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How to Use
Theory
Why Study How To Use Theory?
How Students Can Use Theory
How To Use Theory In A Problem Statement
Where ...
NEXT

WHY STUDY HOW TO USE
THEORY?

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Careful Observation

Theory can tell
students what
to see, what to
look out for.
Confusion (image courtesy of Chris Cannon...
Careful Description

Theory can provide
students a mental
map to categorize
and arrange their
observations.
Confusion (ima...
Careful Thinking

Theory can provide
students a
framework to
shape their
thoughts.
Confusion (image courtesy of Chris Cann...
Careful Explanations

Theory can suggest
how different
observations might
be linked and
connected
Confusion (image courtes...
Careful Connections

Theory can offer
suggest causal
relationships
between one event
and another.
Confusion (image courtes...
Careful Predictions

Theory can
indicate what
might happen
next.
Confusion (image courtesy of Chris Cannon at freemusclebu...
Careful Strategies

Theory can suggest
things to do to
bring about
change.
Confusion (image courtesy of Chris Cannon at fr...
1. Observation: Theory can tell students what to
see, what to look out for
2. Description: Theory can provide a conceptual...
NEXT

HOW STUDENTS CAN USE
THEORIES

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Observation

Theory can
help a student
to understand
a new,
unfamiliar, or
strange idea or
situation.
Confusion (image cou...
Description
Theory can
provide a
shared language
for organizing
and recording
these
observations.
Confusion (image courtes...
Explanation
Theory can
suggest how
different
observations
might be linked
in a way that
explains the
observations.
Confusi...
Prediction
Theory
can indicate
what might
happen in
the future.
Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com)
Intervention
Theory can
provide ideas
about what
might cause a
situation to
change.
Confusion (image courtesy of www.toona...
ONE MORE TIME
1. Observation: Theory can help a student to
understand a new, unfamiliar, or strange idea or
situation.
2. ...
NEXT

HOW TO USE THEORY IN A
PROBLEM STATEMENT

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Example: No Theoretical Proof
To improve the deteriorating
morale on campus, this project
will present an information post...
Example: Theoretical Proof
To improve the deteriorating
morale on campus, this project will
present an information poster ...
Example: No Theoretical Proof
To stop the problem of food
dissatisfaction among students,
this project will present an
ins...
Example: Theoretical Proof
To stop the problem of food
dissatisfaction among students, which is
one of the key elements in...
Example: No Theoretical Proof
To help the 25 students who
failed in math subjects last term, this
proposal will combine in...
Example: Theoretical Proof
To help the 25 students who failed
in math subjects last term, this
proposal will use the actio...
NEXT

WHERE TO USE THEORY IN
A SENTENCE

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
At the start of a sentence

The supply and demand
theory claims that “when
supply is high, value decreases
but when supply...
In the middle of a sentence

“When supply is high, value
decreases,” claims the supply
and demand theory, “but when
supply...
At the end of a sentence

“When supply is high, value
decreases but when supply is
low, value increases,” the
supply and d...
NEXT

HOW TO USE THEORY IN A
PARAGRAPH

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
First Mention
A theory can be used several
times in a piece of writing.
The first time it is used, mention
the theory name...
Explain the Theory (with Content)
Abraham Maslow’s theory of
human needs (1943) describes
six levels of human motivation,
...
Explain the Theory: Content
AUTHOR

THEORY

DOES WHAT
CONTENT

Abraham Maslow’s
theory of human
motivation or needs (1943)...
Explain a Theory (Usefulness)
Abraham Maslow’s
theory of human
motivation or needs (1943)
describes six levels of
human ne...
Explain the Theory: Usefulness
AUTHOR

