Research Paper Writing
SEVEN THINGS YOU
NEED TO KNOW
TUTORIAL
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Notice
• This is an introduction to attribution
skills in academic research writing.
• For more information, search this
p...
Contents
The Ethics of Borrowing
Seven things You Need to Know
1. The Quote
2. The Paraphrase
3. The Citation
4. The List ...
THE ETHICS OF BORROWING
INTRODUCTION
TUTORIAL
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Borrowing Things
• Ask permission.
• Borrowing without permission = dishonest
• Return what is borrowed.
• Borrowing witho...
Borrowing Ideas
• Ask permission. If you cannot ask permission:
– State where the idea comes from (citation)
– State where...
THE ETHICS OF BORROWING
TEST YOURSELF
QUIZ
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FOR MOUSE CONTROLLERS
• These slides are on automatic.
• Do not click unless you see a
blue button below each slide.
THE QUOTE
USING THE SAME WORDS AND/OR THE
SAME ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS
TUTORIAL
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What is a Quote?
A quote is a copy of the same
words and the same
arrangement of words of a
source.
TUTORIAL
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WHEN YOU QUOTE:
• Don’t change the words
• Don’t change the order of
words
• Don’t add or remove ideas
TUTORIAL
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WHEN YOU SHORTEN A QUOTE:
• If you delete words to shorten a
quote, make sure that meaning is
not changed
TUTORIAL
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Rules
Place the quote inside quote
marks “…”
Any borrowed ideas without
quote marks “…” is
understood to be a
paraphrase.
...
Rules
What about a borrowed idea
without quote marks “…”
but is not a paraphrase?
That’s plagiarism, which
means an F grad...
Rules
State the source of the
quote: cite the source
Use a citation
Each citation should have a
reference
TUTORIAL
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TWO (2) CITATION FORMATS
HALF-IN: Author outside, date inside
TUTORIAL
ALL-IN: Name + comma + date inside
Dubryk (2010)
(D...
CITATION TYPE 1: Before a Quote
Half-in – According to: Comma before sourced idea
TUTORIAL
Half-in – says that: No comma b...
CITATION TYPE 1: EXAMPLE
Half-in – According to: Comma before sourced idea
TUTORIAL
Half-in – say that: No comma before so...
CITATION TYPE 2: After a Quote
Half-in – Comma before “say”
TUTORIAL
All-in – No comma before citation
quote, says Authorn...
CITATION TYPE 2: EXAMPLE
Half-in – Use a comma with “say”
TUTORIAL
All-in – No comma before all-in citation
“India can be ...
Hidden Code
An ellipsis (three dots ) …
indicate deleted words (to
shorten a quote) but the idea
is still complete.
TUTORI...
ELLIPSIS: EXAMPLE
Half-in – Use a comma with “say”
TUTORIAL
All-in – No comma before all-in citation
“India can be ... won...
Hidden Code
A full-stop (one dot) . Can mean:
• That one idea is complete.
• That another idea is coming next.
• That one ...
Hidden Code
Four dots .... mean that
• Some words were deleted = ...
• It’s the end of a complete idea = .
TUTORIAL
NEXT S...
ENDING ELLIPSIS: EXAMPLE
TUTORIAL
If we plan to go this winter,
Jon (1911) says that “India
can be ... wonderful ....”
NEX...
Use Ellipsis to...
• ... shorten a quote
• ... remove unnecessary words
• ... focus on important ideas
Note: The original ...
Example #1
Can be shortened like this:
TUTORIAL
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Sometimes, “... life in Malaysia was
not only difficult but als...
Example #2
Can be shortened like this:
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Aside from being difficult, “... life in
Malaysia was ... also ...
THE PARAPHRASE
A BORROWED IDEA
COMPLETE IDEA, ACCURATE IDEA
USING DIFFERENT WORDS
USING DIFFERENT ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS
TUT...
What is a Paraphrase?
The exact and complete idea
of a source, but using
different words and different
arrangement of word...
Rules
No quote marks
State the source
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CITATION TYPE 1: Before a Paraphrase
Half-in – According to: Comma before sourced idea
TUTORIAL
Half-in – says that: No co...
CITATION TYPE 1: EXAMPLE
Half-in – According to: Comma before sourced idea
TUTORIAL
Half-in – say that: No comma before so...
CITATION TYPE 2: After a Paraphrase
Half-in – Comma before “say”
TUTORIAL
All-in – No comma before citation
paraphrase, sa...
CITATION TYPE 2: AFTER
Half-in – Use a comma with “say”
TUTORIAL
All-in – No comma before citation
A December holiday migh...
THE CITATION
SHOW WHERE A SOURCED IDEA COMES FROM
TUTORIAL
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Definition
• Shows the source of a borrowed idea
• Inside open & close parentheses ( )
• A comma , separates the name from...
Rules
• Each borrowed idea should have a
citation
• Use author last name only in the citation
TUTORIAL
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There we...
Rules
• The full stop is after the close
parenthesis.
TUTORIAL
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There were times in the past when life
in Malays...
No Author
• If there is no author, use the group,
company or organization name
TUTORIAL
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(Albukhary Foundation, ...
No Author At All
• If there is no company or
organization name, use Anon. which
means anonymous.
TUTORIAL
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(Anon...
Punctuation
• A comma separates the author and
the date
TUTORIAL
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(Anon., 1992)
Key to List of References
• Each citation should have a year
• If there is no year, use n. d. which means
no date.
TUTORIA...
Contents
The citation is a short version of the
reference.
• Citation
TUTORIAL
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(Buruhanudeen, 2002)
•Reference
...
AND
HIDDEN CODES : IN-TEXT CITATIONS
TUTORIAL
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Code: One Author
• A comma separates the author
and the date
(Anon., 1992)
TUTORIAL
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Code: Many Authors
• A comma separates many authors
of one document.
(Cruz, Abu, and Montri, 1992)
TUTORIAL
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Code: Many Authors (2)
• The last name is preceded by “and”.
(Cruz and Abu, 1992)
(Cruz, Abu, and Montri, 1992)...
ET AL.
