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Professional Communication 05 - The Eight Steps

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Professional Communication 05 - The Eight Steps

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Professional Communication 05 - The Eight Steps

  1. 1. Professional Communication LESSON #05 THE 8 STEPS OF PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION BY JAIME ALFREDO CABRERA ALBUKHARY INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  2. 2. EIGHT STEPS  The steps of professional communication can help in the success of transferring a message to the target receiver.  Missing a step can result in nondelivery of message, and therefore in communication failure. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  3. 3. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION: 8 STEPS 8 1 ELEMENTS SENDER 17 COMPONENTS 8 NEEDING STEPS 7 DETERMINERS or SOURCE RESPONDING FEEDBACK QUESTIONS 2 6 ENCODING MESSAGE DECODING INTENDED MEANING RECEIVED 8 CONFIRMING CONFIRMATION 5 RECEIVING 3 RECEIVER MEDIUM 4 TRANSMITTING CHANNEL SLH1013 - Professional English SENDING
  4. 4. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION: 8 STEPS 8 ELEMENTS 17 COMPONENTS 8 STEPS DETERMINERS QUESTIONS SLH1013 - Professional English 1 NEEDING SENDER or SOURCE
  5. 5. Origin of the Message SENDER SOURCE  Active  Passive  With intention  Repository only  Sender sends  Receiver seeks  Sender makes  Receiver finds meaning for receiver SLH1013 - Professional English meaning for self Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  6. 6. The Need to Communicate MOTIVE INTENTION  Hidden or implied  Clearly stated purpose or reason  May be different from intention  Receiver may guess the hidden motive purpose or reason  May be different from motive  Receiver can understand the stated intention SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  7. 7. Types of Messages DATA INFORMATION  Not structured  Code is structured  Needs to be  No need for translated  Not understood by receiver  Meaning created by receiver translation  Understood by receiver  Meaning created by sender SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  8. 8. Step 2: ENCODING USE SYMBOLS AND STRUCTURES TO CREATE A MESSAGE ENCODING, DECODING, AND SYMBOLS 2. SYMBOLS: LETTERS, NUMBERS, CHARACTERS, AND SPACES 3. CODES: LANGUAGE, VOCABULARY, SPELLING, GRAMMAR, PUNCTUAT ION, AND SYNTAX 4. FORMATS: PARTS, STRUCTURES, HIERARCHY, MARGINS, ALIGNMENT, AND INDENTIONS 5. MEDIA: PAPER, TAPE, FILM, DATA STORAGE DEVICE 6. DETERMINERS: SLH1013C Professional English C E P T A B I L I T Y , S T A N D A R D I Z A T I O N - LARITY, AC Tuesday, October 29, 2013 1.
  9. 9. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION: 8 STEPS 8 ELEMENTS 17 COMPONENTS 8 STEPS 1 NEEDING SENDER or SOURCE DETERMINERS QUESTIONS 2 ENCODING MESSAGE INTENDED SLH1013 - Professional English
  10. 10. Encoding, Decoding, and Symbols  To encode is to translate an idea into a physical form while to decode is to translate symbols into meaningful ideas.  Symbols are characters that are used to record meaning; codes refer to the arrangement of symbols in order to create meaning SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  11. 11. ENCODING The use of symbols to translate an idea or concept into physical form Symbols  Characters  Letters (a, Z, y)  Numbers (3, 1, 0)  Signs ($, {}, =, !)  Spaces Codes  Spelling  Grammar  Syntax  Punctuation  Spacing  Indention SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  12. 12. CODES  Language – Formal, informal  Vocabulary - Academic, technical, business  Spelling – The arrangement of letters to form words that have meaning.  Grammar - The arrangement of words to form sentences that have meaning.  Syntax - The correct arrangement of words to create well-formed sentences.  Punctuation – Signs and conventions to start, end, pause, join, separate, or identify ideas. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  13. 13. FORMATTING THE FORMAT OF A FORMAL LETTER SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  14. 14. FORMATS  To format is to arrange symbols in codes in order to clarify or emphasize meaning.  Formats are conventions that guide the arrangement of the parts of a message; the purpose is to clarify or point out meaning in a message.  The use of professional formats indicate the sender’s level of education. Lesson Connection: 02-1 The Structure of a Formal Letter SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  15. 15. SPACES SPACES IN FORMAL DOCUMENTS
  16. 16. SPACE  Space – The space between each word or symbol  Spacing – The space between each paragraph  Margins – The space between text and edge of paper, along each side of the paper Lesson Connection: 02-2 Spaces in Formal Documents SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  17. 17. INDENTION & ALIGNMENT INDENTION &ALIGNMENT IN FORMAL D O C U M E N TS
