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BASIC Concept Of HIV/AIDS

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BASIC Concept Of HIV/AIDS: A Major Public Health Problems in Bangladesh and the World

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BASIC Concept Of HIV/AIDS

  1. 1. BASIC Concept Of HIV/AIDS: A Major Public Health Problems in Bangladesh and the World HIV & AIDS: Mode of Transmission, Vulnerability, Spread of infection, Control, Prevention, Treatment & Care [Dr] Amzad Ali Email: ali.amzad@gmail.com Skype: ali.amzad Cell: +8801713 004696
  2. 2. What is HIV? H -uman Found only in humansFound only in humans Transmitted among humansTransmitted among humans Preventable by humansPreventable by humans I -mmunodefiency Body lacks ability to fight off infectionsBody lacks ability to fight off infections V -irus Type of germType of germ Lives and reproduces in body cellsLives and reproduces in body cells
  3. 3. What is AIDS? A -cquired; received, not inherited (does not runreceived, not inherited (does not run in families)in families) I -mmuno; protected from (in this case theprotected from (in this case the system protects the body from disease)system protects the body from disease) D -eficiency, -- a lack ofa lack of S-yndrome; – a group of symptoms or– a group of symptoms or diseasesdiseases
  4. 4. HIV IS FOUND IN BODY FLUIDS  Semen  Breast milk  Blood  Vaginal fluid
  5. 5. How HIV is passed on?  During unprotected (skin to skin) sex (anal, vaginal or oral)  Contact with HIV infected blood or blood products  Sharing IV drug needles of HIV positive people  From HIV positive mother to child  During breast feeding
  6. 6. Basics of HIV and AIDS Cont… Transmission of the virus occurs most commonly through the exchange of body fluids by: 1.Sexual contact with an infected person 2.Sharing infected needles, syringes or other injection equipment with someone who is infected. 3.Mother-to-child transmission 4.Transmission during blood transfusion HIV enters the body through open cuts, sores, or breaks in the skin; through mucous membranes, or through direct injection.
  7. 7. You CANNOT get HIV from…  Tears  Saliva  Sweat  Urine of an HIV infected person
  8. 8. Basics of HIV and AIDS Cont… HIV is NOT spread through: • Casual / social contact • Kissing and hugging • Mosquito bites • Using same utensils / towels, etc. • Sharing the same wash-rooms • By touching items that were touched by an infected person
  9. 9. Window Period  When a person gets infected it may take 6 weeks or up to 3 months before antibodies to HIV are detected in the blood  The HIV test looks for antibodies. When these antibodies are detected the person is diagnosed HIV positive  A person can be positive and the test shows negative because the test was done during the window period
  10. 10. Why HIV rates not goingWhy HIV rates not going down?down?  Sex at an early age  Little life-skills and sex education  Little condom use  Multiple partners  Stigma and Discrimination  Sex for money or sex for .....things  Substance abuse: Ganja, cocaine, alcohol  Men having sex with men & homophobia  Gender inequity and gender roles
  11. 11. STI and HIV – The LinkSTI and HIV – The Link  Persons with a history of STIs are more likely to get HIV because:  persons with STIs are more likely to have sores and small breaks in the skin and lining of their genitals.  HIV can more easily enter the body through these breaks.  You can get an STI by having sex without a condom, with an infected person.  At the same time, you could be getting HIV which is also contracted by having unprotected sex.
  12. 12. ALL STIs are Preventable Most STI’s are treatable But HIV/AIDS CANNOT BE CURED
  13. 13. Know Your Epidemic HIV & AIDS Situation: Global, Regional and Bangladesh and Responses
  14. 14. State of the epidemic: Global and Asia- Pacific Global Asia-Pacific People living with HIV 34,000,000 [31,400,000 – 35,900,000] 4,900,000 [3,900,000 – 6,100,000] Women living with HIV 15,000,000 [13,900,000 – 15,700,000] 1,600,000 [1,200,000 – 2,100,000] New HIV infections 2,500,000 [2,200,000 – 2,800,000] 370,000 [250,000 – 550,000] Adult HIV prevalence 0.8 % [0.7% – 0.8%] 0.2 % [0.2% – 0.2%] AIDS-related deaths 1,700,000 [1,500,000 – 1,900,000] 310,000 [240,000 – 400,000] Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on HIV estimates and projections data for UNAIDS (2012). Global Report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2012
  15. 15. Bangladesh Situation • First HIV case in Bangladesh was detected in 1989. • Bangladesh is still a low prevalent country in the region with < 0.1% prevalence among general Populations. • Estimated number of PLHIV is 9,500 • Risk behaviors exist with high HIV bordering nations • 5.3% HIV among Injecting Drug Users in Dhaka City • Social stigma, discrimination and hidden HIV epidemic • Poverty, Gender & Social norms
