes. 3 His eyes often dose in his 8 a .m . dass. | 4 At 12:30, he meéts his íriends and eats lunch with them. 5 Dave and his íriends play soccer in the aítemoon. 6 Soccer is their favorite sport. 7 After soccer, eveiyone has something to diink and talks about the game. 8 Then, Dave goes home for dinner. Chapter I: A Moming Person or a Night Person?
  28. 28. Practice 0 Look back at Practice 3 on page 12. Dóés every sentence have a subject and a.verb? Check your answers with your dass. Practice Put these words in the right order to make simple sentences. Sometimes there are several right answers. You only need to write one right answer. Remember to begin each sentence with a capital letter and to put a period at the end o f each sentence The first sentence is done for you. 1 at / get up7 7:30 / I I get up a t 7:30.____________________ • •- - _______ 2 .moming /I /in /.the /go / dasses /to 3 order / at /pizza / my /roommate / noon / I / and 4 I /bed /in / on / study / aftemoón /the / my /usually 5 in /the / m y /visit /me / evening / íriends 6 we / and / listen /talk /to / niusic 7 leave / at / my /friendsll:30 ________________________ V _ 8 light /tum / out / I / at /midmght / my Practice Q The paragraph at the top of the next page has no punctuation or capital letters to show sentences. Dedde where the sentences begin and end. Put a capital letter at thí beginning of each sentence and a period at the end. All of the sentences are simple sentences. The first sentence has been done for you. / i i!f i • Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  29. 29. Daylight Savin g Tim e / /n the United States, we have daylight saving time for half of the year. in A late spring, we put our docks forward one hour then we have an extra hour of daylight every day farmers are happy for an extra hour to work in the fields chiidren have more time to play outside their parents are happy about that adults have time to play sports afber work everyone likes the extra daylight in the summer Read the following paragraph. Notice that the writer took out all the irrelevant sentences from the first draft of this paragraph ón page 11. With your class, decide which sentences! are correct and which are not. Then write a corrected versión of the paragraph. "window; Hovwbeautífitl ís~thémoonf f lóolcaf fhe'mooa,'ThÍnk aboütmv tuture. i HPfaetiee Look at this paragraph about the moming. Decide which sentences are correct and which are not. Tnen write a corrected versión of the paragraph. in the Morning ¿■ilove the eáriy m o m í n g f - 1 T h e sun-s rays marhínG sun. íiastiaílywsíkMníhé eariy;-m0i ^ ^ i ^ p e a e e f ü L ". Mv day síarts ,stü.dy. Also listen to ifrusíc beeaus'e l'feél frappyíjfl íhe múrning. Tíme.pásses very fast I ihink the morning is more produciive than the night. Chapter 1: A Moming Person or a Night Person? 15
  30. 30. B Edit your writing Use the Editing Checklist below to edit your second draft. Follow these steps. 1 Underiine all of the subjects in your sentences.(gírde)all of the verbs. 2 Read your paragraph several times. Using the Editing Checklist, look for only one kind of mistake each time you read your paragraph. For example, the first time you read your paragraph, ask yourself, "Does every sentence have a subject and a verb?" The next time you read it, look for a different kind o f mistake. 3 Use Quick Check on pages 123-140 to heip you fix your mistakes. ^febí^ at g ¡ - 3-Write the final^ fa fH v VVriíe your final draft, induding youx changes and corrections. Use correct format. y Writers at Work: The Paraorapho Jttr ,i
  31. 31. FOLLOWING UP A Share your writing Follow these steps to share your writing. 1 Put eveiyone's papers on desks or tables in the dassroom. 2 Move around the room and read your dassmates' paragraphs. 3 Do you have more moming people or night people in your dass? B Check your progress •After you get your paragraph back from your teacher, complete the Progress Check below. Date: Paragraph titlfe:_______ :____ ;_____ Things I did ^rell in this paragraph: Things I need (towork on in my next paragraph: v Chapter 1: A ¡Moming Person or a Night Person? 17
  32. 32. Chapter 2
  33. 33. Q GETT1NG STARTED A Piciure this fmswer the ^liesti<||fiíafcotiMi|h}pb^t<pg|áph with IrgB- s or in a smali^ótip ¿ Writers at Work: The ParagTaph
  34. 34. B Get ideas To prepare for writing, study these words for describing personality. Describing personality Write four words that describe your persoiíality and four words that describe a family member's personality. My personality ^ 7 —1-------------------------- s personality Chapter 2: APerson Important to You 21
  35. 35. To prepare for writing, -study these words for describing people. Describing appearance Age young middle-agea oíd Shape neavy slim thin Height average height V short io n ? snort waw 22 Writers at Work: Trie Paragraph «
  36. 36. Eyes dark brown light brown blue green Men Appearance unattractive/ugly Fealures beard moustache Yourturn ^ Write four words that describe your appearance and four words that describe a partner's appearance. When you finish, compare íists with your partner. How are they the same or different?-■- My appearance My partner's appearance attractive/handsome
  37. 37. BRAINSTORMING ideasfor writing. When'you brainstorin,; tryto •list as good idea:pr á bad idea. Write down all ofyóurjdefasí^ . :5> j* - táfe.'oí f lpr;examp}¿|Sra¿v5any^^ get ideas : for her páfá^^h^she'W^e^Üiisrlist ó f ideá3g!' ’V ' - v A d a t ó - - -gdésto school every^cfay: i'had his íeacher before,f¡| ■ídves^sphóol- • íctíeerfukiv .sweet- í miss tiímí: " yóunger brotber • 10 yeafs^óld;;:; a iiítie heavy- short for bVage" •¿ íhe yoúnaest ■ --;-^&rown eyes. 2 broíhers. 1 s is te r if | í wrote to him yesterday:---1 smartj: -foliows myteénage broíher around driyes hini crázy .. -iaughsalot:. Icuríy dark'browh.hair ’ ;píays:soccer afterschool.-- Your turn ^ Follow the¡>esteps to brainstorm ideas about á person important to you. 1 Make a list of four or five people who are important to you. 2 Circle thie ñame of the person you want to write about. 3 Brainstorm as many words or phrases as you can about that person. Use the vocabulary on pages 21-23 to heip you describe the person. 24 Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  38. 38. PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT A Organize your ideas !^pi|a^^Í^t® eg||p^S^^^^i|p® ||D ÉsinSp||^te^^géM ^T^orgánize:>^: sfcyeur ídéal-hy c^égQ^^m tóg'js^^&.^You knó^wfiic&-ideás to grouptogether_‘ |“2S2sb, t&e^eader can"á^erstá^^yo^F'vmüng betfe^H W ;Iim Sar ideas’are Answer these questions with a partner. 1 What three categories did Sara use to organize her information? V V 2 Sara did not use ^1 of the words from her brainstorming list. Which words are not -— in her-categOíy4ist íVWhywere they leít out?— ;— ----------------:------ = = — 3 She also aaded some new ideas. What are they? Your turn ^ Organize your brainstorming ideas into categories on your paper. Take out any irrelevant ideas. Then add more ideas if you want. Chapter 2: A Person Important to You 25
