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Welcome
Rice cultures and Greenhouse Gas
(GHGs) emission: Way forward
JAGADISH
PHD15AGR5009
1ST Ph.D
Dept. of Agronomy
SEQUENCE Of PRESENTATION
Introduction
Rice cultures and contribute to GHGs
Greenhouse gasses(GHGs)
Mitigation of GHGs
...
INTRODUCTION
Impact of climate change and GHGs in Agriculture
1. Reduction in crop yield
2. Shortage of water
3. Irregularities in onse...
 An increase of 2 - 4oC results to 15% reduction in yields
 Rainfed and drought prone areas-17 to 40%
 Water scarcity a...
Rice culture’s
Transplanting is the most common method of crop establishment
for rice in Asia.
Rice seedlings grown in a nursery are pu...
DIRECT SEEDED RICE
 Around 30% of the total water saved for rice cultivation as compared to puddling
and transplanting
ME...
8-10 Days (2 leaf stage) nursery Careful uprooting & transplanting Square planting (25X25cm)
Weeding with cono weeder Satu...
Aerobic rice
 Aerobic rice is a production systems in which rice is grown in well-drained,
non-puddled and non-saturated ...
Greenhouse Gasses
(GHGs)
GHGs and Non-GHGs
The major atmospheric
constituents
1. Nitrogen (N2)
2. Oxygen (O2)
3. Argon (Ar)
4. Other remaining gase...
Source: Economic report (IPCC-2014)
Fig.1: Greenhouse gas emission from different sector
Fig. 02: GHGs from agricultural sector
Source: Economic report (IPCC-2014)
Greenhouse gases from
AGRICULTURE
• Carbon dioxide (CO2) is
colourless and odourless.
• The density of carbon dioxide is
around 1.98 kg/m3, about 1.67
times...
Methane (CH4)
• Methane (CH4) is the 2nd most prevalent
GHGs (Nearly 18%) from human
activities.
• CH4 is more efficient a...
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
3rd most significant greenhouse gas
and it contribute to nearly 6 % to
GHGs
Denitrification process ...
Fig. 3: Contribution of different source to N2O emission
Fig. 04: Relationship between CH4 and N2O emission and redox potential in
rice field throughout the season
Fluorinated gases
• Fluorinated gases (F-gases) are
man-made gases that can stay in the
atmosphere for centuries and
contr...
GHGs % Contribution
Table 2: Emission of methane and nitrous oxide (Gg yr-1)
from agricultural soils of different major states of India
State ...
Fig. 5: Comparison of Methane and Nitrous oxide emission in Indian scenario
West Bengal Bhatia et al. (2014
1. Ebullition,
2. Diffusion, and
3. Transport through rice plants.
Ebullition
Dominates during initial period
and upon dis...
a) as a source of substrate for methanogenic bacteria,
b) as a conduit for CH4 through aerenchym, and
c) as an active CH4 ...
Fig. 5: Schematic diagram of methane production, oxidation and emission
from paddy field
1. Hydrogenotrophic Pathway
CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + 2H2O
Pathways of Methane Formation
2. Denitrification Pathway
Global Warming Potential: The global warming potential is an
index developed to compare the strengths of different GHGs in...
Instruments needed for collection of gases
Gas chamber Dispo van and Needle
lock needle Gas Chromatography
Mitigation of Greenhouse gas
effect
Transplanted paddy
Table 3: Methane emission by rice as influenced by
different irrigation methods
Irrigation
methods
CH4 (mg m-2 day-1) and ...
Fig.6: a) CO2 quantity evolved in different treatments and
b) CO2 quantity evolved from rice growth stage
Treatment detail...
Fig.7: a) CH4 quantity evolved in different treatments and
b) CH4 quantity evolved from rice growth stage
Treatment detail...
Fig.8: a) N2O quantity evolved in different treatments and
b) N2O quantity evolved from rice growth stage
Treatment detail...
Table 4: Comparison of CH4 emission under different
water and nutrient application
Nitrogen fertiliser
applied
Range of CH...
