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# Problem Statement 11 ORIGINAL INPUT - Use of elements of originality

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A presentation on how to use elements of originality when formulating a problem statement for a research proposal

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### Problem Statement 11 ORIGINAL INPUT - Use of elements of originality

1. 1. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM – STEP # 11 SUMMARY  POINT OF ACTION  THESIS STATEMENT  RESEARCH QUESTION  SYNTHESIS  INCREASED VALUES  UNEXPECTED CONNECTIONS  VIABILITY  VERSATILITY  NEW USES IF MY PROBLEM STATEMENT HAS MORE OF THESE, THEN IT IS MORE ORIGINAL... YES? Image courtesy of Mark Woodcock at www.bigfootdigital.co.uk
2. 2. summary The one-sentence statement of the research problem can express your original input in seven ways: 1. Action Point – The proposal uses a new point of action in an old idea 2. Synthesis – The proposal combines parts of old ideas into a new idea 3. Increased Values – The proposal modifies an old idea so that it is more efficient, achieves better effects or results in less time, or uses less resources or effort 4. Unexpected Connections – The proposal clearly connects seemingly unconnected ideas to increase values, viability, versatility or new uses • • • FIRST SLIDE Viability – an idea can be completed before a deadline to achieve a specific goal Versatility – an idea to meet a need or solve a problem can be used in many other contexts New uses – an idea is given new or additional uses LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
3. 3. to state or not to state WAYS TO ACHIEVE ORIGINALITY OBVIOUS ORIGINALITY: Output description may be enough to indicate originality Action point Synthesis Compared to usual proposal on this topic, this proposal focuses on.... • Christmas, Hanukah, and Deepavali, and Ramadan greeting cards combined into one Increased values Unexpected connections NOT OBVIOUS ORIGINALITY: Original elements may need to be explicitly stated Compared to its original version, results of this idea are better, faster, more effective, or use less resources • Pens as spoons and forks • Discarded vegetable and fruit peel as nutritious baby food This idea is used for the first time in a particular place, language, purpose, or context Viability [Under increased values] Compared to its original version, this idea is easier or faster to complete Versatility [Under increased values] Compared to its original version, this idea can be used in many other ways such as... New uses [Under increased values] • Toilet paper that can be used as bandage, diaper, disinfectant • Book that can be used as wallet, weapon, shopping list, and calculator High level of originality: An idea with more than one of these seven characteristics
4. 4. point of action: why The current need or problem situation is not the only point of action where one can propose a solution. Other points of action are: • Past – What started the problem or need? • Present – What are the direct effects of this problem or need at present? What are the indirect effects? • Future – What effects or repercussions can be a result of this need or problem situation? Thus, an old topic can become an original topic by shifting the proposal to a past, present, or future point. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
5. 5. Point of Action: SUMMARY A need or problem situation includes three points of action: past, present, and future. You choose one point where your proposed action can meet the need or solve the problem. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
6. 6. Point of Action: USEFULNESS 1 This is particularly important when your topic is rejected because it has been done before. Your topic can be approved if it uses a point of action that has not been done before. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
7. 7. Point of Action: USEFULNESS 2 This is useful when a topic is rejected because the topic shows no target beneficiary. The topic can be approved if it uses a point of action that has not been done before, provided a target beneficiary can be included. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
8. 8. 5 points of action 1. Trigger Elements – The proposed idea focuses on elements that can start an urgent need or problem situation 2. Contributing Variables - The proposed idea focuses on elements that can complicate an urgent need or problem situation 3. Urgent Need - The proposed idea focuses on an urgent need or problem situation at present 4. Current Effects – The proposed idea focuses on the existing effects of an urgent need or problem situation 5. Later Effects – The proposed idea focuses on future or possible effects of an urgent need or problem situation FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
9. 9. Point of Action: PROBLEM SITUATION A problem situation can include five points. WHAT STARTED THE PROBLEM WHAT DEVELOPED THE PROBLEM WHAT IS THE PROBLEM AT PRESENT WHAT CAN HAPPEN NEXT WHAT CAN HAPPEN LATER 1 2 3 4 5 FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
10. 10. Point of Action: URGENT NEED Likewise, a target need can include five points. WHAT STARTED THE NEED? WHAT INCREASED THE NEED? WHAT IS THE NEED AT PRESENT? WHAT CAN HAPPEN NEXT WHAT CAN HAPPEN LATER 1 2 3 4 5 FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