HIDDEN CODES : IN-TEXT CITATIONS
TUTORIAL
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Code: Many Authors
• The phrase “et alia” means “and
others”.
• This is from the Latin language of Ancient Rome...
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Code: 3 to 5 Authors
• If there are three to five authors, use
“et al.” after the first use
First use (Cruz, Ab...
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Code: 6+ Authors
• If there are six or more authors,
use “et al.” all the time
First use (Cruz, et al., 1992)
N...
SEMICOLON
HIDDEN CODES : IN-TEXT CITATIONS
TUTORIAL
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Code: Two Documents
• Use a semicolon to separate two
sources in one citation.
(Abu, 1992; and Moe Tun, 1900)
•...
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Code: Many Sources & Many Authors
Use a semicolon to separate two sources
in one citation. Use “and” before the...
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One More Time...
• Two names = no comma + and
(Author1 and Author2, 1900)
• Three names = comma + and
(Author1,...
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Code: The Same Source
• To cite the same source in one
paragraph, use author names only
with no date.
First use...
SEMICOLON
HIDDEN CODES : IN-TEXT CITATIONS
TUTORIAL
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Code: The Same Source
To cite the same source in another
paragraph, use author name + date.
Next use, new parag...
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Code: Same Source, Another Page
When an idea is from a different page
in the same document, use “p. #” and
no d...
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Citation VS Reference
A citation is a short version its
reference:
(Buruhanudeen, et. al., 1992)
TUTORIAL
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Citation VS Reference
The reference is a complete version of
the citation. All authors are listed (no
“et al.”)...
TAKE A BREAK
THIS IS THE MIDPOINT OF THE LECTURE
NOTICE
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SPACES & CAPITAL LETTERS
PUNCTUATION: LIST OF REFERENCES
TUTORIAL
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Punctuation: Space Rule (1)
Always use a space between
words to separate one word
from another. If not:
TUTORIAL
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Punctuation: Space Rule (2)
Space after
– comma
– semicolon
– colon
– full stop or any end-
punctuation if a sentence
foll...
Punctuation: Space Rule (3)
Space after the full-stop of an
abbreviation but no space if
followed by another symbol.
Ibid....
No space before comma,
semicolon, colon, full stop,
question mark, exclamation, en-
dash, or em-dash
Punctuation: No Space...
No space before a close quote
mark, close parenthesis, or close
bracket.
Punctuation: No Space Rule (2)
TUTORIAL
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No space after open quote mark,
open parenthesis, or open bracket.
However, use a space before.
Punctuation: No Space Rule...
No space before a close quote
mark, close parenthesis, or close
bracket.
Punctuation: No Space Rule (3)
TUTORIAL
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Punctuation: Capitalization (1)
Always capitalize the first letter of
a sentence.
If the title of a source uses this
rule,...
Punctuation: Capitalization (2)
In titles, always capitalize the first
letter of each noun, verb, adjective,
and adverb. D...
Punctuation: Capitalization (2)
If the original title capitalizes
all words including
prepositions and
conjunctions, follo...
Punctuation: Capitalization (3)
Acronyms (UN, USA, UNICEF,
CIA) are always all-caps.
TUTORIAL
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PARAGRAPH INDENTION
FORMAT: LIST OF REFERENCES
TUTORIAL
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Code: Paragraph Indent (1)
The first line of the paragraph can use
block-indent (this is incorrect for
APA list of referen...
Code: Paragraph Indent (2)
The first line of the paragraph can use
right-indent (this is incorrect for
APA list of referen...
Code: Paragraph Indent (3)
The first line of the paragraph can use
hanging indent (this is correct for
APA list of referen...
THE TITLE
HIDDEN CODES: LIST OF REFERENCES
TUTORIAL
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Code: List of References (1)
•The title List of
References that begins
on another page is a
code that means “th...
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Code: List of References (2)
•If the writing is semi-
formal, begin the list
after the last paragraph
of the do...
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Code: List of References (3)
•The title is always
centered at the top of
the page.
TUTORIAL
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Code: List of References (4)
•If all sources are from
books, the title can be
Bibliography instead of
List of R...
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Code: List of References (5)
•If all sources are from
the web, the title can be
Webliography.
TUTORIAL
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Code: List of References (6)
•If you are not sure, the
title can be List of
References, Reference
List, or Refe...
ORDER OF NAMES
HIDDEN CODES: LIST OF REFERENCES
TUTORIAL
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Code: List of References (7)
• The list of references is arranged
alphabetically.
• The surname is the basis of
alphabetic...
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Alphabetical Listing (6)
The list of references is arranged alphabetically,
according to author surname (family...
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Surnames (1)
• The word “surname” also means
“family name.”
• The phrase “family name” means a
name used by oth...
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Surnames (2)
• Any part of a name that is not first name
is considered as family name
TUTORIAL
Lester Cruz, Jr....
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Code: The Comma
A comma can indicate one
of two meanings:
• the names are reversed
• another author
TUTORIAL
EXAMPLE
Martin Abu
TUTORIAL
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Western Arrangement
Comma means: reversed order
Abu, Martin
A capital letter and fu...
EXAMPLE
Abu, M., bin Faris, S.
TUTORIAL
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A comma after that = another author
A comma after that = another author...
AUTHOR & YEAR
BASIC REFERENCE: PART 1
TUTORIAL
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Introduction (1)
One type of reference is the basic
reference; this type has only four
parts.
TUTORIAL
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Part 1 i...
Introduction (1)
Each of the parts ends in a full-stop,
except the electronic address.
TUTORIAL
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Potter, H. P. S...
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Part 1: Name & Date
An abbreviation is a short version.
In a reference, the author’s first
name is abbreviated....
EXAMPLE
Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and
Potter, H. P. S. (2002).
TUTORIAL
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EXAMPLE
Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and
Potter, H. P. S. (2002).
TUTORIAL
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Code: Many Authors
A comma between names
means “another author.”
TUTORIAL
EXAMPLE
Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and
Potter, H. P. S. (2002).
TUTORIAL
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Code: Many Authors
Always use “and”
before the last author.
TUTORIAL
EXAMPLE
Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and
Potter, H. P. S.
