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  1. 1. DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL | PATNA X-I | Group II (2016-17)
  2. 2. PRESEN TED BY AKNOLEDGEMENT We are very thankful to our school for assigning us this project. It helped us to bring out our creativity & expand our knowledge. We are equally thankful to everyone who supported us, for we completed our project on time. We also thank Bal Mukund Bardhan, Ex-Dipsite 2011-16, who guided us in making the P.P.t.  PRIYANKA BARDHAN (GROUP LEADER) SHREYA ROY SHOURYA VIKRAM SHREYASH SHIVANK SINHA PRABHUDEEP UTTKARSH SINHA
  3. 3. WHAT IS STAMPEDE !!? A STAMPEDE is uncontrolled concerted running as an act of mass impulse among herd animals or a crowd of people in which the group collectively begins running, often in an attempt to escape a perceived threat.
  4. 4. STAMPEDE ARE OF CATTLE STAMPEDE Anything unusual may start a stampede among cattle. Especially at night, things such as lighting a match, someone jumping off a horse, a horse shaking itself, a lightning strike, a tumbleweed blown into the herd, or "a horse running through a herd kicking at a saddle which has turned under its belly" have been known to cause stampedes. HUMAN STAMPEDE & CRUSHES Human stampedes and crushes often occur during religious pilgrimages[and professional sporting and music events, as these events tend to involve many people in a dense area (overcrowded). They also occur in times of panic (e.g. as a result of a fire or explosion) as people try to get away.
  5. 5. what is CATTLE Anything unusual may start a stampede among cattle. Especially at night, things such as lighting a match, someone jumping off a horse, a horse shaking itself, a lightning strike, a tumbleweed blown into the herd, or "a horse running through a herd kicking at a saddle which has turned under its belly" have been known to cause stampedes. A large stampede typically eliminates everything in its path. With livestock, cowboys attempt to turn the moving herd into itself, so that it runs in circles rather than running off a cliff or into a river and avoids damaging human life or property. Tactics used to make the herd turn into itself include firing a pistol, which creates noise to make the leaders of the stampede turn. Sometimes people purposefully induce cattle to stampede as a component of warfare or hunting, such as some Native Americans, who were known to cause American bison to kill themselves at a buffalo jump.
  6. 6. what is HUMAN STAMPEDE & Human stampedes and crushes often occur during religious pilgrimages and professional sporting and music events, as these events tend to involve many people in a dense area (overcrowded). They also occur in times of panic (e.g. as a result of a fire or explosion) as people try to get away. Stampedes According to experts, true "stampedes" (and "panics") rarely occur except when many people are fleeing in fear, such as from a fire, and trampling by people in such "stampede" conditions rarely causes fatal injuries. Crushes Crushes are very often referred to as stampedes but, unlike true stampedes, they can cause many deaths. Crowd density is more important than size. A density of four people per square meter begins to be dangerous, even if the crowd is not very large.
  7. 7. CAUSES OF Causes of stampedes can be better understood through the FIST MODEL, which describes the primary elements involved in crowd disasters. In other words, the elements provide a model for understanding the causes of crowd disasters, means of prevention, and possible mitigation of an ongoing crowd incident. The elements of the model form the acronym "FIST", which is a useful reminder that any crowd situation can quickly become threatening and potentially lethal. The acronym is defined as follows: FORCE (F) of the crowd, or crowd pressure; INFORMATION (I) upon which the crowd acts or reacts, real or perceived, true or false; SPACE (S) involved in the crowd incident, standing area, physical facilities - stairs, corridors, escalators; TIME (T) duration of incident, event scheduling, facility processing rates SOUTH ASIAN DISASTER KNOWLEDGE NETWORK
  8. 8. F O R C E I N F O R M AT I O N S PA C E T I M E It does not take many people to produce deadly force. If you’ve been in such situation, you can’ t keep your feet on the ground and cannot control where you move. You can just try to keep your balance. Crowd forces can reach levels that almost impossible to resist or control. Virtually all crowd deaths are due to compressive asphyxia and not the "trampling" reported by In the broad systems sense, information has many forms. It includes all means of communication, the sights and sounds affecting group perceptions, public address announcements, training and actions of personnel, signs, and even ticketing, which can instigate rapid group The configuration, capacity, and traffic processing capabilities of assembly facilities determine degrees of crowding. Space includes standing and seating areas, projected occupancies, and the practical working capacities of corridors, ramps, stairs, doors, escalators, and A simple illustration of timing is the more gradual and lighter density arrival process before an event, compared to the rapid egress and heavy crowd densities after an event. However, it is found out that the longer the gap between two similar events, the larger the size and density of crowd force it SOUTH ASIAN DISASTER KNOWLEDGE NETWORK
  9. 9. compressiveasphyxia!!? horizontalforces!!? SOUTH ASIAN DISASTER KNOWLEDGE NETWORK Compressive asphyxia is occurred from people being stacked up vertically, one on top of the other, or horizontal pushing and leaning forces. In the Ibrox Park soccer stadium incident, police reported that the pile of bodies was 3 m (10 feet) high. At this height, people on the bottom would experience chest pressures assuming half the weight of those above was concentrated in the upper body area. Horizontal forces sufficient to cause compressive asphyxia would be more dynamic as people push off against each other to obtain breathing space. In the Cincinnati rock concert incident, a line of bodies was found approximately 9 m (30 ft) from a wall near the entrance. This indicates that crowd pressures probably came from
  10. 10. HOW TO STOP STAMPEDES !!? : Stampedes have been common to populous India, with most occurring during religious gatherings. New studies in `pedestrian dynamics` now say that to prevent a stampede, one needs to spot the building of pressure in a dense moving crowd. Dirk Helbing of Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, and Anders Johansson of the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College, London, found that the decisive factor leading to a stampede was not average or local crowd density but pressure, which is speed variance multiplied by density. Replying to an e-mail query, Johansson said: "For planned mass gatherings like pilgrimages, sports and political events, a set of measures should be taken in order to minimise the risk of a crowd crush or other types of disasters.