DOES WHAT
CONTENT

The Globe theory of cultural
dimensions and culture
clusters (19...
NEXT

HOW TO SIGNAL THAT A
THEORY IS BEING USED

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
point out

It seems that when official
information is not easily accessible,
more people value gossip but when
official in...
be explained by
Why do some people believe in gossip
more than in official announcements? This
can be explained by a parap...
One possible explanation ... can be
One possible explanation why people
believe in gossip more than in official
informatio...
note
People seem to believe in gossip more
than in official information. Why?
As a paraphrase of the supply and
demand the...
point out
People seem to believe in gossip more
than in official information. Why?
As a paraphrase of the supply and
deman...
claim
It seems that gossip is more believed
by people compared to official
information. As a paraphrase of the supply
and ...
NEXT

USE VERBS TO SIGNAL A
THEORY

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Use the Simple Present Tense
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

acknowledges
comments
describes
maintains
reports
adds
compares
Use the Simple Present Tense
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

disputes
notes
responds
admits
concedes
emphasizes
observes
Use the Simple Present Tense
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

shows
agrees
confirms
endorses
points out
states
argues
Use the Correct Word
• contends
• illustrates
• reasons
• suggests
• asserts
• declares
Use the Correct Word
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

implies
refutes
summarizes
claims
denies
insists
rejects
writes
NEXT

PHRASES TO SIGNAL A
THEORY

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Signal Phrase

Signal phrase (image courtesy of ctjlibrary.pbworks.com)
Signal Phrase

Signal phrase (image courtesy of dept.sfcollege.edu)
Signal Phrase

Signal phrase (image courtesy of uwc.ttu.edu)
Signal phrase (image courtesy of www.ap.krakow.pl)
Signal Phrase

Signal phrase (image courtesy of kasmussenap.wordpress.com)
Signal Phrase

Signal phrase (image courtesy of kasmussenap.wordpress.com)
Where to Find More Signal Phrases
Signal phrases can be used to introduce a theory
• Signal Phrases.pdf
www.plattsburgh.ed...
More Examples of signal phrases
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Incorporating Sources: Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing,
Ci...
WHEN USING A THEORY:

INTEGRATE BORROWED
IDEAS IN YOUR WORDS

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
HOW TO

FIND MORE SIGNAL
PHRASES

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Vary the
signal
phrases
you use to
integrate
quotations.
Examples of signal phrases
NEXT

A REMINDER ABOUT
GRAMMAR

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
X writes

Do not use signal phrase
such as “he writes” to
introduce a quotation that is
not a complete sentence.
X writes

Incorrect: Brown writes, “My
childhood, which was happy
and carefree, but passed by too
fast.”
X writes

Correct: Brown writes, “My
childhood . . . was happy and
carefree, but passed by too
fast.”
X writes

Correct : Brown describes her
childhood as “happy and
carefree,” but she laments that
it “passed by too fast.”
NEXT

A REMINDER ABOUT
PUNCTUATION

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Two Punctuations
Quotations may be introduced by
two– and only two – marks of
punctuation, the comma and the
colon.
Two Punctuations

Never introduce a quotation
with a semicolon.
NEXT

A REMINDER ABOUT
CITATION

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Always Cite It
Whenever you use a quotation in
your paper, you should cite it
using the citation style specified
by your p...
HOW TO

FIND MORE THEORIES

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
HOW TO

EXPLAIN A THEORY

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Start with a Story with a Need / Problem

Image courtesy of ashleystravel.com.
Show the Need

NEED TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER’S BEHAVIOR

Image courtesy of (questgarden.com)
Show a Need

NEED TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER’S CULTURE

Image courtesy of (www.2dayblog.com)
Show a Need

NEED TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER’S LANGUAGE

Image courtesy of (www.1000ventures.com)
SHOW THE THEORY

USE THE SIMPLEST POSSIBLE IMAGE
Image courtesy of www.york.ac.uk.
Show the Theory

IF IT CAN BE SIMPLIFIED, SIMPLIFY THE PRESENTATION
Image courtesy of insideology.com.
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of insideology.com.
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of insideology.com.
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of insideology.com.
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of insideology.com.
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of insideology.com.
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
Simplify a Complicated Idea

Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
Apply the Theory: Solve the Need