TUTORIAL
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EXAMPLE
bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu,
M.
TUTORIAL
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EXAMPLE
Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin
Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M.
TUTORIAL
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Code: Year of Publication
Four numbers in parentheses
shows the year of publication.
Use a full-stop after the close
paren...
EXAMPLE (1)
Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and
Potter, H. P. S. (2002).
TUTORIAL
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Code: Year of Publication
Use no comma before the open
parenthesis.
TUTORIAL
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EXAMPLE (2)
bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu,
M. (1920).
TUTORIAL
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Code: Year of Publication
Use a space before the open
parenthesis.
TUTORIAL
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EXAMPLE (3)
Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin
Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu,
M. (2013).
TUTORIAL
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MAIN DOCUMENT TITLE
BASIC REFERENCE: PART 2
TUTORIAL
Code: Source Document Title
Italics means “ this is the
document title”.
Use a full-stop at the end of the
title.
TUTORIAL...
EXAMPLE (1)
Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and Potter, H. P. S.
(2002). Basic Algebra.
TUTORIAL
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EXAMPLE (2)
bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M.
(1920). Life in AiU.
TUTORIAL
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EXAMPLE (2)
Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin
Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. (2013).
How to Write an A* Reflection
Diary....
Code: Source Document Title
In the manual typewriter era, italics
were not possible.
Underline was used instead of
italics...
Code: Main Document Title (1)
The title of the main document is
always in italics.
A main document may be
composed of othe...
Examples
• A book with a title may have many
chapters (italics). Each chapter may
have a different title (quote marks).
• ...
Code: Main Document Title
To indicate that a title is not
the main title, use “in” before
the main title.
Use a full-stop ...
EXAMPLE 1
Abu, M., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002).
“The Negative Numbers” in
Basic Algebra.
TUTORIAL
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EXAMPLE 2
bin Sulaiman, S. N. (1920). “Life in
AiU” in The Voice of Albukhary,
Vol. 1., p. 20.
TUTORIAL
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EXAMPLE 3
Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin
Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M.
(2013). “How to Write an A*
Reflection Diary” ...
CITY & PUBLISHER
BASIC REFERENCE: PART 3
TUTORIAL
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Code: City &Publisher
The City: Publisher shows where
and who published a document.
Use a colon between city and
publisher...
EXAMPLE 1
Abu, M., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002).
“The Negative Numbers” in
Basic Algebra. Alor Setar:
Albukhary Press.
TUTO...
EXAMPLE 2
bin Sulaiman, S. N. (1920). “Life in
AiU” in The Voice of Albukhary,
Vol. 1., p. 20. Bangkok: Singha
Co. Ltd.
TU...
EXAMPLE 3
Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin
Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M.
(2013). “How to Write an A*
Reflection Diary” ...
ELECTRONIC ADDRESS
BASIC REFERENCE: PART 4
TUTORIAL
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Online Document
The phrase “Online at” is the
code for an online document.
Use no full-stop at the end.
TUTORIAL
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EXAMPLE 1
Abu, M., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002).
“The Negative Numbers” in Basic
Algebra. Alor Setar: Albukhary
Press. Onli...
EXAMPLE 2
bin Sulaiman, S. N. (1920). “Life in
AiU” in The Voice of Albukhary,
Vol. 1., p. 20. Bangkok: Singha Co.
Ltd. On...
EXAMPLE 3
Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin
Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M.
(2013). “How to Write a
Reflection Diary” in T...
HOW TO CITE QUOTES
USE THE SAME IN-TEXT CITATION FORMAT: BORING
ALTERNATE DIFFERENT FORMATS: LESS BORING
TUTORIAL
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Citing Quotes
• The exact words are inside quote marks.
• The full-stop is after the citation.
TUTORIAL
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“There ...
CITATION STYLE 1: Before Sourced Ideas
Author (DATE) says:
The original text starts with a capital letter
Use a colon
TUTO...
CITATION STYLE 2: Before Sourced Ideas
Author (DATE) says that:
The original text starts with a small letter
Use no comma ...
CITATION STYLE 3: Before Sourced Ideas
According to Author (DATE),
The original text starts with a small letter
Use a comm...
Common Errors
• Don’t use according to after the quote.
• Error example:
TUTORIAL
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“There were times in the past...
Common Error (1)
Use a comma after “author says” when the quote
begins with a capital letter
• Error example:
TUTORIAL
NEX...
Common Error (2)
Don’t use a comma after “author says that” when
the quote starts with a small letter
• Error example:
TUT...
Common Error (3)
• Use a comma after “according to author” before
a quote
• Error example:
TUTORIAL
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According t...
Ellipsis: Usefulness
1. When you are required to limit the
number of quoted text in your paper
2. To show your teacher tha...
Citation Style #3
• Only the date is in the parenthesis.
• The date follows the author name.
• There is no comma between a...
Citation Style #4
• Only the date is in the parenthesis.
• The date follows the author name.
• There is no comma between a...
Citation Style #5
• Use a page number only if it is important for
the reader.
Buruhanudeen (1997) explains that
“There wer...
HOW TO USE QUOTES & CITATIONS
(TWO AUTHORS)
ONE MORE
TUTORIAL
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Quote & Citation #1
• Use “and” before the last author name.
“There were times in the past when life in
Malaysia was not o...
Quote & Citation #2
• Use “and” before the last author name.
• Use page numbers only if this is important for
the reader.
...
Quote & Citation #3
• Only the date is in the parenthesis.
• The date follows the author name.
• Use “and” before the last...
QUOTES & CITATIONS: 2 AUTHORS
NO NEED TO TEST YOURSELF
NO QUIZ
NEXT SLIDE
NON-ORIGINAL & BORROWED
IDEAS
FINALLY
TUTORIAL
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NON-ORIGINAL IDEAS (1)
• Any idea that did not come from your own
senses: sight, touch, taste, hearing, direction,
balance...
NON-ORIGINAL IDEAS (2)
• Any idea that can be found in any source:
books, persons, magazines, the internet, etc.
• Safety ...
BORROWED IDEAS (1)
Ideas come in different forms, such as:
• Words
• Arrangement of words
Safety Rule: Cite all borrowed i...
