Definition of Anxiety• Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension or fear. The source of this uneasiness is not always known or recognized, which can add to the distress you feel.• Anxiety disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that involve excessive anxiety.
Panic Disorder • The abrupt onset of an episode of intense fear or discomfort, which peaks in approximately 10 minutes, and includes at least four of the following symptoms:• A feeling of imminent danger or doom • Nausea or abdominal discomfort• The need to escape • Dizziness or lightheadedness• Palpitations • A sense of things being unreal,• Sweating depersonalization• Trembling • A fear of losing control or "going crazy"• Shortness of breath or a smothering • A fear of dying feeling • Tingling sensations• A feeling of choking • Chills or hot flushes• Chest pain or discomfort
Panic DisorderThere are three types of Panic Attacks: 1. Unexpected - the attack "comes out of the blue" without warning and for no discernable reason. 2. Situational - situations in which an individual always has an attack, for example, upon entering a tunnel. 3. Situationally Predisposed - situations in which an individual is likely to have a Panic Attack, but does not always have one. An example of this would be an individual who sometimes has attacks while driving.
Obsessive-Compulsive DisorderCharacterized by uncontrollable obsessions and compulsions which the sufferer usually recognizes as being excessive or unreasonable.• Obsessions are recurring thoughts or impulses that are intrusive or inappropriate and cause the sufferer anxiety: – Thoughts about contamination, for example, when an individual fears coming into contact with dirt, germs or "unclean" objects; – Persistent doubts, for example, whether or not one has turned off the iron or stove, locked the door or turned on the answering machine; – Extreme need for orderliness; – Aggressive impulses or thoughts, for example, being overcome with the urge to yell fire in a crowded theater
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder• Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or rituals performed by the OCD sufferer, performance of these rituals neutralize the anxiety caused by obsessive thoughts, relief is only temporary. – Cleaning. Repeatedly washing their hands, showering, or constantly cleaning their home; – Checking. Individuals may check several or even hundreds of times to make sure that stoves are turned off and doors are locked; – Repeating. Some repeat a name, phrase or action over and over; – Slowness. Some individuals may take an excessively slow and methodical approach to daily activities, they may spend hours organizing and arranging objects; – Hoarding. Hoarders are unable to throw away useless items, such as old newspapers, junk mail, even broken appliances• In order for OCD to be diagnosed, the obsessions and/or compulsions must take up a considerable amount of the sufferers time, at least one hour every day, and interfere with normal routines .
Social Phobia/Anxiety• Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is an intense fear of social situations. This fear arises when the individual believes that they may be judged, scrutinized or humiliated by others.• Individuals with the disorder are acutely aware of the physical signs of their anxiety and fear that others will notice, judge them, and think poorly of them.• In extreme cases this intense uneasiness can progress into a full blown panic attack.
Social Phobia/Anxiety• Common anxiety provoking social situations include: – public speaking – talking with people in authority – dating and developing close relationships – making a phone call or answering the phone – interviewing – attending and participating in class – speaking with strangers – meeting new people – eating, drinking, or writing in public – using public bathrooms – driving – shopping
Generalized Anxiety Disorder• Excessive uncontrollable worry about everyday things. This constant worry affects daily functioning and can cause physical symptoms.• GAD can occur with other anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or substance abuse.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder• The focus of GAD worry can shift, usually focusing on issues like job, finances, health of both self and family; but it can also include more mundane issues such as, chores, car repairs and being late for appointments.• The intensity, duration and frequency of the worry are disproportionate to the issue
Common Causes• There is no one cause for anxiety disorders. Several factors can play a role – Genetics – Brain biochemistry – Overactive "fight or flight" response • Can be caused by too much stress – Life circumstances – Personality • People who have low self-esteem and poor coping skills may be more prone• Certain drugs, both recreational and medicinal, can lead to symptoms of anxiety due to either side effects or withdrawal from the drug.• In very rare cases, a tumor of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma) may be the cause of anxiety.
Symptoms of AnxietyAnxiety is an emotion often accompanied byvarious physical symptoms, including:• Twitching or trembling• Muscle tension• Headaches• Sweating• Dry mouth• Difficulty swallowing• Abdominal pain (may be the only symptom of stress especially in a child)
Additional Symptoms of AnxietySometimes other symptoms accompanyanxiety:• Dizziness• Rapid or irregular heart rate• Rapid breathing• Diarrhea or frequent need to urinate• Fatigue• Irritability, including loss of your temper• Sleeping difficulties and nightmares• Decreased concentration• Sexual problems
Medications• Buspirone: shown to be effective but usually takes 3- 4 weeks, particularly useful in elderly patients• Benzodiazepines: include Xanax and Valium, act rapidly and successfully but can be addictive and loses effectiveness over time• Side Effects: dizziness, headaches, nausea, impaired memory
Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy• Teaches patient to react differently to situations and bodily sensations that trigger anxiety• Teaches patient to understand how thinking patterns that contribute to symptoms• Patients learn that by changing how they perceive feelings of anxiety, the less likely they are to have them• Examples: Hyperventilating, writing down list of top fears and doing one of them once a week, spinning in a chair until dizzy; after awhile patients learned to cope with the negative feelings associated with them and replace them with positive ones