11. 11. Points of Action: NAMES WHAT STARTED IT WHAT DEVELOPED OR INCREASED IT DESCRIBE IT AS IT IS AT PRESENT WHAT CAN HAPPEN NEXT WHAT CAN HAPPEN LATER In research language, these five points are called TRIGGER FIRST SLIDE CONTRIBUTING ELEMENTS LAST SLIDE END SHOW URGENT NEED or PROBLEM SITUATION PREVIOUS SLIDE PRESENT EFFECT(S) LAST VIEWED LATER EFFECT(S) NEXT SLIDE
12. 12. Explanation: TRIGGER ELEMENTS TRIGGER ELEMENTS CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or URGENT NEED (or ELEMENTS ) PROBLEM SITUATION) CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) The trigger elements start the situation, but require contributing variables to create the problem or need. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
13. 13. Explanation: CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES TRIGGER ELEMENTS The trigger elements start the situation, but require contributing variables to create the problem or need. FIRST SLIDE CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or ELEMENTS ) URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) These elements add to the triggers to create the problem situation LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
14. 14. Explanation: URGENT NEED TRIGGER ELEMENTS CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or The trigger elements start the situation, but require contributing variables to create the problem or need. These elements add to the triggers to create the problem situation FIRST SLIDE ELEMENTS ) LAST SLIDE URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) This is the urgent need or problem situation at present END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
15. 15. Explanation: CURRENT EFFECTS TRIGGER ELEMENTS CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or The trigger elements start the situation, but require contributing variables to create the problem or need. These elements add to the triggers to create the problem situation FIRST SLIDE ELEMENTS ) LAST SLIDE URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) This is the urgent need or problem situation at present END SHOW CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) These are the observable effects of the problem situation at the time of your proposal. PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
16. 16. Explanation: LATER EFFECTS TRIGGER ELEMENTS CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or The trigger elements start the situation, but require contributing variables to create the problem or need. These elements add to the triggers to create the problem situation FIRST SLIDE ELEMENTS ) LAST SLIDE URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) This is the urgent need or problem situation at present END SHOW CURRENT EFFECT(S) These are the observable effects of the problem situation or need at the time of your proposal. PREVIOUS SLIDE LATER EFFECT(S) These are the projected or predicted effects of the need or problem situation if no action is taken. LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
17. 17. identify points of action The points of action should be identified because: • Clarification – Each possibility is described and clarified • Choices – The clarification can result in a list of choices for a research proposal • Options – In cases where a proposal is rejected, the writer can submit a different proposal but still stay on the same topic FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
18. 18. IDENTIFY POINTS OF ACTION EXAMPLE 1 FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
19. 19. 1: State the Preliminary Topic A TRIGGER ELEMENTS CONTRIBUTING URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM VARIABLES (or SITUATION) ELEMENTS ) CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) 1. Pregnant college student 2. Global warming 3. Burning dormitory FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
20. 20. 2: State the 1st Point of Action 1 A CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or TRIGGER ELEMENTS ELEMENTS ) • Life away from family • Culture shock URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) 1. Pregnant college student 2. Global warming 3. Burning dormitory FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
21. 21. 3: State the 2nd Point of Action 1 TRIGGER ELEMENTS • Life away from family • Culture shock FIRST SLIDE 2 A CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or ELEMENTS ) • Loneliness • Lack of information • Lack of values education LAST SLIDE END SHOW URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE 1. Pregnant college student PREVIOUS SLIDE
22. 22. 4: State the 3rd Point of Action B C A TRIGGER ELEMENTS CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or URGENT NEED • Life away from family • Culture shock FIRST SLIDE ELEMENTS ) • Loneliness • Lack of information • Lack of values education LAST SLIDE D E CURRENT EFFECT(S) (or PROBLEM SITUATION) LATER EFFECT(S) 1. Pregnant •Low grades college •Loss of student END SHOW scholarship •Forced marriage •Abortion PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