CONTINUE THE STORY UNTIL THE NEED IS MET OR PROBLEM IS SOLVED

Image courtesy of (questg...
Apply the Theory: Solve the Need

CONTINUE THE STORY UNTIL THE NEED IS MET OR PROBLEM IS SOLVED

Image courtesy of (www.2d...
Apply the Theory: Solve the Need

CONTINUE THE STORY UNTIL THE NEED IS MET OR PROBLEM IS SOLVED

Image courtesy of (www.10...
End with the Story

END THE STORY
Image courtesy of ashleystravel.com.
NEXT

THE MEANING OF THEORY

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
What is theory?
A theory is a set of ideas that helps
to explain why something
happens or happened in a
particular way, an...
What is theory?
Theories are based on evidence and
reasoning, but have not yet been
conclusively proved.

Cottrell, via ww...
What is theory?
An attempt to explain… a framework
for understanding… a set of ideas
linked together to help us make
sense...
NEXT

SOME TYPES OF THEORIES

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Explanatory Theory

Provable explanations why
something happens
Model

A description of activity
in a structured form
Perspective

Ways of conceptualizing,
visualizing, understanding,
or seeing something
Principle

A proven explanation why
something happens.
A principle is applicable in
any situation, with some
exceptions. (...
Law

A proven explanation why
something happens.
A law is applicable in any
situation, with no
exceptions. (Law of gravity...
One More Time
• Explanatory Theory: Provable
explanations why something
happens
• Model: Organized description of
activity...
NEXT

WHY KNOWING HOW TO
USE THEORIES IS
IMPORTANT

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
Theory can provide
a way to understand
something difficult
or complicated.

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (www.wikihow.com...
Theory can be a
guide to managing
something that is
unsure or
unexpected

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (www.wikihow.com)
Theory can ensure
accountability.

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (www.wikihow.com)
Theory can ensure
accountability.

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (www.wikihow.com)
Theory can
help avoid
discrimination

Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com)
The use of
theory is the
mark of an
educated
mind.
Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com)
The use of theory is
the mark of a
professional.

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (www.wikihow.com)
Theory is important because
Theory is the mark of a professional
Theory can ensure accountability
Theory can help avoid di...
NEXT

THE LIMITATIONS OF
THEORIES

Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
A theory is only a tool,
a limited tool.

Confusion (image courtesy of www.todayandtomorrow.net)
No single theory can
explain everything.
When a person acts (or
not act) the reason can be
rooted in a range of causes
or ...
Some theoretical
approaches just
don't work in some
cases. Applying a
theory can be
effective in some
situations, not in a...
Always apply
the value base to
theory – many
useful theory
from various
fields can be used
in other fields.

Confusion (im...
Never be
intimidated by
theory.
You use it every day.

Confusion (image courtesy of www.todayandtomorrow.net)
NEXT

WHY DO
STUDENTS
NEED TO USE
THEORY?

Confusion (image courtesy of Achraf Baznani at www.baznani.com)
Using all kinds
of theory in
studies has
important
advantages for
students

Confusion (image courtesy of www.johnrausch.co...
Theories can
help students to
understand of a
situation.

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
Using theory,
students can
generate ideas
about what is
going on, why
things are as they
are.

Paper clip (Image courtesy ...
For example a
story, a person,
or a feeling can
be confusing.

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
Applying theory
can one
understand a
situation.

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
Using theory
can help to
justify actions
and explain
statements.

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
This can change your
words and writings to
become more widely
accountable and,
ultimately, more
respected.

Paper clip (Im...
In interacting with people, the use
of theories that relate to specific
situations can give students more
direction in the...
Using theory can help
explain why an action
resulted in a particular
consequence.

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallyg...
This can help
students review and
possibly change
what they do so as
to create more
effective
consequences.
Paper clip (Im...
This is why theory is
important in studies, for
work, and for social
interaction ...

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (total...
...so that a student
can be more valued
in society.

Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
END OF PRESENTATION
Send suggestions or comments to mr.jaime.aiu@gmail.com

THANK YOU

Concepts used in this presentation ...
Problem Statement 12 (Proof) - Use of authoritative support (or How to Use Theory)
Problem Statement 12 (Proof) - Use of authoritative support (or How to Use Theory)
Problem Statement 12 (Proof) - Use of authoritative support (or How to Use Theory)
Problem Statement 12 (Proof) - Use of authoritative support (or How to Use Theory)
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Problem Statement 12 (Proof) - Use of authoritative support (or How to Use Theory)

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Presentation on how to use authoritative proof such as theory in writing a statement of a research problem, a paragraph, essay, or a research paper

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Problem Statement 12 (Proof) - Use of authoritative support (or How to Use Theory)

  1. 1. How to Use Theory Why Study How To Use Theory? How Students Can Use Theory How To Use Theory In A Problem Statement Where To Use A Theory In A Sentence How To Use Theory In A Paragraph How To Signal A Theory Being Used Use Verbs To Signal A Theory Use Phrases To Signal A Theory How To Integrate Borrowed Ideas How To Find More Signal Phrases Paper clip (Image courtesy of (www.thedentalgeek.com)
  2. 2. NEXT WHY STUDY HOW TO USE THEORY? Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  3. 3. Careful Observation Theory can tell students what to see, what to look out for. Confusion (image courtesy of Chris Cannon at freemusclebuildingtips.com)
  4. 4. Careful Description Theory can provide students a mental map to categorize and arrange their observations. Confusion (image courtesy of Chris Cannon at freemusclebuildingtips.com)
  5. 5. Careful Thinking Theory can provide students a framework to shape their thoughts. Confusion (image courtesy of Chris Cannon at freemusclebuildingtips.com)
  6. 6. Careful Explanations Theory can suggest how different observations might be linked and connected Confusion (image courtesy of Chris Cannon at freemusclebuildingtips.com)
  7. 7. Careful Connections Theory can offer suggest causal relationships between one event and another. Confusion (image courtesy of Chris Cannon at freemusclebuildingtips.com)
  8. 8. Careful Predictions Theory can indicate what might happen next. Confusion (image courtesy of Chris Cannon at freemusclebuildingtips.com)
  9. 9. Careful Strategies Theory can suggest things to do to bring about change. Confusion (image courtesy of Chris Cannon at freemusclebuildingtips.com)
  10. 10. 1. Observation: Theory can tell students what to see, what to look out for 2. Description: Theory can provide a conceptual vocabulary and framework to arrange and organize their observations 3. Explanation: Theory can suggest how different observations might be linked and connected; theory can offer possible causal relationships between one event and another 4. Prediction: Theory can indicate what might happen next 5. Intervention: Theory can suggest things to do to bring about change
  11. 11. NEXT HOW STUDENTS CAN USE THEORIES Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  12. 12. Observation Theory can help a student to understand a new, unfamiliar, or strange idea or situation. Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com)
  13. 13. Description Theory can provide a shared language for organizing and recording these observations. Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com)
  14. 14. Explanation Theory can suggest how different observations might be linked in a way that explains the observations. Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com)
  15. 15. Prediction Theory can indicate what might happen in the future. Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com)
  16. 16. Intervention Theory can provide ideas about what might cause a situation to change. Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com)
  17. 17. ONE MORE TIME 1. Observation: Theory can help a student to understand a new, unfamiliar, or strange idea or situation. 2. Description: Theory can provide a generally understood and shared language in which these observations can be organized and recorded. 3. Explanation: Theory can suggest how different observations might be linked in a way that explains the observations. 4. Prediction: Theory can indicate what might happen in the future. 5. Intervention: Theory can provide ideas about what might bring about a change in a situation.
  18. 18. NEXT HOW TO USE THEORY IN A PROBLEM STATEMENT Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  19. 19. Example: No Theoretical Proof To improve the deteriorating morale on campus, this project will present an information poster that explains in 10 pictures why gossip is more valued when official information is not easily accessible.