  39. 39. B Plan your writing In Engíish,^ paiagrap&is iisnal/yáboutlm eíinam idea.The topic sentence tells us the mam idea-^t;i¿ usüáíly*tfíe first smtá&cám^paragrapSL 8 ¡| ¡¡ ¡f¡¡ c~¿ AE o/^e^a&er¿sént^cesK í^ fite j^ a ^ á ^ & & ^ p ¿íth e to p fé : sentencer'They m ustaff,5&relévai^tórthe,m aM M ea lljesesénténces.^aré cMleSsupportíng sentences. Suppoitmg sep tm cé^ jtó p ^ ¿^ ^ ^ íj^ d é§ ta n d the mam ídea by gívmg'more mfonnafio-n abou#ffe;Sngpoltíng^^ítenceS'abotit sim ilar ideas shotíía b e groupeá^together m ih ep & g ra p h '11jfSfe,^J 5 f Practice O Read the first draít of Sara's paragraph about Adam. I.t has not been revised or edited yet. Then; answer the following questions with a partner. 1 What is the main idea of her paragraph? 2 Where/aoes she tell you the main idea? Find the topic sentence of the paragraph. 3 What Order o£categories did Sara use? What category did she write about first, second andthird? ? '"Adarrr is a défíghtful boy/My wónáérftíí yourfger brother. He íVteri years oíd and the youngest ih oür íamily. He has dark; cudy hair. And big, brown eyes. ‘IJe'oftén .sm/fés. Thenlyb& cafr"seé;fe'6í^ w feesm ffá ffé'sñort-for hrs age;-" anaa4tttfe heavyl Adam- goes to scHooí eveíy day he-offén pfeys soccer with fri&fríends after sehool. They aren’t váry goodr butthey have a lot of-fun. Aiso íaves tafotiaw my teenage bíotlier acouncL He-drives my brother crazyI Adam featw eeí4!)'eyrh‘e^eafty4ovés:a^fT^'fet-^©TO^mésr^e4fi^^efc-iáke^caFe-of-htín w tó artaais. Aiso. ver/ sm art He ioves scnooi-, and he gets good grades. I iqye hrm because he is funny ana”cbeerfuí, xoo. He talks and iaucjhs a lot he raakes muSiu> ;veryone iaugh with hte'Nbyy; l rri this country, and'l miss him yérv 28 Writers at Worjk: The Paragraph
  40. 40. | ~L Practice 0 w jsíon ssbuoieca Each group of sentences has one topic sentence and three supporting sentences. Write a T next to the topic sentence and S next to the supporting sentences. 1 ------- a Amy always understands me. b Amy is special to me. c I think Amy is bea-utiful. d I love the wild wayAmy dances. 2 ------------ a To me, my father is a great man. b My father is an excellent lawyer. c My father loves his family. d |vlyfather always has time for me. 3 ______ a Chris likes to have a good time. b Chris is short and has wavy, brown hair. c Chris is one of my favorite people. d Every day, Chris runs several miles. Practice 0 Read the paragraph below. Then, read the sentences that.follow the paragraph. Check («/) all the sentences that are good topic sentences for this paragraph. My Grandm other —----------------------- She was born 77 years ago in England. W heto she was a baby, her fam ily moved to the U nited States. A fter canhigh-schücrfr she Worked in a bakery until she married my grandfainer. She still make delicrous^ cakes! M y grandfather died five years ago, so she lives w ith us now. M y grandm other is not patient, but she never gets angry with me. She always listens to me and helps me with my problems. 1 My grandmother is tal! and thin. 2 I think my grandmother is a wonderful person. 3 An important person in my life is my grandmother. 4 My grandmother had five chiiaren. 5 Let me tell you about Grandma. 6 Mv grandmother can make me laugh when í am sad. Chapier 2: A Person Important to You 27
  41. 41. Practice Read the student paragraph below. Then, read the sentences that follow the paragraph. Check (/) all the sentences that are good topic sentences for this paragraph. Capito .. He's a m edium -size Labrador retriever w ith short, ye llo w h a ir and a long tail. In the house, he is always w ith me. W h e n he comes to me, he hits everything w ith his tail. H e also likes to come w ith me fo r a w alk or a drive. C a p ito loves water. H e ¡oves to swim , play in the rain, and even play w ith the w ater in his bowl. H e is a good student. He likes to learn, and he knows a lo t o f com m ands. Also, C a p ito is very gentle. H e runs 'after cats, b u t he doesn't-touch'them . 1 Capito is my dog and my friend. 2 Capito's face is big and square. 3 íMy dog is seven years oíd. 4 Capito is my lovable dog. 5 Capito is my wonderful pet. Practice Write á topic sentence for this paragraph. Ü ________ __ _______ A TeacheV to R em em ber H e was a tail th m m an w ith red narr, and he w o th ic k glasses. T nT he ciassroom, he wás always m oving. H e never sat still. W h e n he was teaching, he always walked around, swung his arm s. or iapped his fe e t M r. Jenkins p u t his energy in to teaching us lite ra tu re and dram a a t m y high schooí. H e was an excellent teacr*er. H e ta u g n t us to íove literature. A lso, he helped the students preseni tw o s|chocS plays every year. M r je n kin s cared a lo t a b o u t his students, too. H e always had tim e to ta lk to students a b o u t th e ir próbíem s. I hope th a t I can be like hirrs when ! am a teacher. Writers at Work: Tke Pa.Ta9ra.-0h
  42. 42. G Write the first draft ^ Get comfortable, relax, and think about your important person. Use your list o f categories to write a paragraph about that person. Remember, you will revise and edit your paragraph later, so don't worry about making mistakes. E J REVISING YOUR WR1T1NG~ ; ^ A Analyze a paragraph Excnange the first draft of vour paragraph with a partner. Read your partner s paper, and answer these questions about it. 1 What do you like about your partner's paper? Put a star next to any ideas or sentences that you like. 2 Is there anvthing that you do not understand? Put a question mark (?) in the ; margin next to any sentence that vou do. not understand. MySFrfend fake cá re o f the"patfentsf bl±,sfTé;doésr1rt llké the dóct0Fsv%hésáys- they d o a V .ene. Eürt,H e e ^ falfáridj ver¿Wg^Sfoe^tó curiy; “tó^&rów nrhailr'¿feioofcs^l Oyl7ín íHefPopeyé^TO Oyf is iPépeya-s gtrlfríend' 'Soróétaes;'w ftép'm y niendsand 'twéreLsedous:, sñé tofd pke& to uSi4-ioya fí^ aB d . Twant to¡ seerher agaínsoaru -■ - " ■** Revise your writing Read a student's first draft below. Then answer these questions. Talk about your answers with your dass. 1 What do you like about this paragraph? 2 Is the parágraph about one main idea? • 3 Is there a good topic sentence? 4 Are all of the supporting sentences relevant to the main idea? 5 Are the supporting sentences grouped in categories? Chapter 2: A Person Important to You 29
  43. 43. 3 Is there a topic sentence about the main idea? If there is a topic sentence, underline it and write TS above it. If there is no topic sentence, write "no topic sentence" at the top of the page. 4 Do all of the supporting sentences give information about the topic sentence? Are there any irrelevant sentences? Put parentheses ( ) around any irrelevant sentences. 5 On the bottom o f your partner's paper, write one question about the paragraph. Ask about something you want to know about the.important person. Your turn ^ Get your paragraph back from your partner. Reread your paragraph. Then, follow these steps to revise it. 1 If there are any question marks on your paper, write those sentences more clearly. Ask your teacher or your partner for heip if you need it. 2 Answer your partner's question about your important person. Add that information to yóur paper if you want to. - * i 3 Thínk about the questions in Analyze a paragraph on page 29. Do you need to make any ¡other changes to your own paper? 4 Loók at your Progress Check on page 17 of Chapter 1. Use it to heip you revise your paragraph. C Write the second draft g r Rewrii your paragraph, and make any changes that you need. Write a title at the top of your paragraph. EDITING YOUR WRITING' A Focús on sentence grammah In Bi^ís-hr évéfy senteáce'm usthavéboth a-suhjéd anda:verb."í f a sentence does n ot¿ave both asubject’arid averb, iti& called a fragñent Fragment means "broken piece/' A sentence fragment í&only a piece o fa sentence, not a complete"sentence.' .Thede are three problems a fragment can have. •“ Ño subject ’ ¡Aisd leves to íoÍ!ow my teenage brotñer around. • No verb . He shortfor fe age and s iiííie beavy. • No subject orverb And big,.brown.eyes;. 38 Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  44. 44. Practice 0 Read each sentence fragment and identify the problem. Write NS for no subject, NV for no verb, or NSV for no subject or verb. _ 1 My wonderfulold grandmother. 2 Every moming of her long life. 3 Fixes breakfast for her family. 4 A dgarette always in her mouth. 5 Often worry about her. 6 An important person in my family. Practice Writé F next to the fragments and 5 next to the complete sentences. 1 My niece is a special person in my life. 2 Only nine months oíd. 3 Her silky, black hair. 4 Likes to play at three in the moming! 5 My niece is very cute. 6 I love her. j§|ft§| ate severáíway^.to correcta fragmenta. j j ||j||8 l ® 8 j¡ ¡ Fra^méi^;,IAjso foyestpfqlfo^pyJeerTagefroteer"íroiincf.' |¡|§| j j j - t|¡S¡| áiS^gySSlui' iuuuwtf(jLtccfiay<r-üiaiaicf_^uuwu..;-;' -Fiagniepi::.He..sííd^fóR.fii&^-ató^'fiitie tféavy:*'’i’ - ; Sentence: y HeigsftoKtforh&aoe aMaHítílefteavy: 1 • Add a;.subfectan¿ a verK: .r' •; •./••Fragment:'. My.wóñdé^'!itt¡&broífiejr Sentence: Heis'roywontferáillítílábrother - • Add the fragment to anotHer sentence: Fragmdk: “Andbígbrówrreyesv./__■í ; ; V Sentence:: Helias dai1<;'cúfíyfiáíFand Diobrownéyés. Chapter 2: A Person Importani to Yon 31
