Jaina literature and philosophy, a critical approach – By Dr. Sagarmal Jain, Pärshvanäth Vidyäpith Forward by Padmanabh Jaini , ‘That Which Is’ By Nathmal Tatia Antiquity of Jainism. By Mahävir Saran Jain Jainworld.com Dr. Malaiya Jain, Uni. Of Colorado Various other sources
24 Tirthankars in each half time cycle Nirvana of 1st and 24th Tirthankar of Avasarpini Käl 4th Ärä is 10¹⁶ Sägaropam years Thus according to Jainism Rishabha Dev Bhagawän existed many billions of years ago
prajaaptiryah prathamam jiiivishhu sashaasa krishsyadishhu karmasuprajah. (vrihat-svayambhuu stotra)As first Prajäpati, he taught people, who wanted to earn a living, various professions.
dhammo vi dayamuulo vinimmiyo aadi bamhena. (trilokasaara) The "first Brahma" (Lord Rishabha) established the (ordinary) dharma based on compassion Ächärya Ravishena in Padma-Purän vaatod-dhuutaa jataastaasya rejuraakulamuurtauah. dhuumalva iva sad-dhyaan-vahnisaktaya karmanah.Blowing in the wind, the locks of his hair looked, as if they were smoke coming out the fire burning the karmas.
Bhagavata-Purana also mentions the locks of hair of Lord Rishabha..kutila jatila kapisha-kesha-bhuumibhaaraa. The Bhagavata says: ashhtame merudevyaam tu naabherjaata uruukramah. darshayan vartma dhiiraanaam sarvaashramanamaskritamam..In the womb of Marudevi, wife of Näbhi, the lord had his eighth avatar. He showed himself in a form that is to be worshipped by all Shramanas.
Bhagavata calls him "shariira maatra parigraha" (body his only possession), "gagana- paridhaanah" (wearing the sky), vaatarashanaa (wearing the wind). Full details of Rishabha dev and Bharat are available in Ädipuräna and Mahäpurän of Jinsenacharya and Shrimad-Bhagavat.
Biography of Neminäth is available in Harivanshpuran. Neminäth is connected with the legend of Sri Krishna as his relative. According to the Triÿaáûiáaläkäpuruÿacarita, he was a cousin of Lord Krishna. The age when Väsudeva-Krishana flourished cannot be determined with certainty. The Chändogya Upaniÿad (the sixth or seventh century B.C.) refers to Väsudev Krishna. The Mahäbhärata war, in which Krishna is known to have participated, was, according to H.C. Ray CHAUDHARY, was fought either in the 14th century B.C. or in the 9th century B.C
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro excavations (5000 BC) The nude images in Käyotsarga i.e., the standing posture lost in meditation, closely resemble the Jaina images. Some idols even in Padmäsan pose (unique to Sramanik tradition). A few others, found at Mohenjo-Daro, have hoods of serpents – Pre-Vedic Naga tribe, probably that of 7th Tirthankar Supärshva Näth
References of Vratya and Arhatas in Rig-Veda and Atharva Veda. In the Upanishadik period (800 B.C.) they were known as Sramana and Nirgranth. Mentions in Vedas and Upanishadas about Tirthankar Rishabha, Arishthnemi, Supärshva and Ajit. This reasonably proves that Jainism is pre- Vedic, at least 3000 B.C. to 5000 B.C.
Bhagawän Pärshvanäth (850 BCE) flourished in Väränasi based on several mentions in Buddhist texts. Mention of Chaturyäma in Buddhist texts The Majjhima Nikäya records a dispute between Buddha and Sakdäl, the son of a Nirgrantha Presence of Pärshva followers at the time of Mahävir
Nätaputta and Lichchaviputta Vedic Tradition and Srmanik Tradition Sänkhya and Ajivika Traditions – short lived Vedic Tradition Ritualism, Yajna, Sacrifice, Tantrism, Cast system, Brahmanic Dominance Sramanik Tradition Austerity, Penance, Equanimity, atheism and non-possessiveness
Idol worship - 4th - 3rd century BC Adoption of Hindu deities 5th – 8th century AD Inclusion of Rama, Rävan and Krishna amongst the next 24 Tirthankar before 3rd Century AD. Inclusion of Rama and Krishna amongst others in 63 Salakäpurusha Jain Rämäyan by Vimal Suri – 1st to 3rd Century AD
Magadha – Capital Patliputra (Patna) - the center of knowledge and learning 160 years after Mahävir ( 350 BC) Nanda Dynasty – Chandra Gupta Maurya 12 year famine in Magadha Ächärya Bhadrabähu away First Vächanä of Ägam in Patliputra under the leadership of Sthulibhadra Beginning of schism of Shvetämbar and Digambar 12th Ägam – Drashtiväda - extinct
Buddhism competing with Jainism Role of King Ashoka (304 BC – 232 BC) in Buddhism. Ashoka coronation in 270 BC. Ruled for 38 years Resurgence of Brahmanism in 150 BC Void of royal support for Jainism and subsequent migration of Jains from Magadha
Towards Delhi, Mathura and Gujarat - Mostly followed Shvetämbar tradition Through the coastal route to Orissa and then onwards to Karnataka, Chennai and Mysore – Mostly followed Digambar This is why current distribution of Shvetämbar and Digambar. And virtually absent Jainism in Bihar
King Madhav comes to power with great effort of a Digambar Monk Simhanandi In Karnatak Many rulers of Ganaga dynasty after Madhav continue to support until 14th AD In Gujarat, no such support until King Vanaraj who ruled between 746 AD and 806 AD Subsequent lack of royal support until Ächärya Hemchandrä-chärya (1088-1173) influences Solanki King Kumärpäl who ruled Gujarat (1143-1173 ) No significant royal support post Kumärpäl era
l. Sudharmä-swämi2. Jambuswämi3. Prabhav swämi4. Sayyam-bhava Swami5. Yashobhadra6. (a) Bhadrabähu and (b) Sambhuti Vijay.7. Sthulibhadra.
8. (a) Mahägiri and (b) Suhastin. 9. (a) Susthita and (b) Supratibuddha (a) Kotika and (b) Kakandaka10. Indradatt.11. Datta.12. Sinhgiri.13. Vajra.14. Vajrasena.