  20. 20. Example: Theoretical Proof To improve the deteriorating morale on campus, this project will present an information poster that explains in 10 pictures why gossip is more valued when official information is not easily accessible, as noted by the theory of supply and demand.
  21. 21. Example: No Theoretical Proof To stop the problem of food dissatisfaction among students, this project will present an instruction poster that shows in 20 pictures the relationship between raw materials and food menus.
  22. 22. Example: Theoretical Proof To stop the problem of food dissatisfaction among students, which is one of the key elements in theory of human needs (Maslow, 1943), this project will present an instruction poster that shows in 20 pictures the relationship between raw materials and food menus, after a concept in systems theory (Bertalanffy, 1972).
  23. 23. Example: No Theoretical Proof To help the 25 students who failed in math subjects last term, this proposal will combine in a 20-step instruction poster 10 silent drama techniques to master within one week at least one advanced skill in algebra and one intermediate skill in trigonometry.
  24. 24. Example: Theoretical Proof To help the 25 students who failed in math subjects last term, this proposal will use the action theory of learning (Metcalf, 1997) to combine in a 20-step instruction poster 10 silent theater techniques to master within one week at least one advanced skill in algebra and one skill in intermediate trigonometry.
  25. 25. NEXT WHERE TO USE THEORY IN A SENTENCE Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  26. 26. At the start of a sentence The supply and demand theory claims that “when supply is high, value decreases but when supply is low, value increases.”
  27. 27. In the middle of a sentence “When supply is high, value decreases,” claims the supply and demand theory, “but when supply is low, value increases.”
  28. 28. At the end of a sentence “When supply is high, value decreases but when supply is low, value increases,” the supply and demand theory claims.
  29. 29. NEXT HOW TO USE THEORY IN A PARAGRAPH Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  30. 30. First Mention A theory can be used several times in a piece of writing. The first time it is used, mention the theory name, theorist, and year published.
  31. 31. Explain the Theory (with Content) Abraham Maslow’s theory of human needs (1943) describes six levels of human motivation, ranging from basic (physiological) to advanced (self-actualization) levels. Hoppe, M. H., (2007) Culture and Leader Effectiveness: The GLOBE Study. Online at http://www.inspireimagineinnovate.com/PDF/GLOBEsummary-by-Michael-H-Hoppe.pdf
  32. 32. Explain the Theory: Content AUTHOR THEORY DOES WHAT CONTENT Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation or needs (1943) describes six levels of human needs from basic (physiological) to advanced (self-actualization) levels. Hoppe, M. H., (2007) Culture and Leader Effectiveness: The GLOBE Study. Online at http://www.inspireimagineinnovate.com/PDF/GLOBEsummary-by-Michael-H-Hoppe.pdf YEAR CONTENT SUMMARY
  33. 33. Explain a Theory (Usefulness) Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation or needs (1943) describes six levels of human needs from basic (physiological) to advanced (self-actualization) levels. Hoppe, M. H., (2007) Culture and Leader Effectiveness: The GLOBE Study. Online at http://www.inspireimagineinnovate.com/PDF/GLOBEsummary-by-Michael-H-Hoppe.pdf
  34. 34. Explain the Theory: Usefulness AUTHOR DOES WHAT CONTENT The Globe theory of cultural dimensions and culture clusters (1980) suggest nine categories of cultural values and cultural practices, which can be used to help us understand leadership styles in various cultures. THEORY YEAR USEFULNESS Hoppe, M. H., (2007) Culture and Leader Effectiveness: The GLOBE Study. Online at http://www.inspireimagineinnovate.com/PDF/GLOBEsummary-by-Michael-H-Hoppe.pdf
  35. 35. NEXT HOW TO SIGNAL THAT A THEORY IS BEING USED Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  36. 36. point out It seems that when official information is not easily accessible, more people value gossip but when official information is easily accessed, less people value gossip. How can this be explained? As a paraphrase of the theory of supply and demand points out: “when supply is high, value decreases but when supply is low, value increases.”
