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Introduction to metamaterials


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This ppt give an idea about what metamaterial is? how are they formed? and introduces to the techniques to analyze them. A few applications of metamaterials are also mentioned.

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Introduction to metamaterials

  1. 1. Introduction to Metamaterials By Jagadish. M, Assistant Professor, Dept. of ECE, PES Institute of Technology and Management, Shivamogga
  2. 2. Introduction • Metamaterials (MTMs) are artificial structures designed to have properties not available in nature [1] • They are build from periodically arranged unit cells which carries small metallic resonators which interact with external electromagnetic wave. • The manner in which these external electromagnetic waves interact with these metallic “meta-atoms” of a metamaterial determines medium’s electromagnetic properties which may be made to enter highly unusual regimes-such as one where electromagnetic permittivity and magnetic permeability become simultaneously negative.
  3. 3. Introduction contd.. • The response of a metamaterial to an incident electromagnetic wave can be classified by assigning to it an effective permittivity and effective permeability • Such an assignment requires that the unit cell of metamaterials be much smaller than wavelength rreff  0 rreff  0 
  4. 4. Metamaterials with negative effective permittivity in the microwave regime • Metals at optical frequencies are characterized by an electric permittivity that varies with frequency according to Drude’s relation • is the plasma frequency • N, e, m being the electron density, charge and mass • is the rate at which the amplitude of plasma oscillation decreases. • When the medium is characterized by negative electric permittivity. 
  5. 5. Metamaterials with negative effective permeability in the microwave regime • The radius of the ring is r, and the whole arrangement is assumed to be immersed in air • The split ring resonator is equivalent to simple RLC circuit, R being the resistance of the metallic ring L its inductance and C the capacitance between its unconnected ends • The effective magnetic permeability with this medium is given by (1) • We can see that assumes negative values in the range (2) ..1 ..2 
  6. 6. Techniques to examine electromagnetic properties of MTMs Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) technique [2] Field averaging approach[3-4] Curve-fitting approach [5] Dispersion equation method [6]
  7. 7. Applications of MTMs • Enhance radiation pattern and matching properties of antennas [7] • Reduce mutual coupling between antenna elements in array and reduce its size [8] Metamaterial as antenna • The electromagnetic black hole was built using MTMs [9] Metamaterial as cloaks
  8. 8. References 1. M.Lapine and S. Tretyakov, Contemporary notes on metamaterials, IET Microw. Antenna & Propagation1:3-11(2007) 2. D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, N. Kroll, and S. Schultz, “Direct Calculation of Permeability and Permittivity for a Left-Handed Metamaterial,” Applied Physics Letters, 2000, 2246. 3. J. Lerat, N. Malléjac, and O. Acher, “Determination of the Effective Parameters of a Metamaterial by Field Summation Method,” Journal of Applied Physics, 2006, 084908. 4. A. Pors, I. Tsukerman, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Effective Constitutive Parameters of Plasmonic Metamaterials: Homogenization by Dual Field Interpolation,” Physical Review E, 84, July, 2006, pp. 084908 (1-9). 5. G. Lubowski, R. Schuman, ad T. Weiland, “Extraction of Effective Metamaterial Parameters by Parameter Fitting of Dispersive Models,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 2007, pp. 285-288. 6. R. A. Shore and A. Yaghjian, “Traveling Waves on Two and Three Dimensional Periodic Arrays of Lossless Scatterers,” Radio Science, 42, 2007, RS6S21, doi:10.1029/2007RS003647. 7. K. Gi-Cho, et al., "Ku-band high efficiency antenna with corporateseries- fed microstrip array," in Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2003. IEEE, 2003, pp. 690-693 vol.4. 8. Jagadish M, T Ramya, Pradeep A S . " Design and Performance Analysis of Compact MIMO Antenna by Mutual Coupling Suppression between Elements ", Vol. 3 - Issue 12 (December - 2014), International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) , ISSN: 2278-0181 , 9. Qiang Chang, Tie Jun Cui, Wei Xiang Jiang and Ben Geng Cai, “An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorbermade of metamaterials”, New Journal of physics, 2010.