Table 5: Emission coefficient and total methane
emission in various rice-ecosystems
Table 6: Comparison of CH4 emission under different water
and nutrient application
Water
management
Range of CH4 fluxes
(g...
China Zucong et al. (2010)
Note: 100S- 100 kg N ha-1 Ammonium sulphate (S)
300S- 300 kg N ha-1 Ammonium sulphate (S)
100U-...
Note: Solid bar show state wide averages
Error bar show one standard deviation
Punjab Pathak et al. (2012)
Fig.9: Mid seas...
Methane efflux (mg plant-1 day-1)
Treatments 30 DAT 60 DAT 90 DAT 120 DAT Mean
Neem coated urea
(NCU) + DAP
0.27 2.67 4.10...
Growth stage Cultivar
CH4 emission rate
(mg.pot-1h-1) (mg.g-1 plant.h-1)
Tillering
Booting
Flowering
Ripening
IR-72
IR 655...
Fig.10: Seasonal dynamics of (a) CH4 and (b) N2O emissions
from rice paddies.
Table 10: Methane and Nitrous oxide emission by flooded
rice as influenced by fertilizer treatment
Germany SEbastain, D. (...
System of Rice Intensification
(SRI Method)
Table 11: Methane and Nitrous oxide emission by rice as
influenced by establishment techniques
UAS, Raichur Shantappa, D. ...
Table 12: Methane and Nitrous oxide emission by SRI
method of rice as influenced by irrigation method
UAS, Raichur Shantap...
Fig. 12: Methane emission SRI and Modified SRI.
New Delhi Niveta et al., 2013
Fig. 13: Nitrous oxide emission SRI and Modified SRI.
New Delhi Niveta et al., 2013
Table 13: Methane production in different crop establishment
Method of
establishment
Methane efflux (mg plant-1 day-1)
30 ...
Source of nutrient
Total methane production
(kg ha-1)
2012 2013 Pooled
RDF (100 % N through urea) 23.89 26.95 25.42
RDF (1...
Direct Seeded Rice (DSR)
Fig. 11: Global warming potential of transplanted and direct seeded rice
Punjab Pathak et al. (2013)
Fig.12: GWP of rice-wheat system under different conservation
technology
Note: GWP: Global warming Potential, FP-Farmer pr...
Table 15: Comparison of CH4 emission under different
cultivation methods
Method of
establishment
Range of CH4
fluxes
(gm-2...
Canada Snyder et al. (2010)
Fig.13: Effect of nitrogen (Urea) on N2O emission in DSR
Table 16: Methane emission and net reduction (%) in rainfed
rice
Source of Nutrients
Methane emission
(Kg ha-1)
Net Reduct...
Fig. 13: Effect of butachlor on methane efflux from direct seeded rice
Aerobic Rice (AR)
Table 17: Methane and Nitrous oxide emission from
different rice culture
Rice culture
Methane emission
(Mg plant-1 day-1)
...
Source of nutrient
Total methane
production (kg ha-1)
2012 2013 Pooled
RDF (100 % N through urea) 20.80 23.11 21.95
RDF (1...
Table 19: Methane and Nitrous oxide emission by aerobic
rice as influenced by fertilizer treatment
Germany Sebastain, D. (...
Conclusion
Thank you
Fig.1 Potential Impacts of
climate change
Potential
Global
Climate
Change
Impacts
Rise in
temperature
Changes in
Rainfall
...
WAY FORWARD Climate Change and agriculture are inseparably
linked globally, both affecting and influencing each other.
Cli...
Mitigation options for
methane emission from
submerged rice soils
Changing
of rice
cultivation
system
Use
of inorganic
fer...