  45. 45. Practice £• Read the following pairs. of sentences. In each pair, one sentence is a fragment. Correct the fragment either by adding something to it.or by joining it to the other sentence. There are several possible ways to fix each fragment. Write only one. 1 An important person in my life is not a person. He a cat He ¡s a cat. ' '' . ,; ________ 2 One night he carne to my door. And cried for food. 3 After that first night. Tramp has stayed with me. 4 Tramp is a large, gray cat. With one toril ear. 5 ¡He sleeps a lot during the day. And hunts at night 6 /¡He tries to catch mice. Too fast for him. My cat and some of the neighborhood cats. They fight sometimes. In the evenings. Tramp watches TV with me. 9 'Likes to sleep on my bed. Atvnight. i!í 1 10 [Day or night, he a good friend tóme. He keeps me company. — — RÚN-ON SENTENCES y f j j j A^ommon wriiing mistake ís a ran-on sentence. A ran-on sentence happens " wíierx two -simple sentences are ran togeíhefwíthout cbrrecfpunétaation to sepaiate thenu ’ ■ — : ; ' • ; . ■ • .Run-on sentences:; Aqarrris aswest boy.he reaiíyioves. anímais. Adamiss swseí boy he reailyicves.anímais. To- correa, a ran-on sentence, malee It Into two. simple sentences. Put a period = arthe end of the first/subjéa and verb gróup, Sta^t the second sentence.with a capital ietter. Coirect sentences: Adamis a sweei bov.-He reaílv íoves snimais. 32 Writers at Work: The Paragrapn
  46. 46. Practice 0 Write RO next to the run-on sentences and CS next to correct sentences. 1 I want to own a company some day I hope to be a good boss. __ 2 I remember my first boss, he was terrible. 3 He never listened to us. He only shouted. _ 4 He helped some workers a lot other workers got no heip from him. ...... 5 He also stole from the company and blamed the workers for it. Practice íí« l Correct these run-on sentences. 1 A persop. important to me is my twin sister her náme is Jody. • | i2 Jody and I are the same height, we both have blonde hair and green eyes. i 3 We enjoy the same things for example, we both love hot dogs and chess. V i 4 Jody understands me better than anyone, she knows me veiy well. Y •• ' fi «I 5 We live in áüferent dties we usually visit each other on weekends. I ....; i ................ « 6 I can't live witnout my twin, once a day we cali each other and talk on the telephone. Chapter 2: A Person Important to You 33
  47. 47. Practice In this paragraph, some of the sentences are run-ons. To correct the run-on sentences, add periods and capital letters. Take out commas if you need to. Mac - ! -- - VV ........... /- ___ m 1M a c is a special guy.ye have been friends for a long’ tíme. 2N o w we are at college together. 3M ac is tail and very thin, m y m other calis him Stringbean. 4He has a tough life. 5He takes elasses during the day and drives a taxi every night. 6His father drinks too much and sometímes fights-w ith his m other M a c tries to heip her. 7He also likes to have a good time. 8O ri his n ight ofl; he goes out w ith his girlfriend, sometimes he drives to the beach a t three in the m orning! 9He is amazing, N Pijactice Read Sara's paragraph about Adam. Underline all of the subjects and verbs. Then, find an|d correct the fragments and run-on sentences. Adam 1Adam is a deíightfu! boy. 2M y wonderful younger brother. 3He is ten years •tld and the youngest in our family. 4He has dark, curly hair. 5A nd big, brown jáyes. 6He often smiíes. TVnenj^ou can see his big, wide smile. 8He short.for his iage and a little heavy. 9Adam goes to school every day he often plays soccer >|/ith his friends after school. 10TheV aren't very good, but they have a lot o f ■jjcm. 11Also leves ■lc rrb lfo w ^ ^ ^ e rra ^ ^ b ro th -e i^ m u n d 7 -12H ^^rives-m y-bfü-thei^ Jrazy! 13Adam is a sweet boy,, he réalfy ¡oves animals. 14Sometimes, he tries to ikke care o f hurí wild animals. 15A Isq/ very sm art 16He loves school, and he gets 1 good.grades. 17 íove him because he is funny. and cheerful, too. 18He taiks and 1 Ijaughs a lo t he makes everyone laugh w ith him. 19Now, i in this country, and I 1 rpiss him very much. ' | p Wxiters ai Worjg Tae Paragraph
  48. 48. B Edit your writing Use the Editing Checklist below to edit your second draft. Follow these steps. 1 Underline all of the subjects in your sentences. Circle all of the verbs. 2 Using the checklist look for only one kind of mistake each time you read your paragraph. For example, the first time you read your paragraph, ask yourself, "Does every sentence have a subject and a verb?" The next time you read it, look for a differeiit kind of mistake. 3 Use Quick Check on pages 123-140 to heip you fix your mistakes. 4 Look at your Progress Check on page 17 o f Chapter 1. Use it to heip you edit your paragraph. ¡~y 1 Does^ewiy sexitenCefiave'a: subject ancLverb^ í'* W§é$&&£a ^(áaaáair^É W-í':i.?.-; Write vour nnal erar Chapter 2: A Person Important to You 35
  49. 49. □ FOLLOWING UP A Share your writing Exchange papers with a partner. Read and talk about your papers. Compare your important people. How are they the same or different? Ask any questions that you have áboütyoufpaitnérs important person. — -- -— B Check your progress After you get your paper back from your teacher, complete the Progress Check below. ‘Date: jParagraph title:_______ f__________ jThings I did well in this paragraph: Things I need to work on in my next paragraph: ! Look at your Progress Check oirpage 17 of Chapter 1. How did you improve your ** Hiwritmg in this paragraph? 38 Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  50. 50. 1 ■"Ü?••■É¡g§fsí'°:i?j ^ p p y p M » „ JL onStínriá^Woht'Our weefcend Iwesacefcísaally *j ^ ,^ ~ W # i^ á£s^ w arfe:^ WeefeSñd'job^ 'ár’stücife TH§^ fee^eri^7^alra&fe>Gfean íh¿ tousergcKsnoppfngíar j gato pames-1' w , v ^ ií ‘ w?> - * ‘V !n íhtsxfiápter yotrwtíFwfLaapiragfágli aboofyouF Chapter The Weekend¡BBí'Í ■I■
  51. 51. GETtING STARTED A Picture this ' Answer the questions about each photograph with your dass or in a small group. 1 Where is this actívity happening? 2 What is happening in the photograph? 3 Dó you doJagroti^Iiké'this ^Eínthe weekend? Writers at Work: The PáTagraph
  52. 52. B Get ideas classes hate it! 2 loud aíarw docks Your íurn ^ C-hoose one weekend day, either Saturday or Sunday, and make your own p idea web for it on piece of paper. Follow the steps in the box above. Look a photographs on the opposite page for ideas. see school 4homework í, r too much! friends ersonai Chapter 3: The Weekend 3 9 Look at this example of an idea web for the topic Weekday. Draw more lin^s and add your own ideas to the web. Then talk about this web with your class.
