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Agronomy: Precision water management in different rice ecosystems

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Agronomy: Precision water management in different rice ecosystems

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Agronomy: Precision water management in different rice ecosystems

  1. 1. WelcomeWelcome
  2. 2. JAGADISH PHD15AGR5009 1ST Ph.D Dept. of Agronomy UAS, Raichur, KAR
  3. 3. SEQUENCE Of PRESENTATION Introduction Importance of water in rice production Water management 1. Transplanted rice 2. Direct seeded rice 3. Aerobic rice 4. System of rice intensification 5. Auto-irrigation Conclusion
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION
  5. 5.  Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) is an annual grass that evolved from a semi-aquatic ancestor.  Rice (Oryza sativa L.), most important staple food crop and primary source of food for more than half of the world’s population.  Rice consumes around 4000-5000 litres of water to produce one kg grain, which is three times higher than other cereals (Anon., 2014).  The shrinking water resources and competition from other sectors will decrease the share of water allocated to irrigation by 10 to 15 per cent in the next two decades.
  6. 6. World rice production (Mt)World rice production (Mt)
  7. 7. Share of different StatS rice production in india Share of different StatS rice production in india
  8. 8. Source: Report on Commodity Profile for Rice-January- 2015 Fig. 1: Major Rice exporting countriesFig. 1: Major Rice exporting countries
  9. 9. World’s Water Usage Total Water : 1,400 million km3 Fresh Water : 2.53% (35 million km3 ) Usage in (%) World Europe Africa India Agriculture 69 33 88 82 Industry 23 54 5 12 Domestic use 8 13 7 6
  10. 10. DO WE HAVE ENOUGH WATER ? • India stands 7th in the world (fresh water). • India heading towards water scarce situation YEAR PER CAPITA AVAILABILITY, CU M 1994 2280 2025 1500 2050 1270 Anon., 14
  11. 11. WATER CHALLENGES  Degradation of existing water supplies  Degradation of irrigated crop land  Ground water depletion  Increasing pollution / declining water quality  Trans boundary water disputes
  12. 12. 1985 GROUND WATER SCENARIO Study area: Part of Kolar A) No. of bore well intensity
  13. 13. 1995
  14. 14. 2005
  15. 15. 2010 Total 935 borewells: - 707 in use - 228 not used
  16. 16. 1970s' B) Ground water depilation
  17. 17. 1990s'
  18. 18. 2020’ s
  19. 19. NO WATER=NO CROPS If no solution…. …in 2050
  20. 20. “More crop per drop of water” Precision water management is necessary Precision water management is necessary
  21. 21. Precision Water Management • Precision Water Management is the process of determining and controlling the volume, frequency and application rate of irrigation water in a planned and efficient manner. • Precision water management principle’s Right Method Right Time Right Quantity Right Crop
  22. 22. Ways to produce “more with less water” ?? Selection of a good genotype Method of establishment Weed management Selection of a good genotype Method of establishment Weed management Nutrient management Seed priming Silicon nutrition Nutrient management Seed priming Silicon nutrition
  23. 23. Important FormulaeImportant Formulae Where, WUE- Water use efficiency Total water = Irrigation water + Rainfall + Soil moisture contribution Water productivity (kg grain m-3 ) = Grain yield (Kg) Volume of water used (m3 ) Water saving ( % ) = Water applied in flooded plot - Water applied in treated plot X 100 Water applied in flooded plot
  24. 24. TRANSPLANTED RICE (TPR)