Rice culture and greenhouse gas emission
Rice culture and greenhouse gas emission
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Rice culture and greenhouse gas emission

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Rice culture and greenhouse gas emission

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Rice culture and greenhouse gas emission

  1. 1. Welcome
  2. 2. Rice cultures and Greenhouse Gas (GHGs) emission: Way forward JAGADISH PHD15AGR5009 1ST Ph.D Dept. of Agronomy
  3. 3. SEQUENCE Of PRESENTATION Introduction Rice cultures and contribute to GHGs Greenhouse gasses(GHGs) Mitigation of GHGs 1. Transplanted rice 2. System of rice intensification 3. Direct seeded rice 4. Aerobic rice Conclusion
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. Impact of climate change and GHGs in Agriculture 1. Reduction in crop yield 2. Shortage of water 3. Irregularities in onset of monsoon, drought, flood and cyclone 4. Rise in sea level 5. Decline in soil fertility 6. Loss of biodiversity 7. Problems of pests, weeds and dieses
  6. 6.  An increase of 2 - 4oC results to 15% reduction in yields  Rainfed and drought prone areas-17 to 40%  Water scarcity affects 23 mha in Asia  Additional CO2 can benefit crops, this effect was nullified by an increase of temperature  May decrease in rice production by 25-30 % yield Impact of climate change on Rice production Note: Food Security of India started shaking because of rice is the lion share in food grain production
  7. 7. Rice culture’s
  8. 8. Transplanting is the most common method of crop establishment for rice in Asia. Rice seedlings grown in a nursery are pulled and transplanted into puddled and levelled fields 15 to 40 days after seeding (DAS). Rice seedlings can either be transplanted manually or by machine. Limitations: 1. Transplanting is tedious and time-consuming 2. Loss water resources 3. Labour requirement is more 1 kg rice = 5000 litre of water Transplanted RICE
  9. 9. DIRECT SEEDED RICE  Around 30% of the total water saved for rice cultivation as compared to puddling and transplanting METHODS OF DIRECT SEEDING: 1. Wet DSR :-  Sprouted seeds on wet puddle soil  Srilanka, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, India 2. Dry DSR:  Dry seeding – Broadcasting or drilling  USA, Punjab, Haryana  30% labour saving, 15-30 % cost saving & 10 - 15 days early harvest 3. Water seeding:  Pre germinated seeds –  broadcasting with machines or aero planes.  USA, Australia.
  10. 10. 8-10 Days (2 leaf stage) nursery Careful uprooting & transplanting Square planting (25X25cm) Weeding with cono weeder Saturation of the field High organic compost System of Rice Intensification
  11. 11. Aerobic rice  Aerobic rice is a production systems in which rice is grown in well-drained, non-puddled and non-saturated soils with appropriate management.  Cultivation fields will not have standing water but maintained at filed capacity  Weed infestation and competition is more severe in aerobic rice compared to transplanted rice. Advantage • Saving of water • Puddling and submergence is not requiring • Nursery and transplanting is not required • Less seed rate Important varieties • Mas-946-1 • MAS-25, 26 • Jaya
  12. 12. Greenhouse Gasses (GHGs)
  13. 13. GHGs and Non-GHGs The major atmospheric constituents 1. Nitrogen (N2) 2. Oxygen (O2) 3. Argon (Ar) 4. Other remaining gases Note: Molecules containing two atoms of the same element Gases that trap in the atmosphere are called GHGs 1. Water vapour 2. CO2 3. Methane 4. Nitrous oxide 5. Fluorinated gases
  14. 14. Source: Economic report (IPCC-2014) Fig.1: Greenhouse gas emission from different sector
  15. 15. Fig. 02: GHGs from agricultural sector Source: Economic report (IPCC-2014)
  16. 16. Greenhouse gases from AGRICULTURE
  17. 17. • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is colourless and odourless. • The density of carbon dioxide is around 1.98 kg/m3, about 1.67 times that of air. • At present (2015): nearly 400 ppm in the atmosphere • Lion share in the GHGs • Source: Organic matter decomposition, Industries, Transport, Burning etc.