  18. 18. INDENTION Indention – The number of spaces between the margin and the first line of the paragraph Lesson Connection: 02-3 Indention & Alignment in Formal Documents SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  19. 19. FONTS THE USE OF TYPEFACE OR FONTS
  20. 20. FONTS 1. UPPERCASE – to indicate • • The start of an idea Acronyms (USA, CC, BCC) Lowercase 3. Italics – for emphasis 4. Underscored or underlined – for medium emphasis 5. Bold or boldface – for strong emphasis 2. Lesson Connection: 02-4 Font Case in the Memorandum SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  21. 21. FONTS Font = the type of letters & symbols 1. Serif = fonts with curls at the end Georgia, Times New Roman 2. Sans Serif = fonts with no curls at the end Arial, Tahoma, Calibri SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  22. 22. RECOMMENDATIONS Serif fonts  Use in formal letters or emails Sans-serif fonts  Use in informal letters or emails  Use in electronic presentations  for faster visual processing  for a design with a cleaner look Lesson Connection: 02-5 Fonts in the Letterhead SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  23. 23. Step 3: RECORDING ENCODING, DECODING, AND SYMBOLS USE A MEDIUM TO RECORD AND 2. SYMBOLS: LETTERS, NUMBERS, CHARACTERS, AND PRESERVE A MESSAGE SPACES 3. CODES: LANGUAGE, VOCABULARY, SPELLING, GRAMMAR, PUN CTUATION, AND SYNTAX 4. FORMATS: PARTS, STRUCTURES, HIERARCHY, MARGINS, ALIGNM ENT, AND INDENTIONS 5. MEDIA: PAPER, TAPE, FILM, DATA STORAGE DEVICE 6. DETERMINERS: CLARITY, ACCEPTABILITY, STANDARDIZATION 7. DETERMINERS: SPOKEN, PERFORMED OR SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013 ENACTED, LIVE OR RECORDED 1.
  24. 24. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION: 8 STEPS 8 ELEMENTS 17 COMPONENTS 8 STEPS 1 NEEDING SENDER or SOURCE DETERMINERS QUESTIONS 2 ENCODING MESSAGE INTENDED 3 RECORDING MEDIUM SLH1013 - Professional English
  25. 25. CHANNEL, MEDIUM, and MEDIA  Media are materials that can be use to record symbols or technology that can be used to transmit messages. The word medium is singular; media is plural  A channel is a person, procedure, or technology that can be used to move a message from Point A to Point B.  Person: secretary, messenger, assistant  Procedure: application procedure  Technology: email, telephone, electronic SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  26. 26. Print, Audio, & Electronic media  Media can refer to technology for recording and/or for transmitting messages.  Print media refers to books, magazines, and newspapers.  Audio or sound media refers to radio stations, telephones, sound recorders and players  Electronic media refers to electronic mail, SMS (short message service), and phone calls via computer (i.e., Skype) SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  27. 27. MEDIA & TECHNOLOGY (1)  Media are materials where symbols can be recorded  Medium is singular while media is plural.  Paper, for instance, is a medium that can be used for recording as well as a technology for transmitting messages. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  28. 28. EXAMPLES OF MEDIA 1. Paper – uses ink on paper to record ideas 2. Tape– records sound on sound tapes 3. Film - records motion, lights, shadows, and sound on video tape or movie film 4. Data storage device – records data, information, or multimedia in digital format on flash drives (USBs) or disk drives. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  29. 29. MEDIA & TECHNOLOGY (2)  Technology refers to any human invention that can be used for any practical purpose.  Another meaning of media: a technology or a tool for transmitting or recording messages. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  30. 30. EXAMPLES OF TECHNOLOGY 1. Ink –to record ideas 2. Pencil – to record ideas 3. Microphone – to record ideas 4. Keyboard – to record ideas 5. Loudspeaker – to transmit ideas 6. Telephone wire – to transmit ideas 7. Computer screen – to show ideas SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  31. 31. One More Time...  Technology: any tool that is invented for a specific use or uses  Media (Sense 1): a tool to record (input) structured/arranged symbols.  Media (Sense 2): a tool to transmit (send) messages.  Media (Sense 3): a tool to record (preserve) structured/arranged symbols. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  32. 32. Step 4: TRANSMITTING ENCODING, DECODING, AND SYMBOLS USE A CHANNEL TO TRANSMIT A 2. SYMBOLS: LETTERS, NUMBERS, CHARACTERS, AND MESSAGE SPACES 3. CODES: LANGUAGE, VOCABULARY, SPELLING, GRAMMAR, PUN CTUATION, AND SYNTAX 4. FORMATS: PARTS, STRUCTURES, HIERARCHY, MARGINS, ALIGNM ENT, AND INDENTIONS 5. MEDIA: PAPER, TAPE, FILM, DATA STORAGE DEVICE 6. DETERMINERS: CLARITY, ACCEPTABILITY, STANDARDIZATION 7. DETERMINERS: SPOKEN, PERFORMED OR SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013 ENACTED, LIVE OR RECORDED 1.