  25. 25. Treatments Grain yield (t/ha) Total water use (cm) Average total water used (cm) Water use efficiency (kg/ha/cm) T1 6.62 122.20 117.2 58.53 T2 6.49 97.20 94.7 69.48 T3 6.60 92.20 89.7 69.89 T4 5.86 87.20 84.7 69.19 LSD 0.3 -- -- -- Note: T1: Submargence condition (7cm), T2, T3 and T4: Application of 5 cm irrigation water when water level in the pipe fell 10, 20 and 30 cm below the G.L, respectively Gazipur, Banladesh Oliver et al. (2008) Gazipur, Banladesh Oliver et al. (2008) Table 1: Grain yield, total water use and water use efficiency for different treatments of paddy Table 1: Grain yield, total water use and water use efficiency for different treatments of paddy
  26. 26. Table 2: Alternate Wet and Dry Irrigation (AWDI) as an Alternative to the Conventional Water Management Practices in Rice Farming Irrigation methods Age of seedling (days) Grain yield (t/ha) Water supplied (m3 ) Water productivity (kg m-3 ) AWD 14 7.35 17.7 1.70 21 7.05 34.8 1.65 Conventional 14 7.90 23.9 1.35 21 7.65 42.3 1.25 LSD at 0.05 0.95 -- 0.30. Canada Tejendra and Riseman (2011)Canada Tejendra and Riseman (2011) Note: AWDI: Alternate wetting and drying Note: AWDI: Alternate wetting and drying
  27. 27. Table 3: Grain yield, straw yield and WUE of paddy as influenced by different moisture regimes Moisture regimes Grain yield (t/ha) Straw yield (t/ha) Water used WUE (kg/ha-cm) 1998 1999 Pooled 1998 1999 Pooled pooled Pooled UAS package 5.43 5.39 5.41 6.30 6.58 6.44 121.5 45.0 0-5 cm cyclic submergence 6.55 516 5.86 5.89 6.41 6.65 108.8 54.0 Field capacity to saturation 6.10 4.10 5.10 6.94 5.39 6.17 82.0 62.0 S.Em.+ 0.17 0.21 0.15 0.38 0.52 0.27 -- 1.36 CD (p=0.05) 0.66 0.83 0.60 NS NS NS -- 5.36 UAS package- Maintaining 2.5 cm submergence upto 20 DAT, later on 5 cm submergence till 15 days before harvest. 0-5 cm cyclic submergence – 5 cm submergence -immediately after disappearance of ponded water ARS, Kathalagere, Red sandy clay loam Ganesh (2001)
  28. 28. Table 4: Grain yield, straw yield, Total water and WUE with response of rice to different irrigation schedules (mean data of 2 years) Treatments Grain yield (kg/ha) Straw yield (kg/ha) Total field water supply (ha-mm) water use efficiency (kg/ha-mm) Irrigation maintain daily (5 cm) 4140 4630 1417 2.99 Irrigation once in 2 days 4011 4410 1244 3.22 Irrigation once in 4 days 3710 3960 809 4.58 Irrigation once in 5 days 3950 4130 678 4.95 Irrigation once in 6 days 3320 3460 663 4.56 Irrigation once in 7 days 3610 3920 1135 3.18 CD (p=0.05) 230 280 -- -- RARS, ANGRAU, Red sandy loam soil Avil Kumar et al. (2006)
  29. 29. Table 5: Effect of irrigation regime on rice grain yield, total water requirement and water use efficiency Treatments Grain yield (t/ha) TWR (cm) WUE (kg/ha-cm) Continuous submergence 5 + 2 cm water 5.3 154 31 Application of 5 cm water 1 DADPW 6.0 129 38 Application of 5 cm water 3 DADPW 3.3 90 32 Cyclic submergence of 5 cm water 2 DADPW during non critical and shallow submergence of 3 cm water during critical stages 4.5 109 37 LSD (p=0.05) 0.5 - - Note: DADPW- Days after disappearance of ponded water, TWR- Total Water Requirement, WUE-Water use efficiency TNAU Ramamoorthy et al. (2013)
  30. 30. Methods of irrigation Grain yield (q ha-1 ) Straw yield (q ha-1 ) WUE (kg/ha-mm) KRH-2 Rasi KRH-2 Rasi Drip irrigation 56.8 54.0 62.4 61.7 98.14 Semi irrigated paddy 54.8 49.0 60.3 58.6 64.21 mean 55.8 51.5 61.4 60.1 --- Table 6: Grain yield and Water Use Efficiency of rice genotypes as influenced by methods irrigation and ‘N’ sources UAS, Bengaluru. Puspa, (2006)
  31. 31. DIRECT SEEDED RICE
  32. 32. DIRECT SEEDED RICE  Around 30% of the total water saved for rice cultivation as compared to puddling and transplanting METHODS OF DIRECT SEEDING: 1. Wet DSR :-  Sprouted seeds on wet puddle soil  Srilanka, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, India 2. Dry DSR: 1. Dry seeding – Broadcasting or drilling 2. USA, Punjab, Haryana 3. 30% labour saving, 15-30 % cost saving & 10- 15 days early harvest 3. Water seeding:  Pre germinated seeds –  broadcasting with machines or aero planes.  USA, Australia.