  11. 11. How to stop stampedes !!? : Firstly, one has to make sure that the infrastructure (roads, corridors, open spaces, entrances and exits) is suitable for the mass gathering so that there is enough capacity and there are no bottlenecks or other compression points. Secondly, there should be a good crowd-management plan that is followed, which includes crowd monitoring, scheduling and control. Thirdly, one must have good contingency plans (e.g. evacuation) in case anything goes wrong On top of this, it is advisable to make use of modern technology such as computer simulation of crowds, to test the suitability of a venue virtually in a computer, before the gathering, and also to use any mean of real-time crowd counting during the event, to be able to take action in case the event does not unfold according to plan
  12. 12. LETS TALK SOME Aiaoo labs
  13. 13. What should you do if there's a panic or stampede? {We've all had that thought at a concert or festival: "What would I do if there's a panic"? We asked a professional Crowd Controller for their expert tips.}
  14. 14. UNDERSTANDING CROWD DYNAMICS IN A PANIC when people or animals are fleeing something of perceived danger. They're running from something that scares them. This was a crowd craze… a movement of people towards something of perceived value. Like getting into the place." Paul says the critical error with Love Parade was underestimating the crowd size. Organizers had planned for 250,000 participants, 1.4 million turned up, leaving security, medical services, and infrastructure woefully inadequate. "There's always this perception that if people had just acted rationally they wouldn't have been crushed to death. Panic didn't cause this, the failure to manage this event caused this." Initial reports from Phnom Penh indicate this tragedy was a genuine stampede. The annual Water Festival marks the end of the rainy season. A million people had come to the capital for the festivities. Most were on an island in the Mekong River when something spooked them. Some say a large group fainted in the crowd crush. Other reports say an electrocution sparked the panic. Whatever the cause, suddenly a massive crowd was attempting to cross one small suspension bridge.
  15. 15. SURVIVAL TIPS IN A A stampede or a crush, whatever it is, there are a few tips for increasing your chances of survival. Paul Wertheimer says you should take a moment to make a mental note of all the exits in a venue as soon as you arrive. The natural urge is to use the same entry when you exit, not because it's safer, but it's familiar. Paul says there may be an alternative exit being used by fewer people that will get you out more quickly, very handy if you already know where it is. "When you start to feel uncomfortable in a crowd, this is the time to start looking at leaving. This is very difficult, because if you've come a long distance, or you've waited for a long time, for example in front of a stage, you don't want to leave. " Many people leave that decision until it's too late, and find they are now trapped in a large, swaying and shuffling crowd.
  16. 16. TO-DO LIST Stay on your feet. Conserve energy – don't push against the crowd and don't yell or scream. Use sign language to communicate with those around you (point, wave, even use your eyes). Keep your hands up by your chest, like a boxer – it gives you movement and protects your chest. If you're in danger ask people to crowd surf you out. If someone extends their hand for help, grab hold to keep them up. - Paul says in his experience crowds tend NOT to panic, they tend to be heroic and compassionate.
  17. 17. HOW TO ESCAPE A Paul has developed a technique for working your way out of a crush, he calls it the accordion method. "After you're pushed forward, like in a wave there's a lull. In that lull is your chance to move, and the way you move is on a diagonal, between pockets of people. There's always space between people. A couple of steps sideways, another wave surge, then another couple of steps in the next lull. You work your way out that way till you get to the periphery." But, and it's a big, nasty, but: "After a point you can't get out, it doesn't matter how big you are, how strong you are it doesn't even matter if you're a crowd safety expert. After a certain point you're trapped." Says Paul. And that's the tragedy.