  16. 16. Bangladesh Scenario:25 years Source: National AIDS/STD Programme, 2014 • Overall HIV prevalence <1% • Estimated number of cases 9500 Reported no. of HIV cases- 2533 No. of AIDS cases - 1101 No. of death in AIDS - 325 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Total HIV+ Cases 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
  17. 17. HIV is decreasing among Injecting Drug Users in Dhaka Source: National HIV Serological Surveillance, 2011, NASP, Bangladesh
  18. 18. * Cumulative retention on treatment after 12 months of initiation of ART ** Number of patients initiating ART who are still on ART at 12 months and have VL of <1000copies/ml
  19. 19. HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia-Pacific Latest!Latest! 22 Percent distribution of new HIV infections by age group and gender, 2009 • By age group • By gender Source: Prepared by www.aidsdatahub.org based on National AIDS/STD Programme. (2009). Bangladesh HIV data, 2009.
  20. 20. • HIV prevalenceHIV prevalence among male IDUs is 5.3% in Dhaka city • Risk behaviors exists: UUnprotected commercial sex, Unsafe injecting drug use, Unprotected sex between men with multiple partners • Low condom use among most at risk population and bridging population • Young People: Poor understanding, misconception, low risk perception • PopulationPopulation migration is high: internal and externalis high: internal and external • GeographicalGeographical vulnerability is hvulnerability is higher (cross border with India, Myanmar, Nepal & water routes with world!) • Poverty, gender inequalities & social stigmaPoverty, gender inequalities & social stigma Risks and Vulnerabilities
  21. 21. HIV and AIDS Prevention
  22. 22. National HIV/AIDS Program Coverage with expansion Injecting Drug Users, female Sex Workers, Young People and Garement Workers by GFATM resources
  23. 23. Bachte hole Jante Hobe The communication campaign has created impact
  24. 24. Programmatic Interventions: “Bachtehola Jante Hobe” – A National campaign on HIV prevention
  25. 25. National Text Book included HIV/AIDS (Grade VI-XII) in 2007 A total of 115,523 teachers and 228,211 committee and governing body members have been trained and oriented from over 15,000 institutions It is expected that, nationwide over 11 million students will be receiving information on HIV and AIDS through classroom education on a sustained manner each year
  26. 26. Continuum of elements of behavior change programs Enabling environment Enabling Environment UNAIDS/98044 15 June 1998
  27. 27. Key Results
  28. 28. Knowledge has increased in HIV Prevention (2004-2008) Source: Operation Research on Mass Media, ICDDR,B, 2008 * * * * *p<0.05 31
  29. 29. Condom use has increased among most at risk populations 29.3 35.6 2.4 15.7 39.7 5.2 41.1 70.2 28.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Percent of IDUs used condom during last sexwith FSW in Central Bangladesh Percent of FSW reporting use of condom during last sex with new clients (National Brothel) Consistent use of condom with new clients over the rounds (National Brothel) Round IV, 2002 Round V, 2003-4 Round VII, 2006-7 Source: National HIV Sero-survelliance, 2007
  30. 30. Declined active syphilis in street based female sex workers over the rounds (1990-2011) Source: National HIV Serological Surveillance, 2011, NASP, Bangladesh
  31. 31. Prevention  Talk with partner about HIV  Use a condom with your regular and non- regular clients, and partners every time you have sex  Reduce the number of main partners  Get tested. Know your status
  32. 32. Who is most at risk for HIV?  Anybody having sex without a condom.  People with more than 1 partner who don’t use a condom during sex  People whose sex partner have sex with other partners without using a condom
  33. 33. How You DON’T Get HIV  You CANNOT get HIV by hugging, touching, living with or caring for someone with HIV, shaking hands or kissing.  You CANNOT get HIV from eating out of the same plate or cup or utensils that an HIV positive person uses.
  34. 34. Early Signs & Symptoms of AIDSEarly Signs & Symptoms of AIDS  Fever  Fatigue  Night Sweats  Loss of Appetite  Diarrhea  Swollen Lymph Glands Remember these are symptoms of many other illnesses.
  35. 35. REMEMBER  You CANNOT tell by looking if someone has HIV.  An individual can look and feel well for many years and be HIV positive.  The HIV positive person can pass the virus on to someone else.
  36. 36. The AIDS epidemic has taught us to be innovative and to invent, test and implement new interventions. We now have evidence of HIV prevention strategies that work!
  37. 37. However, despite our innovation, inventiveness and compelling evidence of effective strategies, the “killer virus” is still chasing and killing us!
  38. 38. People Living with HIV

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