  18. 18. Methane (CH4) • Methane (CH4) is the 2nd most prevalent GHGs (Nearly 18%) from human activities. • CH4 is more efficient at trapping radiation than CO2. • Evolved from methonogenesis process • Anaerobic condition type • Agricultural activities, waste management, energy use, and biomass burning all contribute to CH4 emissions. • Agriculture: Rice cultivation
  19. 19. Nitrous oxide (N2O) 3rd most significant greenhouse gas and it contribute to nearly 6 % to GHGs Denitrification process is involved It produces in aerobic soil condition Agricultural activities like fertilizer are the primary source of N2O emissions. Biomass burning also generates N2O
  20. 20. Fig. 3: Contribution of different source to N2O emission
  21. 21. Fig. 04: Relationship between CH4 and N2O emission and redox potential in rice field throughout the season
  22. 22. Fluorinated gases • Fluorinated gases (F-gases) are man-made gases that can stay in the atmosphere for centuries and contribute to a global greenhouse effect. There are four types: 1.Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 2. perfluorocarbons (PFCs), 3. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and 4. Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).
  23. 23. GHGs % Contribution
  24. 24. Table 2: Emission of methane and nitrous oxide (Gg yr-1) from agricultural soils of different major states of India State Methane N2O GWP (CO2) Andra Pradesh 398.96 21.29 16319.76 Bihar 334.77 10.76 11575.59 Chhattisgarh 261.3 4.83 7973.80 Gujarat 64.67 13.45 5625.88 Karnataka 66.49 18.97 7315.27 Source: IPCC report (2014)
  25. 25. Fig. 5: Comparison of Methane and Nitrous oxide emission in Indian scenario West Bengal Bhatia et al. (2014
  26. 26. 1. Ebullition, 2. Diffusion, and 3. Transport through rice plants. Ebullition Dominates during initial period and upon disturbance of soil due to weeding, harrowing etc. Diffusion due to partial pressure difference Transport through rice plants Averaged about 95 and 89% at tillering and PI stages. CH4 escapes from the rice fields to the atmosphere through
  27. 27. a) as a source of substrate for methanogenic bacteria, b) as a conduit for CH4 through aerenchym, and c) as an active CH4 oxidizing-site in rhizosphere by transporting O2 Why methane emission is more in Rice..? The path of CH4 through the rice plant includes a)Diffusion into the root, b) Conversion to gaseous CH4 in the root cortex, c) Diffusion through cortex and aerenchyma, and d) Release to the atmosphere through microspores in the leaf sheaths.
  28. 28. Fig. 5: Schematic diagram of methane production, oxidation and emission from paddy field
  29. 29. 1. Hydrogenotrophic Pathway CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + 2H2O Pathways of Methane Formation 2. Denitrification Pathway
  30. 30. Global Warming Potential: The global warming potential is an index developed to compare the strengths of different GHGs in temperature on a common basis. CO2 equivalent: is used as the reference gas to compare the ability of a GHG to trap atmospheric heat relative to CO2 . Thus, GHG emissions are commonly reported as CO2 equivalents (e.g. in tonnes of CO2 eq.). The GWP is a time integrated factor, thus the GWP for a particular gas depends upon the time period selected. The GWP of agricultural soils may be calculated using equation GWP = CO2 + CH4 x 21 + N2O x 296 (IPCC, 2007) Terms and formula
  31. 31. Instruments needed for collection of gases Gas chamber Dispo van and Needle lock needle Gas Chromatography
  32. 32. Mitigation of Greenhouse gas effect
  33. 33. Transplanted paddy