  33. 33. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION: 8 STEPS 8 1 ELEMENTS 17 COMPONENTS 8 NEEDING SENDER or SOURCE STEPS DETERMINERS QUESTIONS 2 ENCODING MESSAGE INTENDED 3 RECORDING MEDIUM 4 TRANSMITTING CHANNEL SLH1013 - Professional English
  34. 34. SEND, TRANSMIT, and TRANSFER  To send is to move a message in physical format (letter, roll of film, or photos) from Point A to Point B.  To transmit is to move a message in electronic (email, SMS) or sound (voice tape, voice mail) format from Point A to Point B.  To transfer is to move meaning or skill from sender to receiver. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  35. 35. Types of Transmission  Intrapersonal Communication– when a person communicates with the self.  Interpersonal Communication– when a person communicates with a very small group.  Public Communication - when a person communicates with a larger group.  Mass Communication - when a person communicates with an extremely large group whose members are located in various places. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  36. 36. Determiners of Transmission  Physical Form  Printed messages may be more secure than electronic or voice messages.  However, electronic messages can be transmitted faster and cheaper than print messages.  Electronic Form  Electronic and voice messages can be transmitted faster than printed messages.  However, anyone with the appropriate skills can access any electronic message. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  37. 37. Speed and Timeliness  Speed of Delivery – When a message is time-sensitive, delayed delivery can result in communication failure.  Timeliness or timing – When a message arrives at a time when it brings the answer to a receiver’s need, then it is timely. When a message comes at a time when it is not needed, that is bad or poor timing. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  38. 38. Confirmation and Content Fidelity  Confirmation of Delivery – When delivery is confirmed by the receiver or a representative, it serves as proof of delivery, although not of decoding by the target receiver.  Fidelity of Content – When the delivery process does not affect the message, then content fidelity is preserved. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  39. 39. Security and Confidentiality  Security of Content – When the message is delivered to the target receiver without being seen by non-target receivers, then the delivery is secure.  Confidentiality – When unwelcome effects can result from non-target receivers who see the message content, then the message should be kept confidential. (See security.) SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  40. 40. Step 5: RECEIVE ENCODING, DECODING, AND SYMBOLS RECEIVE (OR NOT) A MESSAGE 2. SYMBOLS: LETTERS, NUMBERS, CHARACTERS, AND SPACES 3. CODES: LANGUAGE, VOCABULARY, SPELLING, GRAMMAR, PUN CTUATION, AND SYNTAX 4. FORMATS: PARTS, STRUCTURES, HIERARCHY, MARGINS, ALIGNM ENT, AND INDENTIONS 5. MEDIA: PAPER, TAPE, FILM, DATA STORAGE DEVICE 6. DETERMINERS: CLARITY, ACCEPTABILITY, STANDARDIZATION 7. DETERMINERS: SPOKEN, PERFORMED OR SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013 ENACTED, LIVE OR RECORDED 1.
  41. 41. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION: 8 STEPS 8 1 ELEMENTS 17 COMPONENTS 8 NEEDING SENDER or SOURCE STEPS DETERMINERS QUESTIONS 2 ENCODING MESSAGE INTENDED 5 RECEIVING 3 RECEIVER MEDIUM 4 TRANSMITTING CHANNEL SLH1013 - Professional English SENDING
  42. 42. Target and Non-target Receivers  A target receiver is the person or group that the sender expects to see the message.  A non-target receiver is any person or group that the sender does not expect to see the message. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  43. 43. Determiners of Receiver Access  Availability  A receiver may be present but too busy to receive a printed message, or to answer a phone or an email.  A receiver’s phone or computer may be connected, but the receiver is not available for communication.  Connectivity A receiver’s phone may be unreachable or the receiver’s computer may not be connected. • A professional communicator anticipates such problems to ensure successful message transfer. 29, 2013 Tuesday, October SLH1013 - Professional English
  44. 44. Step 6: DECODING ENCODING, DECODING, AND SYMBOLS UNDERSTAND THE MEANING OF A 2. SYMBOLS: LETTERS, NUMBERS, CHARACTERS, AND MESSAGE SPACES 3. CODES: LANGUAGE, VOCABULARY, SPELLING, GRAMMAR, PUN CTUATION, AND SYNTAX 4. FORMATS: PARTS, STRUCTURES, HIERARCHY, MARGINS, ALIGNM ENT, AND INDENTIONS 5. MEDIA: PAPER, TAPE, FILM, DATA STORAGE DEVICE 6. DETERMINERS: CLARITY, ACCEPTABILITY, STANDARDIZATION 7. DETERMINERS: SPOKEN, PERFORMED OR SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013 ENACTED, LIVE OR RECORDED 1.