23. 23. 5: State the 4th Point of Action B TRIGGER ELEMENTS • Life away from family • Culture shock FIRST SLIDE C A CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) ELEMENTS ) • Loneliness • Lack of information • Lack of values education LAST SLIDE D 1. Pregnant college student END SHOW E CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) • Low grades • Loss of scholarship • Forced marriage • Abortion PREVIOUS SLIDE •Single motherhood •Ostracism by family or culture •Poor career prospects LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
24. 24. IDENTIFY POINTS OF ACTION EXAMPLE 2 FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
25. 25. 1: State the Preliminary Topic A TRIGGER ELEMENTS CONTRIBUTING URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM VARIABLES (or SITUATION) ELEMENTS ) CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) 2. Global warming 3. Burning dormitory FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
26. 26. 2: State the 1st Point of Action 1 A CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or TRIGGER ELEMENTS URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) ELEMENTS ) • Factories • Mass media • Advertising CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) 2. Global warming 3. Burning dormitory FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
27. 27. 3: State the 2nd Point of Action 1 TRIGGER ELEMENTS • Factories • Mass media • Advertising FIRST SLIDE 2 A CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) 2. Global • High warming carbon production • Consumer culture LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
28. 28. 4: State the 3rd Point of Action B C TRIGGER ELEMENTS CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or • Factories • Mass media • Advertising FIRST SLIDE A URGENT NEED LAST SLIDE 2. Global warming END SHOW E CURRENT EFFECT(S) (or PROBLEM SITUATION) ELEMENTS ) • High carbon production • Consumer culture D LATER EFFECT(S) • Low food production • Illness and disorders PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
29. 29. 5: State the 4th Point of Action B TRIGGER ELEMENTS C CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or ELEMENTS ) • Factories • High carbon • Mass production media • Consumer • Advertising culture FIRST SLIDE A LAST SLIDE D URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) 2. Global warming END SHOW E CURRENT EFFECT(S) • Low food production • Illness and disorders PREVIOUS SLIDE LATER EFFECT(S) • Cities covered by sea water • Planet unfit for human life LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
30. 30. IDENTIFY POINTS OF ACTION EXAMPLE 3 FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
31. 31. 1: State the Preliminary Topic A TRIGGER ELEMENTS CONTRIBUTING URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM VARIABLES (or SITUATION) ELEMENTS ) CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) 3. Burning dormitory FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
32. 32. 2: State the 1st Point of Action 1 TRIGGER ELEMENTS A CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES • Bad canteen food FIRST SLIDE URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) 3. Burning dormitory LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
33. 33. 3: State the 2nd Point of Action 1 TRIGGER ELEMENTS • Bad canteen food FIRST SLIDE 2 A CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) CURRENT EFFECT(S) LATER EFFECT(S) • Lack of food 3. Burning choices dormitory • Lack of information about safe cooking practices • Students cooking in bedrooms LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
34. 34. 4: State the 3rd Point of Action B TRIGGER ELEMENTS C CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES • Bad canteen • Lack of food food choices • Lack of information about safe cooking practices • Students cooking in bedrooms FIRST SLIDE A LAST SLIDE D URGENT NEED CURRENT EFFECT(S) (or PROBLEM SITUATION) 3. Burning dormitory END SHOW E LATER EFFECT(S) • Loss of property • Disruption of learning • Increased management expenses PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
35. 35. 5: State the 4th Point of Action B TRIGGER ELEMENTS • Bad canteen food FIRST SLIDE C A D CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES URGENT NEED • Lack of food choices • Lack of information about safe cooking practices • Students cooking in bedrooms 3. Burning dormitory LAST SLIDE (or PROBLEM SITUATION) END SHOW E CURRENT EFFECT(S) • Loss of property • Disruption of learning • Increased management expenses PREVIOUS SLIDE LATER EFFECT(S) • More rules to follow • More clever ways of secret cooking •School can be shut down LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
36. 36. identify potential proposals In the process of identifying potential proposals, two other steps can be completed: 1.The Thesis Statement 2.The Research Question FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