BORROWED IDEAS (2)
Ideas come in different forms, such as:
• Images
• Arrangement of images
Safety Rule: Cite all borrowed...
BORROWED IDEAS (3)
Ideas come in different forms, such as:
• Images
• Arrangement of images
Safety Rule: Cite all borrowed...
BORROWED IDEAS (4)
Ideas come in different forms, such as:
• Sounds
• Arrangement of sounds
Safety Rule: Cite all borrowed...
BORROWED IDEAS (5)
Ideas come in different forms, such as:
• Objects
• Arrangement of objects
Safety Rule: Cite all borrow...
Documentation (1)
• Documentation = citation and
reference.
TUTORIAL
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Documentation (2)
• All borrowed ideas must be
documented.
• All non-original ideas must be
documented.
TUTORIAL
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Documentation (3)
• You must indicate if a borrowed idea
use the exact words and
arrangement of words.
• This is called qu...
Documentation (4)
• You must indicate if a borrowed idea
use the different words and
arrangement of words.
• This is calle...
Documentation (5)
• The use of borrowed or non-original
ideas without documentation is
called plagiarism.
TUTORIAL
NEXT SL...
Documentation (6)
• Plagiarism is punishable according to
the rules of the institution. This can
be anything from a zero g...
Best Practices
• Use sources with complete
information: author, date, publisher
• Use documents with a DOI
• For more info...
You might want to know...
• Where to put the volume number in
the reference
• How to cite emails, lectures, phone
conversa...
End of Lecture
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
By Syed Muhammad Faris bin Syed Buruhanudeen (Malaysia), Soe Moe Tun (Myanmar)...
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Seven (7) Things You Need to Know: APA Documentation

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Seven (7) Things You Need to Know: APA Documentation

  1. 1. Research Paper Writing SEVEN THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  2. 2. Notice • This is an introduction to attribution skills in academic research writing. • For more information, search this phrase online: APA cheatsheet TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  3. 3. Contents The Ethics of Borrowing Seven things You Need to Know 1. The Quote 2. The Paraphrase 3. The Citation 4. The List of References 5. The Hidden Codes 6. How to Use What You Learned 7. Non-Original & Borrowed Ideas TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  4. 4. THE ETHICS OF BORROWING INTRODUCTION TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  5. 5. Borrowing Things • Ask permission. • Borrowing without permission = dishonest • Return what is borrowed. • Borrowing without returning = stealing TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  6. 6. Borrowing Ideas • Ask permission. If you cannot ask permission: – State where the idea comes from (citation) – State where the source can be found (reference) • Borrowing without permission = dishonest • Return what is borrowed. If you cannot return what is borrowed: – Show respect to the source (citation) – Show readers how to find the source (reference) TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  7. 7. THE ETHICS OF BORROWING TEST YOURSELF QUIZ NEXT SLIDE
  8. 8. FOR MOUSE CONTROLLERS • These slides are on automatic. • Do not click unless you see a blue button below each slide.
  9. 9. THE QUOTE USING THE SAME WORDS AND/OR THE SAME ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  10. 10. What is a Quote? A quote is a copy of the same words and the same arrangement of words of a source. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  11. 11. WHEN YOU QUOTE: • Don’t change the words • Don’t change the order of words • Don’t add or remove ideas TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  12. 12. WHEN YOU SHORTEN A QUOTE: • If you delete words to shorten a quote, make sure that meaning is not changed TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  13. 13. Rules Place the quote inside quote marks “…” Any borrowed ideas without quote marks “…” is understood to be a paraphrase. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  14. 14. Rules What about a borrowed idea without quote marks “…” but is not a paraphrase? That’s plagiarism, which means an F grade. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  15. 15. Rules State the source of the quote: cite the source Use a citation Each citation should have a reference TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  16. 16. TWO (2) CITATION FORMATS HALF-IN: Author outside, date inside TUTORIAL ALL-IN: Name + comma + date inside Dubryk (2010) (Dubryk, 2010) INSIDE = inside the parentheses NEXT SLIDE
  17. 17. CITATION TYPE 1: Before a Quote Half-in – According to: Comma before sourced idea TUTORIAL Half-in – says that: No comma before sourced idea According to Authorname (1911), quote Authorname (1911) says that quote SAY THAT = explain that, insist that, write that; explains this idea saying that; details this idea saying that NEXT SLIDE
  18. 18. CITATION TYPE 1: EXAMPLE Half-in – According to: Comma before sourced idea TUTORIAL Half-in – say that: No comma before sourced idea* According to Jon (1911), “India can be a wonderful place for a winter vacation.” Jon (1911) says that “India can be a wonderful place for a winter vacation.” Exception: When inserting an appositive such as , sometimes, NEXT SLIDE
  19. 19. CITATION TYPE 2: After a Quote Half-in – Comma before “say” TUTORIAL All-in – No comma before citation quote, says Authorname (DATE). quote (Authorname, DATE). The citation is a part of the sentence. It comes before the end-punctuation, which can be a period (.), a question mark (?), or an exclamation mark (!). NEXT SLIDE
  20. 20. CITATION TYPE 2: EXAMPLE Half-in – Use a comma with “say” TUTORIAL All-in – No comma before all-in citation “India can be a wonderful place for a winter vacation,” says Jon (1911). “India can be a wonderful place for a winter vacation” (Jon,1911). The citation is a part of the sentence so it is placed before the end-punctuation. NEXT SLIDE
  21. 21. Hidden Code An ellipsis (three dots ) … indicate deleted words (to shorten a quote) but the idea is still complete. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  22. 22. ELLIPSIS: EXAMPLE Half-in – Use a comma with “say” TUTORIAL All-in – No comma before all-in citation “India can be ... wonderful ... for a winter vacation,” says Jon (1911). If we are planning a vacation this winter, “India can be ... wonderful” (Jon,1911). The citation is a part of the sentence so it is placed before the end-punctuation. NEXT SLIDE
  23. 23. Hidden Code A full-stop (one dot) . Can mean: • That one idea is complete. • That another idea is coming next. • That one sentence is ended. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  24. 24. Hidden Code Four dots .... mean that • Some words were deleted = ... • It’s the end of a complete idea = . TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  25. 25. ENDING ELLIPSIS: EXAMPLE TUTORIAL If we plan to go this winter, Jon (1911) says that “India can be ... wonderful ....” NEXT SLIDE
  26. 26. Use Ellipsis to... • ... shorten a quote • ... remove unnecessary words • ... focus on important ideas Note: The original meaning should remain the same in the shortened version. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  27. 27. Example #1 Can be shortened like this: TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE Sometimes, “... life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous,” says Buruhanudeen (1997). “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous” (Buruhanudeen, 1997).