  37. 37. be explained by Why do some people believe in gossip more than in official announcements? This can be explained by a paraphrase of the theory of supply and demand: “when supply is high, value decreases but when supply is low, value increases.” In a community where official information is not easily accessible, the value of gossip can increase. Where official information is easily accessed, the value of gossip can be low.
  38. 38. One possible explanation ... can be One possible explanation why people believe in gossip more than in official information can be a paraphrase of the theory of supply and demand: “when supply is high, value decreases but when supply is low, value increases.” Thus, when official information is not easily accessible, more people rely on gossip but when official information is easily accessed, the value of gossip is lessened.
  39. 39. note People seem to believe in gossip more than in official information. Why? As a paraphrase of the supply and demand theory notes: “when supply is high, value decreases but when supply is low, value increases.” Thus, when official information is not easily accessible, more people rely on gossip but when official information is easily accessed, less people value gossip.
  40. 40. point out People seem to believe in gossip more than in official information. Why? As a paraphrase of the supply and demand theory points out: “when supply is high, value decreases but when supply is low, value increases.” Thus, when official information is not easily accessible, more people rely on gossip but when official information is easily accessed, less people value gossip.
  41. 41. claim It seems that gossip is more believed by people compared to official information. As a paraphrase of the supply and demand theory claims: “when supply is high, value decreases but when supply is low, value increases.” Thus, when official information is not easily accessible, more people rely on gossip but when official information is easily accessed, less people value gossip.
  42. 42. NEXT USE VERBS TO SIGNAL A THEORY Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  43. 43. Use the Simple Present Tense • • • • • • • acknowledges comments describes maintains reports adds compares
  44. 44. Use the Simple Present Tense • • • • • • • disputes notes responds admits concedes emphasizes observes
  45. 45. Use the Simple Present Tense • • • • • • • shows agrees confirms endorses points out states argues
  46. 46. Use the Correct Word • contends • illustrates • reasons • suggests • asserts • declares
  47. 47. Use the Correct Word • • • • • • • • implies refutes summarizes claims denies insists rejects writes
  48. 48. NEXT PHRASES TO SIGNAL A THEORY Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  49. 49. Signal Phrase Signal phrase (image courtesy of ctjlibrary.pbworks.com)
  50. 50. Signal Phrase Signal phrase (image courtesy of dept.sfcollege.edu)
  51. 51. Signal Phrase Signal phrase (image courtesy of uwc.ttu.edu)
  52. 52. Signal phrase (image courtesy of www.ap.krakow.pl)
  53. 53. Signal Phrase Signal phrase (image courtesy of kasmussenap.wordpress.com)
  54. 54. Signal Phrase Signal phrase (image courtesy of kasmussenap.wordpress.com)
  55. 55. Where to Find More Signal Phrases Signal phrases can be used to introduce a theory • Signal Phrases.pdf www.plattsburgh.edu/files/2/files/Signal%20Ph rases.pdf • Signal Phrases department.monm.edu/english/mew/signal_ph rases.htm • Signal Phrases www.apsu.edu/sites/apsu.edu/files/academic... /Signal_Phrases.pdf
  56. 56. More Examples of signal phrases 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Incorporating Sources: Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing, Citing (http://bit.ly/1bm3Gif) When using information from another work, it should be identified by a signal phrase (http://bit.ly/1gFboeH) Quotations & Paraphrases – A Quick Guide (http://bit.ly/16Y8dJu) Signal phrases clarify the distinction between writer and source (http://bit.ly/c1gOGk) Documenting Electronic Sources: APA Style (http://bit.ly/1dkwf2f) APA Citation Style (http://bit.ly/HRtgol) Acknowledging, Paraphrasing, and Quoting Sources (http://bit.ly/vh0uBj) Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting from Sources (http://bit.ly/1hCe1iF) Some examples of signal phrases (http://hvrd.me/HUaBHl)
  57. 57. WHEN USING A THEORY: INTEGRATE BORROWED IDEAS IN YOUR WORDS Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  58. 58. Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
  59. 59. Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
  60. 60. Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
  61. 61. Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
  62. 62. Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
  63. 63. Signal phrase (image courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/icduncan/blending-quotations)