  33. 33. Grain yield (t ha−1 ) and Irrigation water productivity (WPi) as affected by different establishment methods A B Note: PTR: Puddled Transplanted Rice, DSR: Direct seeded Rice Australia Sudhir et al. (2011)
  34. 34. Table 7: Effect of irrigation schedule on grain yield, straw yield and WUE of upland rice (mean of 2 years) Treatment Grain yield (kg/ha) Straw yield (kg/ha) Irrigation water applied (cm) CU (cm) Water use efficiency (kg/ha-cm) CGS 2163 2648 62 53.8 40.20 0.6 IW/CPE 2055 2663 56 48.7 42.19 1.5 IW/CPE 2431 2990 68 58.9 41.19 1.8 IW/CPE 2499 3026 80 69.1 36.16 S.Em.+ 17.0 23.0 - - - CD (p=0.05) 51.0 69.0 - - - UPRS, Parbhani, Medium black Jadhav et al. (2013 Note: CGS- Critical growth stages
  35. 35. Table 8: Water requirement, response to irrigation and water use efficiency as affected by different treatments Treatment Grain yield (q/ha) Profile moisture (∆M) (cm) WR (ER+I+∆M) WUE (kg/ha-cm) R 24.7 -0.86 54.95 44.94 S 31.5 -1.08 66.98 46.95 Rf + Sw 26.1 -2.38 72.03 36.23 Swf + R 30.3 -1.58 73.72 41.10 Sw 28.9 -3.38 80.12 36.07 CD (P=0.05) 1.35 R - Rainfed throughout S - Saturation throughout Rf + Sw -Rainfed upto flowering, followed by 3-5cm standing water up to ripening Swf + R - standing water (3-5cm) upto flowering and rainfed till ripening Sw - 3-5cm continuous standing water Bhubaneswar, Sandy loam soil Patjoshi and Lenka, (2014)
  36. 36. Table 9: Effect of sprinkler irrigation treatments on yield and crop water productivity of DSR Table 9: Effect of sprinkler irrigation treatments on yield and crop water productivity of DSR Treatments Yield (kg/ha) Volume of water applied (m3 /ha) Water saving (%) water productivity (kg grain-m-3 ) T1 (91%ETc) 3031 4552 65 0.67 T2 (100%ETc) 3257 4987 62 0.65 T3 (109%ETc) 3359 5434 58 0.62 T4 (261%ETc) Basin irrigation 2562 13020 -- 0.2 CD (P=0.05) 267 -- -- -- Kahlown et al. (2007)Lahore(Pakistan)
  37. 37. Table 9: Effect of different establishment techniques on yield and water productivity of rice Ludiyana, Punjab Gill and walia, (2014)Ludiyana, Punjab Gill and walia, (2014)
  38. 38. AEROBIC RICE
  39. 39. Aerobic riceAerobic rice  Aerobic rice is a production systems in which rice is grown in well-drained, non-puddled and non-saturated soils with appropriate management.  Cultivation fields will not have standing water but maintained at filed capacity  Weed infestation and competition is more severe in aerobic rice compared to transplanted rice. Advantage – Saving of water – Puddling and submergence is not requiring – Nursery and transplanting is not required – Less seed rate Important varieties – Mas-946-1 – MAS-25, 26 – Jaya
  40. 40. T1: Irrigation at 1.5 Epan throughout growth stages, T2: Irrigation at 2.0 Epan throughout growth stages T3: Irrigation at 1.25 Epan up to tillering and 1.5 Epan from tillering to harvest T4: Irrigation at 1.25 Epan up to tillering and 2.0 Epan from tillering to harvest T5: Irrigation at 1.5 Epan up to tillering and 1.5 Epan from tillering to harvest T6: Irrigation at 1.25 Epan up to tillering and 1.5 Epan from tillering to panicle emergence and 2.0 Epan from panicle emergence to maturity T7: Surface irrigated puddled transplanted rice T1: Irrigation at 1.5 Epan throughout growth stages, T2: Irrigation at 2.0 Epan throughout growth stages T3: Irrigation at 1.25 Epan up to tillering and 1.5 Epan from tillering to harvest T4: Irrigation at 1.25 Epan up to tillering and 2.0 Epan from tillering to harvest T5: Irrigation at 1.5 Epan up to tillering and 1.5 Epan from tillering to harvest T6: Irrigation at 1.25 Epan up to tillering and 1.5 Epan from tillering to panicle emergence and 2.0 Epan from panicle emergence to maturity T7: Surface irrigated puddled transplanted rice Treatments Research title: Influence of drip irrigation scheduling on growth and yield of direct seeded Aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) Anusha, et al. (2015) Variety: KRH-4, Irrigation method: Drip irrigation
  41. 41. Treatments Grain yield (kg/ha) Straw yield (kg/ha) Total water used (mm) WUE (kg/ha/mm) Water saved (%) T1 7084 8438 1159.96 6.11 52.18 T2 12048 13734 1479.68 8.14 39.00 T3 6945 8274 1102.22 6.30 54.56 T4 11929 13599 1306.46 9.04 46.14 T5 11973 13647 1364.20 8.74 43.76 T6 11806 13469 1172.38 10.18 51.67 T7 8254 10648 2425.80 3.40 -- CD (P=0.05) 2540.5 2700 -- -- -- UAS, Bengaluru Anusha et al., (2015) Table 11: Grain yield, straw yield, total water used, WUE and water saving in aerobic rice as influenced by different irrigation scheduling. Table 11: Grain yield, straw yield, total water used, WUE and water saving in aerobic rice as influenced by different irrigation scheduling.