  53. 53. PREPARING THE FIRST DRAFT . . y: V:. o y ■ A Organize your ideas Follow these steps to organize your ideas for your paragraph. 1 Look at your idea web, and árele the ideas you want to use. You can use all of them ifyou want. 2 Look at the ideas that you have drcled. Many of them are probably about things that you do during that day. What do you do first? Put a number 1 next to it. What do you do second? Put a number 2 next to it. Continué to number all of the other cirded ideas. ORGANIZING BY TIME ORDER « - Thefe areffl'anyways't'o-grganize yourwnting- When you organfeeyqprrdeas by telíing'what happened first,-"second, third'and so on, you are orgaiTÍzüigiby time í order In this-chapter,-yoiLwiü w nttabout a (iayt so you wiD use tíme order-to organize your paragraph | * ~ Plan your writing Read these two drafts of a paragraph about Saturday. With your dass, talk about which one is easier to understand and why. Draft A H Saturday Saturdayistheworstda^.andthebestdayofthewéekforme..Iusuáliy wakáuplate. First, itakea^hower;andthon.. [.sornétimés.washmycar. After -that,Ieat.lunch.4-don'f-eatbréakfastOR-Saturday-feesause1.§eiap-late,-Aftec~area ieatlunch, ígpto'myuncle’s:Storev/here.1work.:Thatfethestartofaterrible . .tíme-, Itisyérydiffíeulí.to.selMhírigs’becáusefcanrTottindersfandEnglish.Iarrr espéciállyaíraidofthe.téfepñóne. f fnthestore.íféel likeí-arriwalkinginaFieftAfter.waF.k*1gobáckhomé. Ieat dirrnerandthenstayinmycbom.tbsiucyorread, Atabout.ten;o'ctóck, ícali, mygirifriendinmycauntry. itisthehappresttimeoftfiéweek. IfIcouldnot caliher, Iwoutdgobacktomycountry:Afterfcalimygirifriend, Igotobed andsléep. Writers sí Work: The Paragraph
  54. 54. Draft B Saturday ' of the week for me. í usually; wáke üp wash my car. f eat lunch. I ; ; :d ó ñ 't eat breákfasí¡op; Saturday béeaüsé 1’g e t up laté: I go to m y uhcfé’s storej is very difiicult to sell things becáüse I eañnot bndérstánd English.-1 am éspeciáíly afraid of the téíephpne. f afvvays make mistákes^^Vhilé I arn wprRing in the store, I feei like f am walking fny^room to study or T^adyL.ealí rnyygjr{frtécicí in.my country. it i^ the happfest time of the .week. If I £pü£d-;nÓi: eall tóy.j% outd g a b aé k'ía m yfe^ n try . i. go to- bed and-siéép^ TRANSITIONS When you write your paragraph, you need 1o use words to tellthe readerwhat you. do- first. secondr4and¿ó;3on- Most.wnr.ei-s; use,words -called transilions to telí the"ordér that soniethfng happénéd,in, Tfansitipn meánsl"¿hanget=ándjweluse' •: ttansitipns;.ta^how,a-timechañge;fntR^j^rágfapfí Theseword'srand pircases ar^transitipns'C §| J¡¡ i iiílfefOGming^'| r^jB tte afterjioaa| tfrén: % _ j afteríhati;;C íátér' | atiW Q’ciock < finally §| / ;.atpdhigti^ y ^^otÍGe,üiaMhe-®Rs-ÍTk)n--i-]Sí:ia}]y-coíT3es--airt]ie-begmRÍ^g ofa-^enTence^and-ií fo llo w e d by a com rna. ' -. ' . f Jf£ : " - /: "í . ; ' . 5 i | Affert&a^ir’s'atlUhcfe^ -. :;--tran^oort'^ •• v I Alten o'cioc^j caii-my girifrientíírr my:-cotmífy.g■ transflor! Chapter 3: The Weekend
  55. 55. Practice Q Write the transitions in the paragraph below. Some sentences have several possible answers. Write only one. Be sure to use commas where you need them. The B est Day of the W eek Sunday is m y favorite day o f the w e e k -------------------------_ -------------------- I sleep a long tim e________________ I get up and eat a huge breakfast í read the newspaper while 1 e a t ______________ ------------------------I do some chores. M y. apartm ent is small, so it is easy to elearv.-l take- m y dirty clothes to a Ia u n d ro m a t ______ I cali a friend, and we go shopping or to the gym.________________________ ' we pick up i: pizza and go back to my .place to eat i t a _____ we rent á video or watch a movie (6) on TV. M y friend goes hom e early because we both have classes on M onday. listen to music and finish m y hom ework in the in quiet n ig h t (7) C Write the first draft V Get comfortable, relax, and write the first draft of your paragraph. Use your idea web to tell what you do either on Saturday or on Sunday. 1 v &955283~ E J ¡ i l i i p l O U R W R I T I N G É | | ¡| g g m 1 . X - A Analyze a paragraph Read a student's first draft ontfip next page. It has not been revised or edited yet. Then, answer these questions. Talk about your answers with your class. 1 What do you like about this paragraph? 2 Is íhe paragraph about one main idea? 3 Is there a good topic sentence? 4 Are all of the supporting sentences relevant to the main idea? 5 Are the supporting sentences organized in time order? ’ 6 Did the writer use enough transitions? m J - Writers at Work: m e Paragraph
  56. 56. My Sunday / m l Tñis [^abbut myJSuhday. j . ^o’cípck;'“TjSen;^ S ai|g ín cn ^ university, We go'tq;a grócéry storeto buyfop'd.and :to the malí:tó'bu^ílotfiés^•My roommate : buysa fó to f clpthéá and:CDs-'éyery week. I dórt-t knów why, he dpés;that. He * hprrievy'ork and .'WrkeTin.-^^^^^rnaÉíf^&^'-evíen ;BÜ¿}first;.:i^aLvyays:.talle;o^Í#^p&£etP my ..:. | about the-futiire in my doVmcroom. Finally; organize my backpack befare I go to bed. I always- go' to, sjeep earíy^ori'Sunday nrghfl t 7 1 B Revise your writing Exchange first drafts with a partner. Read your partner's paragraph, and. questions about it. 1 Which transitions did your partner use show the time order in the paragraph? Write v them here. answer these ^2 Does your partner's paragraph need any more transitions? Put parentheses ( f around any sentence that needs a transition. r Youriurn / U -- Get your paragraph back from your partner. Reread your paragraph, and answer these questions. 1 Do you need to add any transitións? 2 Ask yourself the questions in Analyze a paragraph on the opposite page. Do you need to make any changes? 3 Look at your Progress Check on page 36 of Chapter 2. Use it to heip yo|u revise your paragraph. C Write the second draft A Rewrite your paragraph, and make any changes that you need. Write a title at the top of your pacer. Chapter 3: The Weekend 43