  64. 64. HOW TO FIND MORE SIGNAL PHRASES Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  65. 65. Vary the signal phrases you use to integrate quotations.
  66. 66. Examples of signal phrases
  67. 67. NEXT A REMINDER ABOUT GRAMMAR Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  68. 68. X writes Do not use signal phrase such as “he writes” to introduce a quotation that is not a complete sentence.
  69. 69. X writes Incorrect: Brown writes, “My childhood, which was happy and carefree, but passed by too fast.”
  70. 70. X writes Correct: Brown writes, “My childhood . . . was happy and carefree, but passed by too fast.”
  71. 71. X writes Correct : Brown describes her childhood as “happy and carefree,” but she laments that it “passed by too fast.”
  72. 72. NEXT A REMINDER ABOUT PUNCTUATION Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  73. 73. Two Punctuations Quotations may be introduced by two– and only two – marks of punctuation, the comma and the colon.
  74. 74. Two Punctuations Never introduce a quotation with a semicolon.
  75. 75. NEXT A REMINDER ABOUT CITATION Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  76. 76. Always Cite It Whenever you use a quotation in your paper, you should cite it using the citation style specified by your professor, such as the APA style.
  77. 77. HOW TO FIND MORE THEORIES Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  78. 78. HOW TO EXPLAIN A THEORY Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  79. 79. Start with a Story with a Need / Problem Image courtesy of ashleystravel.com.
  80. 80. Show the Need NEED TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER’S BEHAVIOR Image courtesy of (questgarden.com)
  81. 81. Show a Need NEED TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER’S CULTURE Image courtesy of (www.2dayblog.com)
  82. 82. Show a Need NEED TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER’S LANGUAGE Image courtesy of (www.1000ventures.com)
  83. 83. SHOW THE THEORY USE THE SIMPLEST POSSIBLE IMAGE Image courtesy of www.york.ac.uk.
  84. 84. Show the Theory IF IT CAN BE SIMPLIFIED, SIMPLIFY THE PRESENTATION Image courtesy of insideology.com.
  85. 85. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of insideology.com.
  86. 86. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of insideology.com.
  87. 87. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of insideology.com.
  88. 88. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of insideology.com.
  89. 89. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of insideology.com.
  90. 90. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
  91. 91. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
  92. 92. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
  93. 93. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
  94. 94. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
  95. 95. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
  96. 96. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
  97. 97. Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)
  98. 98. Apply the Theory: Solve the Need CONTINUE THE STORY UNTIL THE NEED IS MET OR PROBLEM IS SOLVED Image courtesy of (questgarden.com)
  99. 99. Apply the Theory: Solve the Need CONTINUE THE STORY UNTIL THE NEED IS MET OR PROBLEM IS SOLVED Image courtesy of (www.2dayblog.com)
  100. 100. Apply the Theory: Solve the Need CONTINUE THE STORY UNTIL THE NEED IS MET OR PROBLEM IS SOLVED Image courtesy of (www.1000ventures.com)
  101. 101. End with the Story END THE STORY Image courtesy of ashleystravel.com.
  102. 102. NEXT THE MEANING OF THEORY Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  103. 103. What is theory? A theory is a set of ideas that helps to explain why something happens or happened in a particular way, and to predict likely outcomes in the future. Cottrell, via www.scribd.com/doc/35884843/Theories-of-Social-Work-SR
  104. 104. What is theory? Theories are based on evidence and reasoning, but have not yet been conclusively proved. Cottrell, via www.scribd.com/doc/35884843/Theories-of-Social-Work-SR
  105. 105. What is theory? An attempt to explain… a framework for understanding… a set of ideas linked together to help us make sense of a particular issue. Thompson, N. via www.mcgraw-hill.co.uk/openup/chapters/0335204252.pdf
  106. 106. NEXT SOME TYPES OF THEORIES Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  107. 107. Explanatory Theory Provable explanations why something happens
  108. 108. Model A description of activity in a structured form
  109. 109. Perspective Ways of conceptualizing, visualizing, understanding, or seeing something
  110. 110. Principle A proven explanation why something happens. A principle is applicable in any situation, with some exceptions. (Ethical principle)