  28. 28. Example #2 Can be shortened like this: TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE Aside from being difficult, “... life in Malaysia was ... also dangerous” sometimes (Buruhanudeen, 1997). “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous” (Buruhanudeen, 1997).
  29. 29. THE PARAPHRASE A BORROWED IDEA COMPLETE IDEA, ACCURATE IDEA USING DIFFERENT WORDS USING DIFFERENT ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  30. 30. What is a Paraphrase? The exact and complete idea of a source, but using different words and different arrangement of words. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  31. 31. Rules No quote marks State the source TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  32. 32. CITATION TYPE 1: Before a Paraphrase Half-in – According to: Comma before sourced idea TUTORIAL Half-in – says that: No comma before sourced idea According to Authorname (1911), paraphrase Authorname (1911) says that paraphrase SAY THAT = explain that, insist that, write that; explains this idea saying that; details this idea saying that NEXT SLIDE
  33. 33. CITATION TYPE 1: EXAMPLE Half-in – According to: Comma before sourced idea TUTORIAL Half-in – say that: No comma before sourced idea* According to Jon (1911), our November- December holiday might be best in India. Jon (1911) says that a November-December holiday might be best spent in India. Exception: When using an appositive NEXT SLIDE
  34. 34. CITATION TYPE 2: After a Paraphrase Half-in – Comma before “say” TUTORIAL All-in – No comma before citation paraphrase, says Authorname (DATE). paraphrase (Authorname, DATE). The citation is a part of the sentence. It comes before the end-punctuation, which can be a period (.), a question mark (?), or an exclamation mark (!). NEXT SLIDE
  35. 35. CITATION TYPE 2: AFTER Half-in – Use a comma with “say” TUTORIAL All-in – No comma before citation A December holiday might be best spent in India, says Jon (1911). An end-year holiday might very enjoyable in India (Jon,1911). The citation is a part of the sentence so it is placed before the end-punctuation. NEXT SLIDE
  36. 36. THE CITATION SHOW WHERE A SOURCED IDEA COMES FROM TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  37. 37. Definition • Shows the source of a borrowed idea • Inside open & close parentheses ( ) • A comma , separates the name from the year of publication TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE (Jon, 1911)
  38. 38. Rules • Each borrowed idea should have a citation • Use author last name only in the citation TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous (Buruhanudeen, 1997).
  39. 39. Rules • The full stop is after the close parenthesis. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous (Buruhanudeen, 1997).
  40. 40. No Author • If there is no author, use the group, company or organization name TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE (Albukhary Foundation, 1992)
  41. 41. No Author At All • If there is no company or organization name, use Anon. which means anonymous. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE (Anon., 1992)
  42. 42. Punctuation • A comma separates the author and the date TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE (Anon., 1992)
  43. 43. Key to List of References • Each citation should have a year • If there is no year, use n. d. which means no date. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE (Buruhanudeen, n. d.) Since the original two words are separated by a space, the abbreviation is also separated by a space.
  44. 44. Contents The citation is a short version of the reference. • Citation TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE (Buruhanudeen, 2002) •Reference Buruhanudeen, S. F., (2002). My Secret Life. Alor Setar: AiU Press. Online at www.faris.com
  45. 45. AND HIDDEN CODES : IN-TEXT CITATIONS TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  46. 46. NEXT SLIDE Code: One Author • A comma separates the author and the date (Anon., 1992) TUTORIAL
  47. 47. NEXT SLIDE Code: Many Authors • A comma separates many authors of one document. (Cruz, Abu, and Montri, 1992) TUTORIAL
  48. 48. NEXT SLIDE Code: Many Authors (2) • The last name is preceded by “and”. (Cruz and Abu, 1992) (Cruz, Abu, and Montri, 1992) TUTORIAL
  49. 49. ET AL. HIDDEN CODES : IN-TEXT CITATIONS TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  50. 50. NEXT SLIDE Code: Many Authors • The phrase “et alia” means “and others”. • This is from the Latin language of Ancient Rome. • Latin is used only by learned men and scholars. People who never acquired formal schooling usually do not use this language. • People who use Latin correctly are recognized as learned persons. TUTORIAL
  51. 51. NEXT SLIDE Code: 3 to 5 Authors • If there are three to five authors, use “et al.” after the first use First use (Cruz, Abu, Montri, and Dicaprio, 1992) Next uses (Cruz, et al., 1992) • A full-stop is used after “al.” to show that it is an abbreviation of the word “alia”. TUTORIAL
  52. 52. NEXT SLIDE Code: 6+ Authors • If there are six or more authors, use “et al.” all the time First use (Cruz, et al., 1992) Next uses (Cruz, et al., 1992) TUTORIAL
  53. 53. SEMICOLON HIDDEN CODES : IN-TEXT CITATIONS TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  54. 54. NEXT SLIDE Code: Two Documents • Use a semicolon to separate two sources in one citation. (Abu, 1992; and Moe Tun, 1900) • Use “and” before the last source. (Abu, 1992; and Moe Tun, 1900) TUTORIAL
  55. 55. NEXT SLIDE Code: Many Sources & Many Authors Use a semicolon to separate two sources in one citation. Use “and” before the last source. (Abu and Montri, 1992; and Aly and Moe, 1900) (Cabrera, 2013; Abu, 1992; Montri, 1901; and Moe, 2015) (Cabrera, 2013; Abu and Montri, 1992; and Ziaa, Aly, and Moe Tun, 1900) TUTORIAL
  56. 56. NEXT SLIDE One More Time... • Two names = no comma + and (Author1 and Author2, 1900) • Three names = comma + and (Author1, Author2, and Author3, 1900) • Four or more names = comma + et al. (Author1, et al., 1900) TUTORIAL
  57. 57. NEXT SLIDE Code: The Same Source • To cite the same source in one paragraph, use author names only with no date. First use (Cruz, et al., 1992) Next use, same paragraph (Cruz, et. al.) TUTORIAL
  58. 58. SEMICOLON HIDDEN CODES : IN-TEXT CITATIONS TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  59. 59. NEXT SLIDE Code: The Same Source To cite the same source in another paragraph, use author name + date. Next use, new paragraph (Cruz, et al., 1992) Next use, same paragraph (Cruz, et. al.) TUTORIAL
  60. 60. NEXT SLIDE Code: Same Source, Another Page When an idea is from a different page in the same document, use “p. #” and no date. First use (Cruz, et al., 1992) Different page (Cruz, et al., p. 2) Different pages (Cruz, et al., pp. 2-5) TUTORIAL A full-stop is used to show that “p” is an abbreviation of “page” and that “pp” is an abbreviation of “pages”.