  57. 57. EDITING YOUR WRITING A Focus on sentence grammar Read a student's paragraph about her favorite weekend day, Saturday. Can you think of a way to make the sentences better? Discuss your ideas with your class. Saturday Saturday is my favorite; day; I;don’t.go First, I caí! my mother. VVé.talk about.my week. Next, I vacuúft4he:apartment. • My sister coqks us breakfast. í can cppk. My:sistér is á better cipqk than I. After breakfast,. í go shopping.. I usualíy buysqm e clpthes^ln the áfternbón, ¿í meet my boyfriend. We beacphear the brrdg’eVand fambüs hístorradistrrcfs. f dón’t knowmy. way áround the city. He guidés me.. í;like w áíkin^'W e vyáík we eat dínnér at a restauran! He fakes me homé; Sometímes w e watch a video. Other times we watch an oíd movié on TV. Therr, he;goé^hpm e, | gét-ready for bed and íalk'to my sister about the day I am usually very: tired. I go to -sieep quickíy. Tfteh* my night df dreárns: begins. % COMPOUND SENTENCES A;símrple Simple sehtencesarefine^büt your paragifaphmighWsouñd.boringifal^o^yoiir'sentencesaresimple'sentences-: Tó solve this problem,ou can join. two simple sentencés together to make a . cornpourtd sentejice. . f donl cíot<yscfíool -f I oetm íate irtíñe morninc. 'simple sentence- ' +- . simptó sentence ! donl gofo scíioo!t sd!¡así óp tete irrite morning. • compeund sentenc^/ r Practice 0 Write S next to the simple sentences. Write C next to the compound sentences. 1 My family likes to spend Sundays together. 2 I go out "with my íüends on Saturdays, but I stay home on Sundays. 3 My mother cooks a big meal, or we go out to eat at a restauran! ^ ~ 4 Sometimes, my cpusiná cóme to visit us and eat with ús‘ 5 I love our Sundays together, and I will always remember them. Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  58. 58. COORDINATINGCONJUNCTiONS _Twó simple sentences can join together to forai a compound sentence. When. two sentences áre joined in this;way,the'two sentences‘aré calted ^ítdifferent |, náme They are called independent ¿lauses,-and the word thatjoin? tliteiiscalled a " coordinating cónjunction. A compound sentence is made of twó independent clauses joined by a - coordinating cónjunctión. ' [ cfon’t go to scftooí, so 1get ilp iaf^fn the mormng. - ||¡§ independentclause i -f„' - independentelause | ¿ ' |I|É Í - | | ' §¡ 4 ®P A conjuncíion Ls a ’wórd that jqins ideas. A coordinating conjunctidri joins -' - . - / íSeas/that áre the same/or equal. The coordinating'conjuñctions that we usé" most often are andy butr sá, and or^Notice that there is a cOmma before the coordinating conjunction. ¡ | p | fe ^¡gf| (*- | || And:shów&ádded infonnaüonli;^.|g-7-1¡ J S S S V r - : Rob ántf-Sará go-'to-the,ferary, and they stady forttires hours: ',,' independentclause- V ■CC ¿jndegend^clau§e 1_ | Biit shows'sOmethmg 'diíférént.o^á eontrastV |'y¡~ , ||¡4 Lgo'td-wor}cQtúSatQfeay^büt L-don’t work:otfSándayJ Q » 11 U¡¡ | „índepenáeptrcfaüs%^r_C¿ ir independentelause&ÉgjjjJ1|j¡ 1§ •"So showítfrexesuTCofsometMng'¡¡i¡¡ B i l l MWúM mam . «®SÉ®®8 K M* Or shows two difíerentchoíces |Jj| jg|i^g| |¡| gp )fittíe afternoan-, rdearnti^roO T^opte^aM ok.-«| É I ¡ ¡ I f f t ¡ j ¡ ¡ É 8 Poetice 0 Thesé sentences are about SuEHay activities. Match with its ending, Wñte the letter in the blank. 1 Tony,works late on Saturday night the beginning of e^:h sentence 2 Samia takes her children to the park, 3 Shu Fen relaxes in her room all day, 4 Yoji and his girifriend go to a movie, 5 In the moming, Lisa makes coífee, 6 On a good day- Mana takes a walk,- 7 Ji Yeon goes to ditirch -.with her familv, 8 After lunch, Akmed wc-iks on his car a and she drinks ijt balcony. b and they eat out o but on a rainy di TV.' on the after church. y, she watches d so he sleeps late on Sunday. 8 or he plays tennis with a ftiend f but she studies at night Q so her children love Sunday. h or they rent a video. Chapter 3: The Weekend
  59. 59. Practice 2 3 Join each pair of simple sentences to make one compound sentence. Use a I H H H J H n i i 3 & 1 A i 1» ; tP p p j u y p sentence coirectly. 1 I like tó síáy,¿pri|j|Éf r^ v¿i I ,V,y likes to go to bed ' eárlfeg 2 Ken washes cars on Saturdáj|<»q<WHLks on Sunday, too. 3 Carol loves art. She goes to the museum every Saturday. 4 Saturday night^Bferent a video. 5 We deán ou|^^p|Ín^|pA j|ay- It's meém again on Sunday. Practice 0 Finish these compounti sentences with your own words. 1 I like to sleep late, buX._______ ■ 1 _______________________ 2 We don't have school on t3^ weekend, so ~ 3 I énjoy Sunday dinner with my family; ' ■ ■ 4 Olí Isiturday aftemoon, I cali mj&est íriend, "JIL_. 5 I nasa timé to reías during week, éá.
