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Bio kingdom plantae


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Bio kingdom plantae

  1. 1. TPhLeAiNr FToSrms and Functions
  2. 2. Plant as an ORGANISM
  3. 3. Plant Kingdom Vascular Plants Spore-bearing Plants Pteridophyta [Ferns and Horsetails] Seed-bearing Plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Nonvascular Plants Dicotyledons Monocotyledons Bryophytes [liverworts and mosses] Algae PLANTAE Kingdo m
  4. 4. Parts of a PLANT
  5. 5. Two Major Systems Shoot System – plant parts above the ground, that are grouped into two: • Vegetative Parts – consist of the stems and leaves • Reproductive Parts – includes flowers, fruits and seeds Root System – plant parts that are primarily found below the grounds .
  6. 6. The ROOTS Roots are usually an underground part of a plant. They anchor the plant and absorb water and minerals from the soil, acts as an important storage for some plants. The root is distinguished from the stem by its structure, by the manner in which it is formed, and by the lack of such appendages as buds and leaves.
  7. 7. External Parts of the Roots Secondary roots – these are roots that branch from the primary root. Root hairs – these are epidermal cells grow long projections into the surrounding soil. Primary root – elongates during germination of the seed. Root cap – it is a thimble like cluster of cell that covers and protects the root tip.
  8. 8. Internal Parts of the Plant Root Xylem Phloem Region of Maturation – cell mature and differentiate into special tissue Region of Cell Division - The Root Aparical Maritem is the area of cell division found in the root tip Region of Elongation - cells become two to three times longer and a little longer than the original size. Root hair Vascular Cylinder Cortex Endodermis Epidermis Apical Maristem Root Cap
  9. 9. Two Root Systems Fibrous Root Taproot Fibrous Root System - It has many slender roots of about the same size that spread out in all directions Taproot System - A plant with a taproot system has one root that is larger than the rest. Taproots grow straight down, some as deep as 15 feet.
  10. 10. TheSTEM A plant organ that typically grows above ground and bears leaves, buds, and flowers. Stems conduct water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and also transport food made in the leaves to all other parts of the plant. In addition, stems give support to the plant and may also store food and water, act as reproductive structures, and may themselves manufacture food.
  11. 11. Main Kinds of Stem Herbaceous Stem Herbaceous plants are usually green and pliant and are covered by a thin epidermis instead of by the bark of woody plants. Woody Stem A woody plant is a vascular plant that has a perennial stem that is above ground and covered by a layer of thickened bark. The diameter of a woody stem id dramatically larger than the woody stem and can sustain life longer than the herbaceous stem
  12. 12. Internal Parts of the Stem Pith Cortex Outer Skin Outer Skin Cambium Phloem Pith Vascular Bundle containing Xylem and Phloem Tissue Xylem
  13. 13. External Parts of the Stem Terminal Bud Bud Scale Node Axillary Bud Lateral Buds Internode • Lenticels • Leaf Scar
  14. 14. Specialized Stems Runners – these allow the stem to develop new roots and leaves wherein a node of the stem touches the soil. Rhizomes – these are underground, horizontal stem where new shoots develop. Bulbs – these are consisting of small piece of stem that bears fleshy leaves.
  15. 15. Tendrils – these are long, thin, coiling structures that attach the plant for support or adhere to surfaces and enable it to climb. Tubers – have a short terminal portion of an underground that develop buds at the nodes. Corms – these are short, bulky, vertical stem that bears fleshy leaves.
  16. 16. The LEAF Leaf, part of a plant that serves primarily as the plant's food-making organ in a process called photosynthesis. Leaves take part in other plant functions as well, including transpiration, of which plants remove excess water from itself, and respiration, the process by which a plant obtains oxygen and energy. Leaves also may store food and water and provide structural support.
  17. 17. External Parts of the Leaf Small Netted Vein Vein Stipule Blade Midrib Petiole
  18. 18. Internal Parts of the Leaf Epidermis Palisade Mesophyll Guard Cells Spongy Mesophyll Veins Stomata
  19. 19. Variations in Leaf Arrangement Alternate – Only one leaf is attached to a node and the Leaves are attached alternately. on Stem Whorled – Three or more leaves are attached to one node. Opposite - Two leaves are attached to one node. The leaves are opposite each other.
  20. 20. Divisions in Leaves Variations in Leaf Arrangement Compound Leaf - A compound leaf is deeply divided into separate parts called leaflets. Alternate – Only one leaf is attached to a node and the Leaves are attached alternately. on Stem Whorled – Three or more leaves are attached to one node. Opposite - Two leaves are attached to one node. The leaves are opposite each other. Simple Leaf - A simple leaf has only one blade and one petiole. The blade may be lobed, but it is not completely divided into separate parts.
  21. 21. Different Kinds of Compound Leaves Palmately Compound Leaf - A palmately compound leaf has leaflets attached to one petiole. The leaflets spread from the base of the leaf like fingers on a hand. Pinnately Compound Leaf - Pinnately compound leaf such as those of hickory and walnut has leaflets that are attached along both sides of the petiole.
  22. 22. Shape of Leaf Round Shape Heart Shaped Straight Elliptical
  23. 23. Leaf Margin Smooth Toothed Ciliated Crenate Crenulate Serrated Revolve Undulate Lobed
  24. 24. Venation Netted Venation • Palmately Netted Venation • Pinnately Netted Venation Parallel Venation • Palmately Parallel Venation • Pinnately Parallel Venation
  25. 25. The FLOWER A A flower grows from a receptacle, which is the swollen tip of a flower stalk. All flower parts are actually modified leaves. Flowers are the reproductive organ of most seed-bearing plants. Flowers carry out the multiple roles of sexual reproduction, seed development, and fruit production. Many plants produce highly visible flowers that have a distinctive size, color, or fragrance.
  26. 26. Major Parts of the Flower Corolla Calyx Petal Sepal
  27. 27. Stigma Style Ovary Anther Filament Pistil Stamen