37. 37. Potential Proposal: Point 1 1. State an urgent need that can be met by a research paper. (1) Use a VERB. (2) Use a NOUN. (3) Specify BENEFICIARIES. (4) Don’t use adjectives. TRIGGER CONTRIBUTING ELEMENTS (or VARIABLES) DIRECT (or INDIRECT (or (or PROBLEM SITUATION) IMMEDIATE) EFFECT(S) LONG-TERM) EFFECT(S) URGENT NEED • Life away from family • Culture shock 1. Loneliness 2. Lack of information 3. Lack of values education 1. Pregnant college student • Low grades • Loss of scholarship • Forced marriage • Abortion of the fetus • Single motherhood • Ostracism by family or culture • Poor career prospects B C A D E VERB NOUN Specific target beneficiaries NEED: Prevent pregnancy among college students in AIT Morocco CHECK: (1) Is there a verb? (2) Is there a noun? (3) Is this an approved research area? (4) Remove all adjectives. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
38. 38. WHY NO ADJECTIVES A research paper must be written in an academic tone; objective language must be used. Objective language requires that a topic must be measurable (can be measured) or quantifiable (can be counted). Many adjectives and adverbs are impossible to quantify or to measure. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
39. 39. WHY NO ADJECTIVES Adjectives and adverbs are difficult to quantify or to measure. They can be subjective. Verbs and nouns can be measured. They can be objective. SUBJECTIVE LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE LANGUAGE: Measurable or countable ideas They work hard. They work 10 hours a day. They work very hard. They work 22 hours a day. It is difficult to memorize 400 words a day. Memorizing 400 words per day means memorizing about 17 words per hour or at least one word every three minutes. This is a complicated solution. This solution requires 14 steps, with an average of 10 elements per step. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
40. 40. Potential Proposal: Point 2 2. State actions that can address contributing variables. TRIGGER CONTRIBUTING VARIABLES (or ELEMENTS) •Life away from 11.Loneliness family 22.Lack of •Culture shock information 33.Lack of values education B C 11.Provide peer support 22.Create sex education poster 33.Create values education poster URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) DIRECT (or INDIRECT (or IMMEDIATE) EFFECT(S) LONG-TERM) EFFECT(S) 1. Pregnant •Low grades college student •Loss of scholarship •Forced marriage •Abortion of the fetus A •Single motherhood •Ostracism by family or culture •Poor career prospects D E NEED: Prevent pregnancy among college students in AIT Morocco CHECK: (1) Can the action address the need? (2) Can you complete this action before deadline? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
41. 41. Potential Proposal: Point 3 3. State possible actions that can address the triggers. CONTRIBUTING ELEMENTS (or TRIGGER VARIABLES) 11.Life away 1.Loneliness from family 2.Lack of information 22.Culture shock 3.Lack of values education B 11.Create a family atmosphere on campus 22.Create poster of cultural adjustment techniques C 1.Provide peer X support 2.Create sex  education poster 3.Create values  education poster URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) DIRECT (or INDIRECT (or IMMEDIATE) EFFECT(S) LONG-TERM) EFFECT(S) 1. Pregnant •Low grades college student •Loss of scholarship •Forced marriage •Abortion of the fetus A •Single motherhood •Ostracism by family or culture •Poor career prospects D E NEED: Prevent pregnancy among college students in AIT Morocco CHECK: (1) Can the action address the need? (2) Can you complete this action before deadline? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
42. 42. Potential Proposal: Point 4 4. State possible actions that can address the immediate effects. CONTRIBUTING ELEMENTS (or TRIGGER VARIABLES) •Life away from 1.Loneliness family 2.Lack of •Culture shock information 3.Lack of values education B X1.Create a family atmosphere on campus 2.Create poster of cultural adjustment techniques C 1.Provide peer X support 2.Create sex  education poster 3.Create values  education poster URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) DIRECT (or INDIRECT (or IMMEDIATE) EFFECT(S) LONG-TERM) EFFECT(S) 1. Pregnant 11.Low grades college student 22.Loss of scholarship 3.Forced marriage 44.Abortion of the fetus A NEED: Prevent pregnancy among college students in AIT Morocco 1.Single motherhood 2.Ostracism by family or culture 3.Poor career prospects D 11.Offer study tutorials 22.Find online other scholarships 43.Create antiabortion posters E CHECK: (1) Can the action address the need? (2) Can you complete this action before deadline? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
43. 43. Potential Proposal: Point 5 5. State possible actions that can address the long-term effects TRIGGER CONTRIBUTING ELEMENTS (or VARIABLES) •Life away from 1.Loneliness family 2.Lack of •Culture shock information 3.Lack of values education B 1.Create a X family atmosphere on campus 2.Create a  cultural adjustment techniques poster C 1.Provide peer X support 2.Create a sex  education poster 3.Create a  values education poster URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) DIRECT (or INDIRECT (or IMMEDIATE) EFFECT(S) LONG-TERM) EFFECT(S) 1.Low grades 1. Pregnant college student 2.Loss of scholarship 3.Forced marriage 4.Abortion A D NEED: X1.Provide tutorials Prevent X2.Find pregnancy alternative among scholarships college 3.Create anti students in abortion AIT Morocco posters 1.Single 1 motherhood 2 2.Ostracism by family or culture 3.Poor career prospects E 11.Create a skills poster for single mothers 22.Create an ostracism skills poster for single mothers CHECK: (1) Can the action address the need? (2) Can you complete this action before deadline? FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