  45. 45. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION: 8 STEPS 8 1 ELEMENTS 17 COMPONENTS 8 NEEDING SENDER or SOURCE STEPS DETERMINERS QUESTIONS 2 6 ENCODING MESSAGE DECODING INTENDED MEANING RECEIVED 5 RECEIVING 3 RECEIVER MEDIUM 4 TRANSMITTING CHANNEL SLH1013 - Professional English SENDING
  46. 46. RECEIVE and DECODE  To receive is to take, accept, experience (read, hear, see) or welcome something.  To decode is to create meaning by translating a set of symbols in codes.  In formal communication, the next step is to find relevance by relating to personal needs or context. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  47. 47. Message VS Meaning  Message – A message is a set symbols that is arranged into a code to record meaning on a medium.  Medium – A medium is used to carry meaning from sender to receiver  Meaning – The sense (ideas that are revealed) when the code is decoded (understood) by the receiver SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  48. 48. Text, Subtext, and Context  Text – are the words that are used to create meaning.  Subtext – are meanings that are not stated but are implied enough to be understood by the reader.  Context – are elements around that affect any element of communication. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  49. 49. Noise  Noise – in communication, noise is anything that interferes with the transfer of information.  Intervening variable –any noise that is not deliberate. It can be distracting element in a context. Example: the speaker’s nationality prevents listeners from believing his speech.  Interference – any noise that is deliberately created to stop the transfer of information. Example: A boy sings loudly so that his sister cannot hear the radio. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  50. 50. The Decoding Process  Encode – to use symbols to record meaning  Decode – to translate symbols in order to create meaning – to change from one code (language) to another  Create meaning – to understand  Translate  Find relevance – to relate the meaning of a message to the needs of the receiver SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  51. 51. Decoding Speed  Decoding – means understanding or making sense of a code  Perceived need – Decoding a message is faster when the decoder sees a strong need to do so  Perceived importance – Decoding a message is faster when the decoder sees the message as of high importance  Perceived urgency – Decoding a message is faster when the decoder sees the message as of high urgency SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  52. 52. Step 7: RESPONDING GIVE FEEDBACK TO THE SENDER OF THE MESSAGE SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  53. 53. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION: 8 STEPS 8 1 ELEMENTS 17 COMPONENTS 8 NEEDING SENDER STEPS 7 DETERMINERS or SOURCE RESPONDING FEEDBACK QUESTIONS 2 6 ENCODING MESSAGE DECODING INTENDED MEANING RECEIVED 5 RECEIVING 3 RECEIVER MEDIUM 4 TRANSMITTING CHANNEL SLH1013 - Professional English SENDING
  54. 54. Response Speed  The speed of a response depends on  The time required to decode the message  The receiver’s perception of urgency or nonurgency of the message  The receiver’s perception of importance or non-importance of the message  The receiver’s perception of need or nonneed to respond to the message  The receiver’s ability to quickly respond to the message SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  55. 55. Response and Feedback Response Feedback  A response is any  A feedback is a reaction to a message  This may be verbal or nonverbal  This may or may not be expressed verbal response to the sender, related to specific elements in the message.  This may be spoken or written SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  56. 56. Step 8: CONFIRMING REACTING TO FEEDBACK: AGREEMENT REPETITION CORRECTION ANSWERING A QUERY PROVIDING DETAILS SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  57. 57. How to Confirm  Answer a query – That will be tonight at eleven p.m.  Repeat the information – Yes, the shoes are red, size 34.  Agree to a response – Yes, you are right; the president will attend.  Correct a response – The dress code is casual, not formal.  Provide details – Aside from that, all guests are free to use the mall facilities. SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013
  58. 58. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION: 8 STEPS 8 1 ELEMENTS 17 COMPONENTS 8 NEEDING SENDER STEPS 7 DETERMINERS or SOURCE RESPONDING FEEDBACK QUESTIONS 2 6 ENCODING MESSAGE DECODING INTENDED MEANING RECEIVED 8 CONFIRMING CONFIRMATION 5 RECEIVING 3 RECEIVER MEDIUM 4 TRANSMITTING CHANNEL SLH1013 - Professional English SENDING
  59. 59. Professional Communication LESSON #06 THE 17 COMPONENTS OF PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION SLH1013 - Professional English Tuesday, October 29, 2013

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