  34. 34. Table 3: Methane emission by rice as influenced by different irrigation methods Irrigation methods CH4 (mg m-2 day-1) and N2O (µg m-2 day-1) emission (pooled data: 2012-13) Vegetative stage Max. tillering Panicle initiation Maturity stage CH4 N2O CH4 N2O CH4 N2O CH4 N2O Flooding 39.4 69.3 28.7 45.4 61.0 12.6 36.1 7.9 Saturation 33.1 78.0 24.2 54.6 49.5 21.2 32.3 11.7 AWD 21.1 89.1 9.3 67.5 36.0 27.5 10.4 13.0 CD at 5% 1.81 4.27 3.19 6.42 5.74 2.64 3.02 1.75 UAS, Raichur Shantappa, D. (2014)
  35. 35. Fig.6: a) CO2 quantity evolved in different treatments and b) CO2 quantity evolved from rice growth stage Treatment detail C: Control plots without fertilizer A: Organic fertilizer (cow manure) B: Organic fertilizer pellets R: Chemical fertilizer Source: Pantwat (2012) Thailand
  36. 36. Fig.7: a) CH4 quantity evolved in different treatments and b) CH4 quantity evolved from rice growth stage Treatment detail C: Control plots without fertilizer A: Organic fertilizer (cow manure) B: Organic fertilizer pellets R: Chemical fertilizer Source: Pantwat (2012) Thailand
  37. 37. Fig.8: a) N2O quantity evolved in different treatments and b) N2O quantity evolved from rice growth stage Treatment detail C: Control plots without fertilizer A: Organic fertilizer (cow manure) B: Organic fertilizer pellets R: Chemical fertilizer Source: Pantwat (2012) Thailand
  38. 38. Table 4: Comparison of CH4 emission under different water and nutrient application Nitrogen fertiliser applied Range of CH4 fluxes (gm-2 d-1) CH4 emission factor (gm-2 d-1) Comparison (%) Min Max Urea -0.030 0.41 0.22 100 Ammonium sulphate -0.010 0.28 0.18 81.6 Slow released fertilizer -0.001 0.42 0.19 86.1 Korea Soon kuk et al. (2014)
  39. 39. Table 5: Emission coefficient and total methane emission in various rice-ecosystems
  40. 40. Table 6: Comparison of CH4 emission under different water and nutrient application Water management Range of CH4 fluxes (gm-2 d-1) CH4 emission factor (gm-2 d-1) Comparison (%)Min Max Continuous flooding -0.0008 0.43 0.13 100 Intermittent irrigation -0.004 0.30 0.09 69.2 Korea Soon kuk et al. (2014)
  41. 41. China Zucong et al. (2010) Note: 100S- 100 kg N ha-1 Ammonium sulphate (S) 300S- 300 kg N ha-1 Ammonium sulphate (S) 100U- 100 kg N ha-1 Urea (U) 300U- 300 kg N ha-1 Urea (U) Table 7: Methane emission from flooded rice as influenced by different N source
  42. 42. Note: Solid bar show state wide averages Error bar show one standard deviation Punjab Pathak et al. (2012) Fig.9: Mid season drainage reduces GHG emission from transplanted paddy TonsofCO2eperhectare
  43. 43. Methane efflux (mg plant-1 day-1) Treatments 30 DAT 60 DAT 90 DAT 120 DAT Mean Neem coated urea (NCU) + DAP 0.27 2.67 4.10 3.77 2.70 Neem coated urea (NCU) + SSP 0.17 2.36 3.81 3.32 2.41 Ammonium sulphate (AS) + DAP 0.40 2.94 5.23 4.58 3.28 Ammonium sulphate (AS) + SSP 0.34 2.97 4.57 4.32 3.05 Urea + DAP 1.0 5.36 6.29 5.83 4.62 Urea + SSP 0.93 5.19 6.05 5.57 4.43 Table 8: Methane efflux of rice at different growth stages as influenced by slow releasing nitrogenous fertilizers under pot culture experiment
  44. 44. Growth stage Cultivar CH4 emission rate (mg.pot-1h-1) (mg.g-1 plant.h-1) Tillering Booting Flowering Ripening IR-72 IR 65598 Chiyonishiki IR-72 IR 65598 Chiyonishiki IR-72 IR 65598 Chiyonishiki IR-72 IR 65598 Chiyonishiki 0.380 0.304 0.239 1.268 0.707 1.161 1.648 0.979 1.826 2.252 0.664 1.775 0.042 0.040 0.036 0.095 0.061 0.097 0.080 0.065 0.108 0.077 0.032 0.119 Table 9: Methane emission rate of three rice cultivars at four growth stages West Bengal Mandal et al. (2012)
  45. 45. Fig.10: Seasonal dynamics of (a) CH4 and (b) N2O emissions from rice paddies.