  60. 60. Practice This paragraph has no puncíuation. Add periods and commas to make simple and compound sentences. Add capital letters as needed. The first one has béen done for you. My Saturdays O n Saturdays, I live an interesting life. I live by the ocean and I work there for a very oíd woman in the past she Joved to stand on the beach and watch the sunrise but now.she is too oíd to leave her housé my job is to také pictures of the sunrise for her every Saturday morning first I leave my house in the dark and I walk to the beach with my camera then I take lots of pictures of the sunrise I am often sleepy but I love to be near the ocean in the, morning next I go home and eat a big breakfast after that I print out the pictures from my Computer in the aftemoon I take the pictures to the oíd woman. and we talk about the ocean she pays me so I have money to go out with my boyfriend at night we go tó a baseball game or we have fun at an amusement park later we walk by the ocean in the mooníight my Saturday begins and ends by the ocean Practice Wm ■ ¡- Look at the following paragraph about Saturday again. With a partner, join some of the simple sentences to make compound sentences. Then, rewrite the paragraph on a separate piece of paper. I S a t ü r d á y y Y Satórcfay is ray favorite dáy:;:.f dóríf- go tcrschoaL 1get up: íatél n the. morning. First- f calí m y m other W e talk about m y week- N ext i vacuum íhe apsrím ent Wly sistércaoks. üs:.breakfasf: rcan cook. ¡My sisteris.a .betfer ¿oafetFían l Aiíer breakfast; I go shoppíhg. I usuafíy büy som e cíothés.' In the aftemoon, I meet my boyfriend. W e go to interesííngpjaces such asíh e city, the oBach.near the bridgé. and famous historie dsstricfs. I cJon't know my way.aróund the. city. He guides me. í like walking. W ew alk together and talk to each other. Later, we éaí.dinner at a Festaurant. Hé takes m e fióme. Sometimes.we watch a.vTdeo.. •Other times w e watch an oíd mov[e on T V Then,. he goes home, I; get ready for bed and talk jo my sister about the; day }.ám usuáily very tired. [ go to .sleep quickly. Then, my night ofdreám s begins. Chapter 3: The Weekend 41
  61. 61. Your turn Now look at your own paragraph about the weekend. Did you write any compound sentences? Can you join any simple sentences to make compound sentences? S Edit your writing Use the Editing Checklist below to edit your paragraph. Follow these steps. 1 Underline all of the subjects in your sentences. Circle all of the verbs. 2 Using the checklist, look for only one kind of mistake each time you read your paragraph. For example, the first time you read your paragraph, ask yourself, "Does each sentence have a subject and a verb?7' The next time you read it, look for á different kind of mistake. 3 Use Quick Check on pages 123-140 to heip you fix your mistakes. 4 Look at your Progress Check on page 36 of Chapter 2. Use it to heip you edit your paragraph. EDITING CfíECKLÍST(7[ Look at each sentence. ; O 1 Does every sentence have a subject and a verb? D 3 Are there ány njn-on sentéñcés? Lookateachverb. 4 Do ^ll óf the verbs agree wthE théir subjects? - O : S Are aít oflibé yerbs th!ecorrect tensé and fórm? , Look at the punctuatkm and capitaljzátion. ;; Q 6 Doés eách sentence begin.with a capital letterj , □ 7 Does each: sentencie end with thé correct punctuation? -Q - & ís there'a comnia after each transitionT . [ J .9-' fs there a comnia in.eacfycompound senténce? ■Q -1&;Did yoü <¿pitaüze,SámráaY áz Sundayl -, ; Look at;tíre words- O 11 Is each Word spelled coirectlv? Write the finai draft J r . Write your final draft, induding Vour changes and corrections: Use correa formal Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  62. 62. I H IM .O W IM G UP A Share your writing B Follow these steps to share your writing in small groups. 1 Get into a small group. Read each paragraph in your group. On the back of the paper, write a sentence about the paragraph. Write about something you liked in the paragraph, or write about something that was interesting to you. Write only good things, and do not write about grammar. Sign your ñame. 2 When you get your paper back, read the comments on the back. • B I ' 3 Ask each other any questions that you have. • •' •í Check your progress After you get your paragraph back from your teacher* complete the Progress Check below. 1 « 1 ■ p F)atp* Paragraph title: Things I did well in this paragraph: 1 1 1 ••• i t 1 Things I need to work on in my next paragraph: i n ■ I y Look at your Progress Check on page 36 of Chapter 2. How did y writing in this paragraph? }u improve your | .....9 [ 4 ■ 3 Chapter 3: The Weekend
  63. 63. Q offl&ftiTÍes whéfi fríeñd&’afTcf fam fy are at a party j^J^ttírrgstbuncftheSfiñsrtabre, of^justrefax’thg * tbgefft^v tefKstbrres “kémémberwherr, begins som ecH ter^ntí^B F ^f ttí-'erftfs' up teaghfrfg' ^h T e ve r- * forget .. . y” anathef oerson sayá, 3 fd evé'ycne sHvers with fear. Al¡ of us have sienes íro n our own ¡¡ves. Some; s iB rie s y ^ e fe ip ^ ^ í 7*/! m e e« 5 £r a « m y af a scary , sfcpyffB r {HMjjBwfife
  64. 64. Q gETTING STARTED A Picture this Answer the questions about each photograph with your dass or in a small group. 2 Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  65. 65. B Get ideas TALKING TOGETIDEAS Talking WithLothers isá good wayJo get idéasfóryour writing. W héhyoutelía stoiy; you try’to make it interesüng-fór the líst'ehefs. When you téll añ'interésting . story, you can get many good id^s; for wrmng that stoiy,^ . Follow these steps to get ideas by telling your story. 1 Get in a small group with several other people. 2 Tell a true story from your own life. The story can be either a scary story or a fiinny story. It could be a memory from your childhood, about your family about your íriends, or about your time in sch.ool. It could be a ghost story that you have heard or a frightening experience from your own life. 3 As members ofyour group tell their stories, be sure to ask a lot of questions to heip ¡ them think of ideas to include later in their own writing. Q PREPARING THE FIRST DRÁf T " ^ - A Organize your ideas To organize your ideas, make sure your story answers these six questions: Who, What, JAfhen, Where, Why, and How. Follow these steps to organize your ideas. 1 Find a partner whose story you have not heard. 2 Imagine that you are a newspaper repórter. Your assignment is to get information i| about your partner's scary or funny experience. Ask your partner the questions in . i ! the box below and write down the answers ón a piece of paper. 3 When you finish your interview, give your notes to.your partner. 4 Read what your partner wrote. Is everything accurate? Do you need to add anything? | interview questions ‘| l ! 1 Wásíhis a scary ^¿perience or a funny expérience?- r 2 Who was.there? i 3 When- did it happen? í* 4 Where did it:happen? 5 What happenea? Gtve a sumrnáry. : 6 Whv díd it happen? ... 7 How did yoü ana thé others féeí^;• Chapter 4: A Scary or Funny Experience 53