44. 44. Choose Your Proposal If possible choose one with (1) the most direct effects (2) the most preventive effects (3) the most long-term effects TRIGGER CONTRIBUTING ELEMENTS (or VARIABLES) •Life away from 1.Loneliness family 2.Lack of •Culture shock information 3.Lack of values education B 1.Create a X family atmosphere on campus 2.Create a  cultural adjustment techniques poster FIRST SLIDE C 1.Provide peer X support 2.Create a sex  education poster 3.Create a  values education poster LAST SLIDE URGENT NEED (or PROBLEM SITUATION) DIRECT (or INDIRECT (or IMMEDIATE) EFFECT(S) LONG-TERM) EFFECT(S) 1.Low grades 1. Pregnant college student 2.Loss of scholarship 3.Forced marriage 4.Abortion A NEED: Prevent pregnancy among college students in AIT Morocco END SHOW D X1.Provide tutorials X2.Find alternative scholarships 3.Create anti abortion posters PREVIOUS SLIDE 1.Single motherhood 2.Ostracism by family or culture 3.Poor career prospects E 1.Create a  skills poster for single mothers 2.Create a  skills poster for single mothers who are ostracized LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
45. 45. Potential Proposals 1. Create a cultural adjustment techniques poster 2. Create a sex education poster 3. Create a values education poster 4. Create an abortion information poster 5. Create a skills poster for single mothers 6. Create a skills poster for single mothers who are ostracized FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
46. 46. objective selection Compared to arbitrary selection (selection based on chance, whim or personal choice) objectivity is a more respected method in academia as it shows a disciplined mind and a replicable process. 1. One way is to choose a proposal or topic according to rank of projected effects. 2. Another way is to choose a proposal or topic according to viability. 3. You can choose in other ways by using the same 3-step procedure FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
47. 47. Top Three Proposals: Choose One Based on an objective assessment of the possible points of action for this topic, the proposed action can be: 1. Create a cultural shock coping poster for boys & girls (15/15 points) 2. Create a values education poster for girls and boys (15/12 points) 3. Create a help poster for ostracized single mothers (15/10 points) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
48. 48. Selection by Projected Effects Ranking of Effects of Proposed Actions A B C Total 1. Create a cultural adjustment techniques poster for girls 2. Create a sex education poster for girls 3. Create a values education poster for girls and boys 4. Create an abortion information poster for girls and boys 5. Create a coping skills poster for single mothers 6. Create a help poster for ostracized single mothers CREATE A SCORING MATRIX SPECIFY THE ASSESSMENT AREAS Scoring Descriptive Value 5 points Most effective 4 points Above average effectiveness A Direct effects 3 points Average effectiveness B Preventive effects 2 points Below average effectiveness C Long-term effects 1 points Least effective 0 point No effectiveness FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE Assessment Descriptive Value Areas END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
49. 49. Selection by Viability Ranking of Viability of Proposed Actions A B C D Total 1. Create a cultural shock coping poster for boys & girls 2. Create a sex education poster for girls 3. Create a values education poster for girls and boys 4. Create an abortion information poster for girls and boys 5. Create a coping skills poster for single mothers 6. Create a help poster for ostracized single mothers CREATE A SCORING MATRIX SPECIFY THE ASSESSMENT AREAS Scoring Descriptive Value 5 points Most effective 4 points Above average effectiveness A Availability of text 3 points Average effectiveness B Availability of graphics 2 points Below average effectiveness C Design simplicity D Cultural acceptability Assessment Descriptive Value Areas 1 points Least effective 0 point No effectiveness FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
50. 50. problem statement A one-sentence problem statement tells the reader • • • • What the writer intends to do or produce in how much time On what topic to solve what specific problem Who specifically benefits from the proposal What original elements are used and with what theoretical support An original statement can prove that the writer is able to communicate clearly and to use the highest levels of cognitive thought (Bloom, 1956). A clear problem statement ensures that the later part of the research process are easier and faster. This is essential when there is limited time for completing a research proposal or paper. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
51. 51. One-sentence Problem Statement 1/3 This is a proposal to create a poster for male and female students in AIT Morocco showing 15 pictures with English text on how to cope with culture shock, with the aim of preventing student pregnancies in the school. POOR: The reader may not see a clear connection between culture shock and pregnancy. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