  46. 46. Table 10: Methane and Nitrous oxide emission by flooded rice as influenced by fertilizer treatment Germany SEbastain, D. (2015) Fertilizer treatment CH4 (kg CH4 h-1 season-1) and N2O (kg NO2 -1 seaon-1) emission (pooled data: 2012-14) Zero-N Conventional Site specific CH4 N2O CH4 N2O CH4 N2O Sampling period (87 d) 113.78 0.39 75.55 0.64 72.63 1.20 Cropping Period (109 d) 121.92 0.42 86.81 0.99 80.27 1.60
  47. 47. System of Rice Intensification (SRI Method)
  48. 48. Table 11: Methane and Nitrous oxide emission by rice as influenced by establishment techniques UAS, Raichur Shantappa, D. (2014) Establishment technique CH4 (mg m-2 day-1) and N2O (µg m-2 day-1) emission (pooled data: 2012-13) Vegetative stage Max. tillering Panicle initiation Maturity stage CH4 N2O CH4 N2O CH4 N2O CH4 N2O SRI 29.7 81.5 18.2 59.6 41.9 23.1 22.4 11.9 Normal transplanted 32.3 75.7 23.0 53.5 56.2 17.8 28.2 10.0 Mechanised planting 31.7 79.2 20.9 54.4 48.4 20.4 28.1 10.7 CD at 5% NS NS 1.53 NS 2.94 NS 3.51 NS
  49. 49. Table 12: Methane and Nitrous oxide emission by SRI method of rice as influenced by irrigation method UAS, Raichur Shantappa, D. (2014) Irrigation method CH4 (mg m-2 day-1) and N2O (µg m-2 day-1) emission (pooled data: 2012-13) Vegetative stage Max. tillering Panicle initiation Maturity stage CH4 N2O CH4 N2O CH4 N2O CH4 N2O Flooding 29.45 74.15 23.0 52.5 42.9 17.85 26.3 9.9 Saturation 26.35 79.15 19.2 57.1 40.45 22.15 24.4 23.6 AWD 17.65 84.2 11.75 63.5 28.2 14.25 14.45 12.45
  50. 50. Fig. 12: Methane emission SRI and Modified SRI. New Delhi Niveta et al., 2013
  51. 51. Fig. 13: Nitrous oxide emission SRI and Modified SRI. New Delhi Niveta et al., 2013
  52. 52. Table 13: Methane production in different crop establishment Method of establishment Methane efflux (mg plant-1 day-1) 30 DAT 60 DAT 90 DAT 120 DAT Mean Transplanted paddy 0.71 6.13 6.25 6.02 4.77 (100 %) SRI 0.54 4.24 4.42 4.08 3.32 (69.60 %)
  53. 53. Source of nutrient Total methane production (kg ha-1) 2012 2013 Pooled RDF (100 % N through urea) 23.89 26.95 25.42 RDF (100 % N through neem coated urea) 22.30 24.79 23.55 50 % N through paddy straw incorporation + 50 % N through urea + Rec. P & K 31.01 34.22 32.62 50 % N through FYM + 50 % N through urea + Rec. P & K 26.83 29.88 28.35 50 % N through In-situ green manuring (Sunhemp) + 50 % N through urea + Rec. P & K 28.72 32.08 30.40 Table 14: effect of source of nutrient on methane production (Kg ha-1) from SRI UAS, Bengaluru Suresh Naik (2014)
  54. 54. Direct Seeded Rice (DSR)
  55. 55. Fig. 11: Global warming potential of transplanted and direct seeded rice Punjab Pathak et al. (2013)
  56. 56. Fig.12: GWP of rice-wheat system under different conservation technology Note: GWP: Global warming Potential, FP-Farmer practice, Mid drain: Mid season drainage, ZT: Zero-tillage, DSR: Direct seeded rice Punjab Pathak et al. (2013)
  57. 57. Table 15: Comparison of CH4 emission under different cultivation methods Method of establishment Range of CH4 fluxes (gm-2 d-1) CH4 emission factor (gm-2 d-1) Comparison (%) Min Max Dry DSR -0.031 0.59 0.17 64.0 Wet DSR 0.003 0.66 0.23 84.0 Transplanting (30 days seedlings) 0.011 0.76 0.31 94.6 Korea Soon kuk et al. (2014)
  58. 58. Canada Snyder et al. (2010) Fig.13: Effect of nitrogen (Urea) on N2O emission in DSR