  66. 66. B Plan your writing Practice Read this student's paragraph. It is an interesting story, but it leaves the reader with many questions. After you read the paragraph, write some questions that you have about it on a separate piece of paper. Draft A Á Sóáry and Funny Experience I remember a time that was;funny for me but scary for my sister. My sister was in her bédroom trying to sléep. I decided to make some strange noises and- pretend to be a spirit or ghost. She. couldn’t sleep, so she cálled my mother: When my.mother carne, I stopped. My mother said, “í don’t hear ;ánything excefDt the'wind outsrdev’■and; she went,dównsfairs. T starféd again. My sister talked to herself and to the rióises. After that, she. called my mother again. My mother shouted a i the spirits,.toó, and then she went downstairs á g a i n . Later/rcduídn:‘t keep quieí ánymóre, so I iaughed. Then; my sister understóod that í had m ade the noises’ Practice Read Draft B of the paragraph. Answer the questions that follow with a partner. Draft B A Scary and Funny Experience j I remember a time that was funny for me but scary. for m¿ sister. It was about seyen years ago, on a very dark night without a moon and-with a fot of wind. My young'er síster was th hér bédroom trying to sléep. I debrded to go to the attio oVerhe^roóm and m ake :some strange noisés:; i pretended, tb be .a spfrit: or ghost;' Im a d a scary"Sounds-, bangecKorvthe fíoor;: and':hqwled; like5a dog-. My sister- couldn’í;sleep, and. 1could .hear. her movi'ríg-.kround in hér room. Finally, she cáiied my mdthér. W hen my mother carné, T stopped. My mother iisíehed. Then. she said, “í don’t hear anything; excépt the,wind outsiae,” and she. réturrred;downstairs to Watch TV. After afew.m inutes, i started again. My sister was very nervous. Sfie taíked to herself,..and she .toídihe ghost or animal or m aybe spirits-to go away. lt was Very. funny;' so ¡t was very difficuit for me . not toíaugh. After that, she called my mother again, This time, my mother carne with a long stick. She shouted at the spirits so thai my: sister wouldn:t wórry: But my mother didn’í believe in the spirits and soon returned ío the TV 4 Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  67. 67. Afteraboutanhourandáha|f,Icouldn’tkeepquietanymore. Itwastoofunny. Istartedtolaugh,andthenmysisterunderstoodthatIhadmade.thenoises. Shewasveryangry. She.shoutedatmetocomedowri.íromtheatíic.Whenl did, shesáid, “ican'tsleepnówbecauseofyou.Yoühavetostayupallnight withme.”Thenextmorning, mymotherfoundustogetherWeweresittingon thefloorbacktoback, andweweresieeping: 1 W ere the questions you w rote in Practice 1 answered in D raft B? 2 W hich paragraph did you en joy reading m ore, Draft A or B? Why? DETAILS ,.Tntéresting;$tpries,tavé m any dgtails-Detaiís M espedfiG'pieces.of. inform ation:: ; .(haf hdp ús tw undeistánd. a general-idea1bétter. When.we w rilek story, details . heip the reádérs.see ¡He stoiy in their niincis.. : : - . " •D etails tell us differrnt, kinds o f inform ation. ; . • : R k i s :: inform ation .about w ho,'w liaj, when, wh'ere, why,arul how. ■::: ít was about sevciryears ago, ona very tíark nigft wrthcut a moon ariti with a fot of wind: • Scñsés: infqnnaiion about what you séehear, smelí; t6uch,.;?ud tásté | p •.Vlysístérx-oüidntsiéep, ar4l.codlcrSear rsr mqvíég arcur4in^ñer.naor%//r, • Emotions: informalion about how the wriíer and thé people in ¡he story feci ■ • My sister was very nervous. . . E»*i PraGlice 0 Look at D raft B onhe opposite page. U nderline details that were added to give a d earer picture o f the^story. W hat Mnds o f inform ation do the details give ns? Your turn ^ Follow; these steps to add details and plan your story. 1 Look again at the interview inform ation your partner w rote in O rganize your ideas on page 53. Can you add m ore details o f fact, sense, o r em otion? Add m ore details to m ake your story dearer and m ore interesting. 2 Reread the Inform ation on your interview page. T hink about the best way to use the inform ation to tell your story. You can num ber your ideas to heip you put them in tim e order. Write the firsí draft ^ Write a paragraph tellihg yóur funny or scary story. Lí3é your notes from the interview to heip you w rite Chapter 4: A Scary or Funny Experience 55
  68. 68. E l REVISING YOUR WRITING A Analyze a paragraph Read a students first draft below, and answer the questions. Then, talk about your answers with your dass. 1 What do you like about this paragraph? 2 Is the paragraph about one main idea? 3 Is there a good topic sentence? 4 Are all of the supporting sentences relevant to the main idea? 5 Are the supporting sentences in good time order? 6 Underline any transitions. Did the writer use enough transitions? 7 Did the writer give three different kinds of details: facts, senses, and emotions? A S c a ry Story V l: remember about ten yeai;s ago. when t stayed witfysome friends in my ■cbüniry;:W e were next to-an qfd, empty house.,We were talking about ghostsv, I wilí gfve yoih 300 dollárs.”I thought aboüt ítJHe gaye me 3ÚÓ doll$rsKand Fwent into the .hoúse..After:[;went insíde.the hóus^.E was yery scared be cause ! had heard. ^áboutrth%hóuse. í:^ £ tó o k tn g tó h e fefr a tó : G°d! J’m. safei’" Ididn’t liké that.adyéniure, but l_needed themojiey. Revise your writing To heip each other, you will read each other's scary and funny¡experiences. Enjoy the íjhowrV’'ów'. Work in smallstoñes, and think about other details that you would like tcr] groups, and follow these steps. 1 Collect al1the papers from your group, and exchange them 2 Each person in your group will read all of the papers. For e¡ ch paper, do the following: » Put a star next to one word, sentence, or detail that yot like. • Ifyou do not understand a sentence, put a question m<rk (?) next to it. 9 At the bottom of the paper, write one question about tiíe story. Ask for more details about something in the paragraph. with another group. Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  69. 69. Your turn When you get your paragraph back, reread it. Then, answer these questions. 1 Are there any question marks on it? If so, rewrite those sentences more ciearly. 2 Answer the questions on the bottom of your paper. Can you add details to make your story better? 3 Look back at your interview notes. Did you include eveiything that you wanted to include in your story? 4 Ask yourself the questions in Analyze a paragraph on the opposite page. Do you need to make any changes? 5 Look at your Progress Check on page 49 of Chapter 3. Use it to heip you revise your paragraph. C Write the second draft Rewrite your p'aragraph, and make any changes that you need. Write a title at the top ¡ of your paper. • E ] EDlHNG YQUR WRtTiNG~~ " A Focus on sentence grammar A compound sentence is made up of twp simple sentences. In a compound £ | i ^sentence; the simpleseníences. surecalled independen^dauses¿;ThereTáre usuallyI - * i ¡ only'twchindependent clauses in one compound sénténce. The cfauses;áre jomed- j 'hya coardinating conjunction Qmd^or, hut, so}. A-comma is placed^after the,first índependéniNcIause.. ' V. , - ~ -I-;,-, - bi . -. '•*% He gave me 3 w doilars, and ¡ warcf into the house. ¡ r ' ; ' Á : independent-clátise «! CG índependenfcfeuse r ___________„ _________________________________________- , ri » Practice Q j Do thése sentences fit the description of a compound sentence? With your dass, talk about why or why not 1 People have always talked about ghosts, and many books have been written about ! them, but people caimot agree on their existence. 2 Some people believe in ghosts others laugh at íhe idea, other people just aren't sure. 3 One student saw a ghost, and he'ü never forget the experience he belieyes in them now. Chapter 4: A Scary or Funny Experience 57
  70. 70. y RUN-ON SENTENCES A common writing mistake is the compound run-on sentence does not usually have more is probably a compound run-on sentence. There are can resuJt in compound run-on sentences ! / i t • More than two People have always taikecf about ghosts, and many books have been written about them, but people cárinot ágree on thefr existence. - • More than two independent clauses not joinedby-coordinating conjunctic Some peopíe believe in ghosts others laugh at the idea, other péopie just aren’t süíe. -on sentences : V r - One student saw a Read this student's story. Decide which sentences are run-ons. Write RO aboye the run-on sentences. Then, talk about your answers with your ¿lass. A Visií 1O ne n ig h t in m y country, I couldn't sleep. 2I was alone in m y bédroom, and my brother and sister were sleeping in th e ir rooms. ÍO utside, the weather was not good. 4lt was raining hard my room was dark, and it was about three óclock in the m orning. 5I prayed to-G od, and I wished for sleep. 6Suddenly, í saw a young wom an w ith long black hair in fro n t o f me, com ing from her, so I could see her clearly. 7She gave m]e was floating above the fioor. 8! was scareó a t the sight, llco u ld n 't do anything, then, she started to laugh. 9! turned the lig h t on w ith a ig efFort, but she disapt?eared in fro n t o f me I went to the livinq room and . I m orning. 10Even to d a y , I can't forget th a t experience, and bother me zaain. and soft light was a smile, but she sat there until hope she will nevar 58 Writers at Work: T ke Paragraph