52. 52. One-sentence Problem Statement 2/3 To help prevent unwanted pregnancies in AIT Morocco, this writer proposes to create in three days an A3-sized colored poster with 15 pictures and English text to illustrate the 15 most universal moral values. GOOD: The reader may see a clear connection between universal moral values and unwanted pregnancies. The proposed action specifies time and product. The product can be visualized by the reader. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
53. 53. One-sentence Problem Statement 3/3 To help prevent unwanted pregnancies in AIT Morocco, this paper proposes to present in 2 weeks an A4-sized colored handbill with 10 pictures and English-French text to show 10 ways – which are difficult - for ostracized single mothers to continue their education. VERY GOOD: A reader can see a connection between difficult futures and preventing unwanted pregnancies. The proposal specifies action, timeframe and output. The product can be visualized in the reader’s mind. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
54. 54. thesis statement A thesis statement is not a conclusion. It is not a statement that is clearly true or clearly false. It is not a universal truth. A thesis statement is a debatable idea: it can be true or false. It is the main idea that will be proved or disproved in the proposed research paper. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
55. 55. The Thesis Statement The topic sentence is a statement of your point of action. This is that point where the proposed action intends to meet a target need or solve a target problem. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
56. 56. The Thesis Statement First, you must identify all points of action in your proposal. Then, you identify potential proposals. When your begin to identify potential proposals, the thesis statement is born. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
57. 57. Thesis Statement 1/3 Student pregnancies in AIT Morocco can be avoided by showing 15 pictures with English text on how to cope with culture shock. POOR: The reader may not see a clear connection between culture shock and pregnancy. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
58. 58. Thesis Statement 2/3 Student pregnancies in AIT Morocco can be avoided by displaying A3-sized colored posters with 15 pictures and English text to illustrate the 15 most universal moral values. GOOD: The reader may see a clear connection between universal moral values and unwanted pregnancies. The product can be visualized by the reader. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
59. 59. Thesis Statement 3/3 Student pregnancies in AIT Morocco can be avoided by distributing A4-sized colored handbills with 10 pictures and English-French text to show 10 difficult ways for ostracized single mothers to continue their education. VERY GOOD: A reader can see a connection between difficult futures and preventing unwanted pregnancies. The product can be visualized in the reader’s mind. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
60. 60. research question A thesis statement is a debatable idea that can be true or false. Its is the main idea that can be proved or disproved in the proposal. It can be a statement or a question. When a thesis statement is stated as a question, it can be called a Research Question. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
61. 61. Research Question 1/3 Can student pregnancies in AIT Morocco be avoided by showing 15 pictures with English text on how to cope with culture shock? GOOD: The reader may not see a clear connection between culture shock and pregnancy. This question can help the reader see that connection. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
62. 62. Research Question 2/3 Can student pregnancies in AIT Morocco be avoided by displaying A3-sized colored posters with 15 pictures and English text to illustrate the 15 most universal moral values? GOOD: This question can help the reader understand the connection between universal moral values and unwanted pregnancies. The product can be visualized by the reader. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
63. 63. Research Question 3/3 Can student pregnancies in AIT Morocco be avoided by distributing A4-sized colored handbills with 10 pictures and English-French text to show 10 difficult ways for ostracized single mothers to continue their education? VERY GOOD: This question can help the reader understand the connection between difficult futures and preventing unwanted pregnancies. The product can be visualized in the reader’s mind. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
64. 64. Research Question 4 What can best help prevent student pregnancies in AIT Morocco? A. A poster for male and female students in AIT Morocco showing 15 pictures with English text on how to cope with culture shock B. An A3-sized colored poster with 15 pictures and English text to illustrate the 15 most universal moral values C. A4-sized colored handbills with 10 pictures and EnglishFrench text to show 10 difficult ways for ostracized single mothers to continue their education D. A combination of ___ and ___ E. Other: _____________________________________ EXCELLENT: A reader can see that a survey will be used as an objective method to identify the most effective method. Survey respondents can create other options. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