  59. 59. Table 16: Methane emission and net reduction (%) in rainfed rice Source of Nutrients Methane emission (Kg ha-1) Net Reduction (%) Rice straw 92.10 - Compost 65.87 34.13 Azolla 68.45 25.3 Nitrate inhibitor 61.66 33.1 Tablet urea 45.47 50.62 Cuttack (Orissa) Wassmann et al. (2011)
  60. 60. Fig. 13: Effect of butachlor on methane efflux from direct seeded rice
  61. 61. Aerobic Rice (AR)
  62. 62. Table 17: Methane and Nitrous oxide emission from different rice culture Rice culture Methane emission (Mg plant-1 day-1) N2O emission (µg plant-1 day-1) Transplanted rice 24.0 9.14 SRI 21.8 11.9 Aerobic rice 12.31 14.47 Bengaluru Jayadeva et al,. 2009
  63. 63. Source of nutrient Total methane production (kg ha-1) 2012 2013 Pooled RDF (100 % N through urea) 20.80 23.11 21.95 RDF (100 % N through neem coated urea) 18.73 20.56 19.56 50 % N through paddy straw incorporation + 50 % N through urea + Rec. P & K 27.02 31.10 29.06 50 % N through FYM + 50 % N through urea + Rec. P & K 22.87 25.31 24.09 50 % N through In-situ green manuring (Sunhemp) + 50 % N through urea + Rec. P & K 24.82 27.77 26.29 Table 18: Effect of source of nutrient on methane production (Kg ha-1) from Aerobic Rice UAS, Bengaluru Suresh Naik (2014)
  64. 64. Table 19: Methane and Nitrous oxide emission by aerobic rice as influenced by fertilizer treatment Germany Sebastain, D. (2015) Fertilizer treatment CH4 (kg CH4 h-1 season-1) and N2O (kg NO2 -1 seaon-1) emission (pooled data: 2012-14) Zero-N Conventional Site specific CH4 N2O CH4 N2O CH4 N2O Sampling period (87 d) 4.66 0.57 4.84 1.04 5.2 1.82 Cropping Period (109 d) 4.96 0.66 5.41 1.57 5.28 2.27
  65. 65. Conclusion
  66. 66. Thank you
  67. 67. Fig.1 Potential Impacts of climate change Potential Global Climate Change Impacts Rise in temperature Changes in Rainfall Sea Level Rise Agriculture Health Forest Water Resources Coastal Area Land Weather Related mortality Infectious Diseases Respiratory problems Crop Yields Irrigation Demands Forest Composition Forest Health Water Quality Water Supply Competition for Water Erosion of beaches Inundation of coastal land Loss of Habitat Biodiversity Erosion
  68. 68. WAY FORWARD Climate Change and agriculture are inseparably linked globally, both affecting and influencing each other. Climate Change influences the crop yield and quality, fertility status of soil and may pose a serious threat to food and nutritional security. The challenge for Indian agriculture is to adopt to potential changes in temperature and precipitation and to extreme events without compromising productivity and food security. Though the efforts are going on to develop strategies to mitigate the negative impact of Climate Change and research in new directions are being carried out, more emphasis is required to make sufficient investments to support Climate Change adaptation and mitigation policies, technology development and dissemination of information19 .
  69. 69. Mitigation options for methane emission from submerged rice soils Changing of rice cultivation system Use of inorganic fertilizers Terminal electron acceptors Maintaining The higher redox potential Cultural practicesWater management Use of rice varieties Fig Important mitigation options for methane emission in submerged rice soils

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