  71. 71. CORRECTING A RUN-ON SENTENCE A-mn:on sentence is :^ o pr more independent clauses incoiré^y/jomeci |together. To coírert a.m n-pn sentence^ sepárate it into twOfpr nipregood 1 Firid all in the ■/'raJHJii; 2 Decide where 3. Add:,óf take put coprdihanrig conjunctipns where you-need to. - |4 Change the : way to corfect'á run-on sentence. You can decide ; which:'way you Like besfc' Run-on sentence 1;^ : - : ; People have always-talked: about.ghosíst and many- bóoks have been-writíerr;about them, but peopíe-cannotagrée: onfheír existence.;. ' ’G órfeáión I : , People have.always talkéd;about ghosts, and":many books have been^ritíea.aboútthem. ;.: ; Bút péopíé éannot agree órrtfieir existence^ Corréction 2 ; r ' ‘ | , - | beeri written"áboirt them, but people cannot agree on their.existence, - Run-crn sentence 2: ^ 1 ' "'^m & p e o p té ;believe:iihrghostáóthers}aughattheideá^other:people;iustarentsure:v; ;.CoTjécúón 1:. ... f Some people beííeve in gfiosts, but o te s laugh at-theJde¿ Otherpeople justaren^1sure. ' CÓTrecíibn 2 : ' 1 1§ /;V. ..'v ; ' Somé people belíeve in 'ghosts. Others laugh'af the idea: Other people.jüst aren’t sure... R u n -o n señténce 3:: Oñé' Stüdent saw a ghost; anti He’li never forget thé experience he beiíevés in the'm now. Corréction 1: y .': •One student saw^a ghost and’herll neveríorgét the experience. He befieves in them now. Corréction 2 r . J - .One student saw a ghostr so. he believes in them now. He’!! never foroetthe experience. ¡ Practice l ?¡ On a separate piece o f paper, rewrite the paragraph "A vísit" in Practice 5 on the opposite page. Correct the run-on sentences. . . Chapter 4: A Scary or Funny Experience 59
  72. 72. Practice Q This student's paragraph has both simple and compound sentences, but there are many run-on sentences in it. Correct the run-on sentences by adding periods and capital letters. Yoü will need to add or remove some commas. You might choose to add some coordinating conjunctions. A Funny Story 1A funny thing happened to my family three years agó. 2One evening, my • parents, my brother, and I went to see a movie. 3A fter that, we went to eat dinner at a restaurant, we took a long time there, so we carne back home about tweive o'clock. 4I opened the front door, I was very surjprised. 5Somebody had scattered everything in my house. 6Books and records ¡were on the floor, and the sofá was torn up. 7A t th a t time, I heard a strange nofse from my room, and I was sure th a t there was somebody in my room, and I wanted to be a hero, so I told my family, "Piease, watch o u t i will check my r$om." 8I walked s!ow!y and quietly to my room and opened my door carefully. 9S;iiddenly, something jumped out the window it was. a wild cat. 10W e realized. that everything in our house. 111 had forgotten to cióse the iaughed together. :he cat had scattered window. 12Then, we al -ii This student's paragraph has both simple and compounáIsentences, but there are many run-on sentences in it. Coirect the run-on sentericés by adding periods and capital letters. You will need to add or remove.some comunas, and you might choose to add some caordinating conjunctions: ■ —===== The student wrote about a terrible experience thathappenedin Texas. In 1987, a gifí named Jessica fell doum a w ell H er rescuers had to drill a hole next to the wéll to reach her. The student imagined that she vuas Jessica and wrote the story frcTji Jessica's point ofview. Je ssica ’s Terrible Experiefice 4W hen I was onlv 18 months oíd, something terrible: liappened to me. 2O ne day, I was playmg ouiside with some other children, ! :eii into a weíí, a a&ep well. sA t first, I didn't know what happened, i asked myself, "W h y is it so dark? W h e re is my mo'rnmy?".4A íler a few minutes, I heard my mom cali me, "Jessica, jessica, where are yoü?” 5Her voice sounded very. wprned then, ! knew i was m the well. 3! began to feeí-pain because my bcdy had hit c-n the rocky sides o f . Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  73. 73. the well. 7I cried and called my mom, then ! fell asleep. 8A fter a long time, I woke up, I was still ¡n the well, I started to hear a loud noise. 9I d id n t know w hat it was, but I thought maybe it was Superman. 40He was coming to save my life. 11l.remembered in the cartoons, Superman always saves people's lives. 12W hen I thought about that, I wasn't scared anymoré. 13l even felt a little happy because I would see Superman. 14finally, I saw him, but he forgot to wear his Superman clothes he forgot to wear his red cape. 15However, I believe he was my Superman. 16He took me up to see my mommy and daddy and they were both crying, and I cried, too. 17l was rescued Edit your writing Use the Editing Checklist to edit your paragraph. Follow these steps. 1 Underline all of the subjects in your sentences. Circle all of the verbs. 2 Using the checklist, look for only one kind of mistake at a time. 3 Use Quick Check on pages 123-140 to heip you fix your mistakes. 4 Lóok at your Progress Check on page 49 of Chapter 3. Use it to heip you edit you paragraph. EDITING CHECKLIST £ Loóle át;each sentence XQ - ' 1 Does every sentence have a subject and a verb? Í O ' , 2 A iém ere any run-on sentences-? :-T l 3 'Are tr^re any fragniénts? .;&ó& ateacirveib,' O -: 4 I)o all ofíthe yerbs. a^éewíth-theirsubjéáá?'^':' í~T 5- Are alí o f the verbs tHe con ca tense and forai? Lóok ai ■ U 6' Does each sentence begin with a capital. létter?' □ ; 7 Does each sentence end with the correct punctuation? L_l . 8 ís there a comma after each transition?. U 9 ís there a comma in each compound sentence? Look at the words. ^ U 10 Ts each wórd.spéllédxoiTectly?. Chapter 4: A Scary or Funny Experience 6 1
  74. 74. Write your final draft, induding your changes and corrections. Use correct format. I FOLLOWING UP____ A Share your writing Check your progress After you get your paragraph back from your teacher, below. the Progress Check Paragraph title: Things I did well in this paragraph: Look at your Progress Check on page 49 of Chapter 3. writing in this paragraph? How did you improve your Follow these steps to read your dassmates stories in small groups. 1 Get in a small group. Collect all of the paragraphs from your group, -and exchange them for the paragraphs of another group. >j 2 Each person.in the group will read all of the papers. Then, the group will dedde which story is the most enjoyable to read. 3 The teacher will. read each group's favorite stóry. The gjroup will explain why théy chose that story. Things I need to work on in my next paragraph: Writers at Work: The Paragraph
  75. 75. ¡§i T J ofidayafTheyare dtffeseoffrorn-aff-otherrfays of r" X X theyemWfiénwetí'earthéworcfholicfay.we,tfíinkfí ^ofspecial fodcf^cfothes, an^^^i^V fe can^ctoseoun k&ti^VtoscD^^fi/© ^eroemótergújplíir fainiiy and; ÍRencis.
  76. 76. ' 1 1 gjl^ÍN G STARTED A Picture this Answer the questions about each photograph with your class or in a small group. Gei ideas What is your favorite holiday? On a blank piece of paper write the ñame of íhe holiday in the middle of the page. Draw a árele around it and make an idea web, as you did in .Chapter 3 ón page 39. Include in your web what you do on that holiday and also íhe sighís, soúnds, smeils, and tastes. Writers átWoifc The Paragraph 1 2 3 What is íhe ñame of the holiday? What is happening in the photograph? Do you celebrate the same holiday or a similar one?

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