  111. 111. Law A proven explanation why something happens. A law is applicable in any situation, with no exceptions. (Law of gravity)
  112. 112. One More Time • Explanatory Theory: Provable explanations why something happens • Model: Organized description of activity in a structured form • Perspective: Ways of conceptualizing the world or a particular subject
  113. 113. NEXT WHY KNOWING HOW TO USE THEORIES IS IMPORTANT Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  114. 114. Theory can provide a way to understand something difficult or complicated. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (www.wikihow.com)
  115. 115. Theory can be a guide to managing something that is unsure or unexpected Paper clip (Image courtesy of (www.wikihow.com)
  116. 116. Theory can ensure accountability. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (www.wikihow.com)
  117. 117. Theory can ensure accountability. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (www.wikihow.com)
  118. 118. Theory can help avoid discrimination Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com)
  119. 119. The use of theory is the mark of an educated mind. Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com)
  120. 120. The use of theory is the mark of a professional. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (www.wikihow.com)
  121. 121. Theory is important because Theory is the mark of a professional Theory can ensure accountability Theory can help avoid discrimination Theory provides a way of understanding something complicated or difficult Theory provides a way of understanding something unexpected or unsure
  122. 122. NEXT THE LIMITATIONS OF THEORIES Confusion (image courtesy of www.in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  123. 123. A theory is only a tool, a limited tool. Confusion (image courtesy of www.todayandtomorrow.net)
  124. 124. No single theory can explain everything. When a person acts (or not act) the reason can be rooted in a range of causes or motives. Confusion (image courtesy of www.todayandtomorrow.net)
  125. 125. Some theoretical approaches just don't work in some cases. Applying a theory can be effective in some situations, not in all. Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com) Confusion (image courtesy of www.todayandtomorrow.net)
  126. 126. Always apply the value base to theory – many useful theory from various fields can be used in other fields. Confusion (image courtesy of www.toonaripost.com) Confusion (image courtesy of www.todayandtomorrow.net)
  127. 127. Never be intimidated by theory. You use it every day. Confusion (image courtesy of www.todayandtomorrow.net)
  128. 128. NEXT WHY DO STUDENTS NEED TO USE THEORY? Confusion (image courtesy of Achraf Baznani at www.baznani.com)
  129. 129. Using all kinds of theory in studies has important advantages for students Confusion (image courtesy of www.johnrausch.com)
  130. 130. Theories can help students to understand of a situation. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
  131. 131. Using theory, students can generate ideas about what is going on, why things are as they are. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
  132. 132. For example a story, a person, or a feeling can be confusing. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
  133. 133. Applying theory can one understand a situation. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
  134. 134. Using theory can help to justify actions and explain statements. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
  135. 135. This can change your words and writings to become more widely accountable and, ultimately, more respected. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
  136. 136. In interacting with people, the use of theories that relate to specific situations can give students more direction in their work. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
  137. 137. Using theory can help explain why an action resulted in a particular consequence. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
  138. 138. This can help students review and possibly change what they do so as to create more effective consequences. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
  139. 139. This is why theory is important in studies, for work, and for social interaction ... Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
  140. 140. ...so that a student can be more valued in society. Paper clip (Image courtesy of (totallygreencrafts.com)
  141. 141. END OF PRESENTATION Send suggestions or comments to mr.jaime.aiu@gmail.com THANK YOU Concepts used in this presentation are from various online sources. No copyright infringement intended.

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