  61. 61. NEXT SLIDE Citation VS Reference A citation is a short version its reference: (Buruhanudeen, et. al., 1992) TUTORIAL
  62. 62. NEXT SLIDE Citation VS Reference The reference is a complete version of the citation. All authors are listed (no “et al.”) Buruhanudeen, F., Cruz, B., Abu, M., and Montri, J. (1992). My Secret Life. AiU Press, Malaysia. Online at www.faris.com TUTORIAL
  63. 63. TAKE A BREAK THIS IS THE MIDPOINT OF THE LECTURE NOTICE NEXT SLIDE
  64. 64. SPACES & CAPITAL LETTERS PUNCTUATION: LIST OF REFERENCES TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  65. 65. Punctuation: Space Rule (1) Always use a space between words to separate one word from another. If not: TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE Alwaysusea spacebetween wordsto separateoneword fromanother.
  66. 66. Punctuation: Space Rule (2) Space after – comma – semicolon – colon – full stop or any end- punctuation if a sentence follows. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  67. 67. Punctuation: Space Rule (3) Space after the full-stop of an abbreviation but no space if followed by another symbol. Ibid. p. 2. Ibid., pp. 20-22. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  68. 68. No space before comma, semicolon, colon, full stop, question mark, exclamation, en- dash, or em-dash Punctuation: No Space Rule (1) TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  69. 69. No space before a close quote mark, close parenthesis, or close bracket. Punctuation: No Space Rule (2) TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  70. 70. No space after open quote mark, open parenthesis, or open bracket. However, use a space before. Punctuation: No Space Rule (4) TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  71. 71. No space before a close quote mark, close parenthesis, or close bracket. Punctuation: No Space Rule (3) TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  72. 72. Punctuation: Capitalization (1) Always capitalize the first letter of a sentence. If the title of a source uses this rule, follow the original the format. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  73. 73. Punctuation: Capitalization (2) In titles, always capitalize the first letter of each noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. Do not capitalize prepositions and conjunctions. If the source title uses ALLCAPS, follow this rule. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  74. 74. Punctuation: Capitalization (2) If the original title capitalizes all words including prepositions and conjunctions, follow the original format. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  75. 75. Punctuation: Capitalization (3) Acronyms (UN, USA, UNICEF, CIA) are always all-caps. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  76. 76. PARAGRAPH INDENTION FORMAT: LIST OF REFERENCES TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  77. 77. Code: Paragraph Indent (1) The first line of the paragraph can use block-indent (this is incorrect for APA list of references): TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. (2013). “How to Write an A* Reflection Diary” in The Washington Journal, p. 32. Alor Setar: Albukhary Press. Online at www.washingtonjournal.com THE BEGINNING OF EACH LINE IS ALIGNED
  78. 78. Code: Paragraph Indent (2) The first line of the paragraph can use right-indent (this is incorrect for APA list of references) TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE THE FIRST LINE BEGINS SOME SPACES FROM THE RIGHT bin Sulaiman, S. N. (1920). “Life in AiU” in The Voice of Albukhary, Vol. 1., p. 20. Bangkok: Singha Co. Ltd. Online at www.freearticles.com
  79. 79. Code: Paragraph Indent (3) The first line of the paragraph can use hanging indent (this is correct for APA list of references) TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE EXCEPT FOR THE FIRST LINE, ALL LINES BEGIN SOME SPACES FROM THE RIGHT Abu, M., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002). “The Negative Numbers” in Basic Algebra. Harcourt Brace: New York. Online at www.aiu.edu.my
  80. 80. THE TITLE HIDDEN CODES: LIST OF REFERENCES TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  81. 81. NEXT SLIDE Code: List of References (1) •The title List of References that begins on another page is a code that means “this is formal research writing.” TUTORIAL
  82. 82. NEXT SLIDE Code: List of References (2) •If the writing is semi- formal, begin the list after the last paragraph of the document, even if it is on the same page. TUTORIAL
  83. 83. NEXT SLIDE Code: List of References (3) •The title is always centered at the top of the page. TUTORIAL
  84. 84. NEXT SLIDE Code: List of References (4) •If all sources are from books, the title can be Bibliography instead of List of References. TUTORIAL
  85. 85. NEXT SLIDE Code: List of References (5) •If all sources are from the web, the title can be Webliography. TUTORIAL
  86. 86. NEXT SLIDE Code: List of References (6) •If you are not sure, the title can be List of References, Reference List, or References. TUTORIAL
  87. 87. ORDER OF NAMES HIDDEN CODES: LIST OF REFERENCES TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  88. 88. Code: List of References (7) • The list of references is arranged alphabetically. • The surname is the basis of alphabetic arrangement. • For this reason, the surname begins the list, not the first name. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  89. 89. NEXT SLIDE Alphabetical Listing (6) The list of references is arranged alphabetically, according to author surname (family name): Abu, Martin Baker, Methuselah Jones bin Faris, Syed bin Sulaiman, Siti Nora Cruz, Jr., Juan Potter, Harry Paul Seymour von Heuten, Jaeger TUTORIAL
  90. 90. NEXT SLIDE Surnames (1) • The word “surname” also means “family name.” • The phrase “family name” means a name used by other members of the family (e.g. siblings). • The purpose of this term is only to differentiate first name from surname. TUTORIAL
  91. 91. NEXT SLIDE Surnames (2) • Any part of a name that is not first name is considered as family name TUTORIAL Lester Cruz, Jr. Armand de la Cruz Emeraude du Plessis Jazira binti Ismael Ahmad bin Usman John Mark Hopkins Cruz, Jr., L. de la Cruz, A. du Plessis, E. binti Ismael, J. bin Usman, A. Hopkins, J. M.