65. 65. synthesis Another way of saying synthesis is “successful combination” • Synthesis –The proposal combines old ideas into a new idea • Parts – The synthesis can be only parts of different ideas; it can be entire or whole ideas combined. • Viable synthesis – The synthesis should be successful. That means that the combination should work, should be effective in solving the problem situation or meeting the urgent need. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
66. 66. Summary: SYNTHESIS A problem statement can be original when synthesis is used. Synthesis is when ideas (or parts of ideas) are combined into something new. The synthesized idea should solve a problem situation or meet an urgent need. The idea should be viable; it can can be successfully completed within a specific or limited time and with specific or limited resources. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
67. 67. Example Synthesis is when you combine elements or parts of elements to create something new (See Unexpected connections). Image courtesy of weheartit.com. Image courtesy of Andrew Kelsall at www.designsoak.com. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE Image courtesy of Andrew Kelsall at www.designsoak.com. END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
68. 68. Example: Synthesis TOPIC BENEFICIARIES malnourished infants in Somaliland URGENT NEED minimize infant mortality rate REQUIREMENT provide alternative nourishment immediately failing high school pass a test in chemistry students Chemistry 101 in Agdao local financing for moringa feeding and planting programs memorize the entire periodic table of chemical elements in seven days low-vocabulary AiU scholars in the BSBF program INPUT get a 100% score in Academic Word List tests in 10 weeks increase grades of essays and research papers Synthesis: Combine ideas or parts of ideas to create something new FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
69. 69. Example: SYNTHESIS Local financing for planting programs and regular feeding of nursing mothers and infants with moringa powder Synthesis: This proposal combines the concept of local financing with the ideas of moringa cultivation. Rationale: Local financing can help villagers avoid state corruption. Local cultivation can create a year-round supply of moringa powder, which has been proven to lower infant mortality (www.moringanews.org/documents/Nutrition.pdf). Original Input: While the concept has been successfully implemented in other places, it has not been proposed for the target beneficiaries of this study. Information posters and instruction leaflets in English and in the local language will be designed. Rating: Good synthesis of different ideas FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
70. 70. Search Keywords FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
71. 71. increased values Increased values – an old idea but with better efficiency, better effects or results in shorter time, and using less resources or less effort. The writer must say and prove that, compared to its original version, results of this idea are better, faster, more effective, or use less resources or effort. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
72. 72. Example: Increased Values TOPIC BENEFICIARIES URGENT NEED REQUIREMENT INPUT malnourished infants in Somaliland minimize infant mortality rate provide alternative nourishment immediately local financing for moringa feeding and planting programs failing high school chemistry students in Agdao pass a test in Chemistry 101 memorize the entire periodic table of chemical elements in seven days Use shouting as a strategy to accurately remember 20 names of scientific elements per hour low-vocabulary AiU scholars in the BSBF program increase grades of essays and research papers get a 100% score in Academic Word List tests in 10 weeks Increased Values: More or better results can be achieved within a shorter time FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
73. 73. Example: INCREASED VALUES Use of repeated shouting as a strategy to accurately remember 20 names of scientific elements per hour Synthesis for Increased Values: This proposal combines the concept of repeated shouting with the idea of memorization. This proposal increases the value of the memorization technique, and the value of shouting. Rationale: The target location includes uninhabited open fields where repeated shouting can be practiced. Repetition and loud volume can help students memorize scientific information. Theory support: Spaced repetition (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spaced_repetition) Original Input: While the concept has been successfully implemented in other places, it has never been used in the location of the target beneficiaries. An instruction poster will be designed for student use. Rating: Very good theory support (See How to Use Theory) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