  92. 92. NEXT SLIDE Code: The Comma A comma can indicate one of two meanings: • the names are reversed • another author TUTORIAL
  93. 93. EXAMPLE Martin Abu TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE Western Arrangement Comma means: reversed order Abu, Martin A capital letter and full stop: abbreviation Abu, M.
  94. 94. EXAMPLE Abu, M., bin Faris, S. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE A comma after that = another author A comma after that = another author Abu, M., bin Faris, S., Cruz, T. Use and before the last author name Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and Cruz, T.
  95. 95. AUTHOR & YEAR BASIC REFERENCE: PART 1 TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  96. 96. Introduction (1) One type of reference is the basic reference; this type has only four parts. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE Part 1 is author name and date. Part 2 is title of the main document. Part 3 is city published and name of publisher. Part 4 is electronic address
  97. 97. Introduction (1) Each of the parts ends in a full-stop, except the electronic address. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. (2013). “How to Write an A* Reflection Diary” in The Washington Journal, p. 32. New York: Harcourt Brace. Online at www.washingtonjournal.com
  98. 98. NEXT SLIDE Part 1: Name & Date An abbreviation is a short version. In a reference, the author’s first name is abbreviated. The full-stop after one capital letter means that a word is abbreviated. TUTORIAL
  99. 99. EXAMPLE Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002). TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  100. 100. EXAMPLE Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002). TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  101. 101. NEXT SLIDE Code: Many Authors A comma between names means “another author.” TUTORIAL
  102. 102. EXAMPLE Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002). TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  103. 103. NEXT SLIDE Code: Many Authors Always use “and” before the last author. TUTORIAL
  104. 104. EXAMPLE Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and Potter, H. P. S. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  105. 105. EXAMPLE bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  106. 106. EXAMPLE Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  107. 107. Code: Year of Publication Four numbers in parentheses shows the year of publication. Use a full-stop after the close parenthesis. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  108. 108. EXAMPLE (1) Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002). TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  109. 109. Code: Year of Publication Use no comma before the open parenthesis. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  110. 110. EXAMPLE (2) bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. (1920). TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  111. 111. Code: Year of Publication Use a space before the open parenthesis. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  112. 112. EXAMPLE (3) Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. (2013). TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  113. 113. MAIN DOCUMENT TITLE BASIC REFERENCE: PART 2 TUTORIAL
  114. 114. Code: Source Document Title Italics means “ this is the document title”. Use a full-stop at the end of the title. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  115. 115. EXAMPLE (1) Abu, M., bin Faris, S., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002). Basic Algebra. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  116. 116. EXAMPLE (2) bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. (1920). Life in AiU. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  117. 117. EXAMPLE (2) Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. (2013). How to Write an A* Reflection Diary. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  118. 118. Code: Source Document Title In the manual typewriter era, italics were not possible. Underline was used instead of italics. You can still find this usage in old documents. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  119. 119. Code: Main Document Title (1) The title of the main document is always in italics. A main document may be composed of other documents with different titles. Such titles are in quote marks and not italicized. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  120. 120. Examples • A book with a title may have many chapters (italics). Each chapter may have a different title (quote marks). • A magazine has a title (italics). There are many stories in a magazine, each with different titles (quote marks). TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  121. 121. Code: Main Document Title To indicate that a title is not the main title, use “in” before the main title. Use a full-stop at the end of the main title. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  122. 122. EXAMPLE 1 Abu, M., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002). “The Negative Numbers” in Basic Algebra. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  123. 123. EXAMPLE 2 bin Sulaiman, S. N. (1920). “Life in AiU” in The Voice of Albukhary, Vol. 1., p. 20. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  124. 124. EXAMPLE 3 Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. (2013). “How to Write an A* Reflection Diary” in The Washington Journal, p. 32. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  125. 125. CITY & PUBLISHER BASIC REFERENCE: PART 3 TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  126. 126. Code: City &Publisher The City: Publisher shows where and who published a document. Use a colon between city and publisher. Use a full-stop at the end. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  127. 127. EXAMPLE 1 Abu, M., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002). “The Negative Numbers” in Basic Algebra. Alor Setar: Albukhary Press. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  128. 128. EXAMPLE 2 bin Sulaiman, S. N. (1920). “Life in AiU” in The Voice of Albukhary, Vol. 1., p. 20. Bangkok: Singha Co. Ltd. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  129. 129. EXAMPLE 3 Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. (2013). “How to Write an A* Reflection Diary” in The Washington Journal, p. 32. New York: Harcourt Brace. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  130. 130. ELECTRONIC ADDRESS BASIC REFERENCE: PART 4 TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  131. 131. Online Document The phrase “Online at” is the code for an online document. Use no full-stop at the end. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  132. 132. EXAMPLE 1 Abu, M., and Potter, H. P. S. (2002). “The Negative Numbers” in Basic Algebra. Alor Setar: Albukhary Press. Online at www.aiu.edu.my TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  133. 133. EXAMPLE 2 bin Sulaiman, S. N. (1920). “Life in AiU” in The Voice of Albukhary, Vol. 1., p. 20. Bangkok: Singha Co. Ltd. Online at www.freearticles.com TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  134. 134. EXAMPLE 3 Potter, H. P. S., bin Faris, S., bin Sulaiman, S. N., and Abu, M. (2013). “How to Write a Reflection Diary” in The Washington Journal, p. 32. New York: Harcourt Brace. Online at www.washjournal.com TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  135. 135. HOW TO CITE QUOTES USE THE SAME IN-TEXT CITATION FORMAT: BORING ALTERNATE DIFFERENT FORMATS: LESS BORING TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  136. 136. Citing Quotes • The exact words are inside quote marks. • The full-stop is after the citation. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous” (Buruhanudeen, 1997).
  137. 137. CITATION STYLE 1: Before Sourced Ideas Author (DATE) says: The original text starts with a capital letter Use a colon TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE Buruhanudeen (1997) says: “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only safe but also enjoyable.”
  138. 138. CITATION STYLE 2: Before Sourced Ideas Author (DATE) says that: The original text starts with a small letter Use no comma or colon TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE Buruhanudeen (1997) says that “there were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only safe but also enjoyable.”
  139. 139. CITATION STYLE 3: Before Sourced Ideas According to Author (DATE), The original text starts with a small letter Use a comma TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE According to Buruhanudeen (1997), “there were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only safe but also enjoyable.”
  140. 140. Common Errors • Don’t use according to after the quote. • Error example: TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous,” according to Buruhanudeen (1997). • Corrected: According to Buruhanudeen (1997), “there were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous.”.
  141. 141. Common Error (1) Use a comma after “author says” when the quote begins with a capital letter • Error example: TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE Buruhanudeen (1997) says “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous.”. • Corrected: Buruhanudeen (1997) says, “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous.”.
  142. 142. Common Error (2) Don’t use a comma after “author says that” when the quote starts with a small letter • Error example: TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE Buruhanudeen (1997) says that, “there were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous.”. • Corrected: Buruhanudeen (1997) says that “there were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous.”.
  143. 143. Common Error (3) • Use a comma after “according to author” before a quote • Error example: TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE According to Buruhanudeen (1997) “there were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous.”. • Corrected: According to Buruhanudeen (1997), “there were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous.”.
  144. 144. Ellipsis: Usefulness 1. When you are required to limit the number of quoted text in your paper 2. To show your teacher that you: •understand the idea •can use your own words •are fluent in English TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  145. 145. Citation Style #3 • Only the date is in the parenthesis. • The date follows the author name. • There is no comma between author and date. According to Buruhanudeen (1997), “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous”. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  146. 146. Citation Style #4 • Only the date is in the parenthesis. • The date follows the author name. • There is no comma between author and date. Buruhanudeen (1997) explains that “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous”. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  147. 147. Citation Style #5 • Use a page number only if it is important for the reader. Buruhanudeen (1997) explains that “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous” (p. 12). TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  148. 148. HOW TO USE QUOTES & CITATIONS (TWO AUTHORS) ONE MORE TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  149. 149. Quote & Citation #1 • Use “and” before the last author name. “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous” (Buruhanudeen and Ssemudu, 1997). TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  150. 150. Quote & Citation #2 • Use “and” before the last author name. • Use page numbers only if this is important for the reader. “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous” says Buruhanudeen and Ssemudu (1997, pp. 3-5). TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  151. 151. Quote & Citation #3 • Only the date is in the parenthesis. • The date follows the author name. • Use “and” before the last author name. According to Buruhanudeen and Ssemudu (1997), “There were times in the past when life in Malaysia was not only difficult but also dangerous.” TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  152. 152. QUOTES & CITATIONS: 2 AUTHORS NO NEED TO TEST YOURSELF NO QUIZ NEXT SLIDE
  153. 153. NON-ORIGINAL & BORROWED IDEAS FINALLY TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  154. 154. NON-ORIGINAL IDEAS (1) • Any idea that did not come from your own senses: sight, touch, taste, hearing, direction, balance, etc. • Safety Rule: Cite all non-original ideas TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  155. 155. NON-ORIGINAL IDEAS (2) • Any idea that can be found in any source: books, persons, magazines, the internet, etc. • Safety Rule: Cite all non-original ideas TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  156. 156. BORROWED IDEAS (1) Ideas come in different forms, such as: • Words • Arrangement of words Safety Rule: Cite all borrowed ideas TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  157. 157. BORROWED IDEAS (2) Ideas come in different forms, such as: • Images • Arrangement of images Safety Rule: Cite all borrowed ideas TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  158. 158. BORROWED IDEAS (3) Ideas come in different forms, such as: • Images • Arrangement of images Safety Rule: Cite all borrowed ideas TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  159. 159. BORROWED IDEAS (4) Ideas come in different forms, such as: • Sounds • Arrangement of sounds Safety Rule: Cite all borrowed ideas TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  160. 160. BORROWED IDEAS (5) Ideas come in different forms, such as: • Objects • Arrangement of objects Safety Rule: Cite all borrowed ideas TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  161. 161. Documentation (1) • Documentation = citation and reference. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  162. 162. Documentation (2) • All borrowed ideas must be documented. • All non-original ideas must be documented. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  163. 163. Documentation (3) • You must indicate if a borrowed idea use the exact words and arrangement of words. • This is called quoting. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  164. 164. Documentation (4) • You must indicate if a borrowed idea use the different words and arrangement of words. • This is called paraphrasing. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  165. 165. Documentation (5) • The use of borrowed or non-original ideas without documentation is called plagiarism. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  166. 166. Documentation (6) • Plagiarism is punishable according to the rules of the institution. This can be anything from a zero grade to expulsion. TUTORIAL NEXT SLIDE
  167. 167. Best Practices • Use sources with complete information: author, date, publisher • Use documents with a DOI • For more information, search this phrase online: APA cheatsheet
  168. 168. You might want to know... • Where to put the volume number in the reference • How to cite emails, lectures, phone conversations • For more information, search this phrase online: APA cheatsheet
  169. 169. End of Lecture THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION By Syed Muhammad Faris bin Syed Buruhanudeen (Malaysia), Soe Moe Tun (Myanmar), Umo Aly (Vietnam), Lor Kiat Seng (Malaysia), and Jaime Alfredo Cabrera (Philippines) 03 July 2013, Albukhary International University, Alor Setar, Malaysia NEXT: POST-TEST (20 ITEMS)

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