74. 74. Search Keywords FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
75. 75. unexpected connections Unexpected connections – the proposed idea clearly connects seemingly unconnected ideas to increase values, viability, or versatility The writer must say and prove that, this idea is used for the first time in a particular place, language, purpose, or context (first time in Aiu, first time in Bahasa Indonesia, first time used to solve a hygiene problem, first time used in international context) FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
76. 76. Example: Unexpected Connections TOPIC BENEFICIARIES URGENT NEED REQUIREMENT INPUT malnourished infants in Somaliland minimize infant mortality rate provide alternative nourishment immediately financing for moringa feeding and planting programs failing high school chemistry students in Agdao pass a test in Chemistry 101 memorize the entire periodic table of chemical elements in seven days Use shouting as a strategy to accurately remember 20 elements per hour low-vocabulary AiU scholars in the BSBF program increase grades of essays and research papers get a 100% score in an Academic Word List (AWL ) test within 10 weeks Assign each student to create within one week one test with indigenous pictures Unexpected connections: Show clear connections between elements that seem to be unconnected FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
77. 77. Example: UNEXPECTED CONNECTION Assign each student to create one Academic Word List test in one week, using indigenous pictures Synthesis with Unexpected Connections: This proposal combines the ideas of learning by teaching others and of native language as a learning strategy. It is not expected for students to create tests or exam questions, or to use indigenous materials such as pictures in creating tests. Rationale: Learning by teaching others is said to result in 95% retention of information (www.psychotactics.com/blog/art-retain-learning/) while bilingual ESL strategies are accepted practices (www.cal.org/resources/digest/rennie01.html). Original Input: Unlike bilingual strategies, this proposal uses only homeculture images to help learn new words. This, and the idea of students creating tests, have never been used in AiU. An instruction poster will be designed for student use. Rating: Excellent. Both ideas are supported by theory. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
78. 78. Search Keywords FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
79. 79. viability Viability – an idea can be completed before a deadline to achieve a specific goal On the other hand, increased viability can be stated as: “Compared to its original version, this idea is easier (or faster) to complete.” The writer must then show details to prove or support this statement. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
80. 80. Example: Viability TOPIC BENEFICIARIES URGENT NEED REQUIREMENT INPUT malnourished infants in Somaliland minimize infant mortality rate provide alternative nourishment immediately I will submit in 3 days a draft of a promotion poster for local financing of moringa feeding & planting programs failing high school chemistry students in Agdao pass a test in Chemistry 101 memorize the entire periodic table of chemical elements in seven days I will present in 7 days an instruction poster that shows how to use repeated shouting to memorize information low-vocabulary AiU scholars in the BSBF program increase grades of essays and research papers get a 100% score in an Academic Word List (AWL ) test within 10 weeks In 2 weeks, I can create an information poster that shows why students who create a test with pictures can pass that test. Viability: That something can be successfully completed within a specific and limited time and resources FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
81. 81. application flexibility Application flexibility, versatility, or universality – an idea that is proposed to meet a specific need or solve a particular problem situation can be used in many other contexts. The writer might state and prove it: “Compared to its original version, this idea can be used in many other ways such as....” The writer must then show details to prove or support this statement. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
82. 82. new uses New Uses– an idea that is used for specific needs or particular problem situation is proposed to be used in new ways. The writer might state and prove it: “This idea, usually used for... can be used effectively other ways such as....” The writer must then show details to prove or support this statement. FIRST SLIDE LAST SLIDE END SHOW PREVIOUS SLIDE LAST VIEWED NEXT SLIDE
83. 83. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM – STEP # 11 SUMMARY  POINT OF ACTION  THESIS STATEMENT  RESEARCH QUESTION  SYNTHESIS  INCREASED VALUES  UNEXPECTED CONNECTIONS  VIABILITY  VERSATILITY  NEW USES MY PROBLEM STATEMENT HAS MORE OF THESE, SO MY THESIS STATEMENT AND RESEARCH QUESTION ARE MORE ORIGINAL... YES! Image courtesy of www.scholarshipscouts.org
84. 84. END OF PRESENTATION Send suggestions or comments to mr.jaime.aiu@gmail.com THANK YOU Concepts used in this presentation are from various online sources. No copyright infringement intended.