  42. 42. Table 12: Grain & straw yield, Total water used (mm) and water use efficiency (Kg-ha cm-1 ) of aerobic rice as influenced by different weed management practices Treatments Grain yield (kg ha-1 ) Straw yield (kg ha-1 ) Total water used IR+ER (mm) Water use efficiency (kg ha-cm-1 ) T1: Weed free check 10615 20037 644.6 164.66 T2: Weedy check 1101 1865 644.6 17.07 T3: Two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS 7563 14556 644.6 117.32 T4: Hand hoeing at 15, 30 and 45 DAS 8308 17124 644.6 128.88 T5: One hand hoeing at 15 DAS and one HW at 20 DAS 5727 13390 644.6 88.84 T6: One HW at 20 DAS and mulching with Glyricidia at 30 DAS 8009 16009 644.6 124.24 T7: Pre-emergent application Pretilachlor + Bensulfuran methyl 5386 11759 644.6 83.55 T8: Pre-emergent application of Pretilachlor + Bensulfuran methyl and Post emergent application of Bispyribac sodium at 20 DAS 7662 15279 644.6 118.87 T9: T7 through herbigation (Drip) 8194 16396 644.6 127.12 T10: T8 through herbigation (Drip) 9892 18063 644.6 153.45 S.Em.± 416 490 -- 6.43 CD (P=0.05) 1238 1457 -- 19.20 UAS, Bengaluru Jagadish and Thimme Gowda, 2015
  43. 43. Table 13: Total water used, grain & straw yield and water productivity of aerobic rice at different scheduling of irrigation Table 13: Total water used, grain & straw yield and water productivity of aerobic rice at different scheduling of irrigation Treatments No. of Irrigations Total water used (mm) Yield (kg/ha) Water productivity (kg / ha-mm)Grain Straw IW/CPE ratio 0.8 15 598 4289 6823 8.55 IW/CPE ratio 1.0 18 556 4776 7624 8.58 IW/CPE ratio 1.2 21 618 4916 7804 7.95 Micro sprinkler 25 659 1888 2948 2.86 CD (P=0.05) 697 875 -- TNAU Maheswari et al., (2007)
  44. 44. Table 14: Effect of irrigation schedules on total water used, water use efficiency and benefit: cost ratio of aerobic rice (average of two years) Treatment Grain and straw yield (t/ha) Total water used (cm) Water use efficiency (kg grain/ ha-cm) B:C ratio IW/CPE ratio 2.5 6.40 7.78 154.79 41.31 2.57 IW/CPE ratio 2.0 6.22 7.40 138.24 45.04 2.53 IW/CPE ratio 1.5 5.10 5.68 111.02 45.91 2.00 IW/CPE ratio 1.0 4.78 5.22 91.84 52.09 1.72 S.Em.+ 0.06 0.08 - - 0.02 CD (5%) 0.20 0.24 - - 0.05 ZARS, VC Farm, Mandya, Red sandy loam (Shekara, 2008)
  45. 45. SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI)
  46. 46. SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI) METHOD • SRI was developed in Madagascar in the early-1980s by Father Henri de Laulanie • Formal experimentation started in India 2002-2003
  47. 47. 8-10 Days (2 leaf stage) nursery Careful uprooting & transplanting Wider spacing(25X25cm) Weeding with weeder Saturation of the field Use of Organics
  48. 48. Water (irrigation and rainfall) used and (B) water productivity in SRI and control rice crops IRRI Gujju and Thiyagarajan, 2014IRRI Gujju and Thiyagarajan, 2014
  49. 49. Treatments Grain yield(kg/ha) Total water (mm) WUE (kg/ha-mm) T1 4428 757 5.8 T2 4522 757 5.9 T3 5273 757 6.9 T4 6138 757 8.1 T5 6538 757 8.6 Table 15: Effect of different fertigation treatments on grain yield and WUE of SRI method of rice Table 15: Effect of different fertigation treatments on grain yield and WUE of SRI method of rice Vijaykumar (2009)Madurai, TN T1- Soil application of recommended dose of fertilizer T2-RDF of recommended N & K (P as basal) T3- RDF of 50% of recommended P&K – 50% as basal + balance NPK as WSF + LBF + humic acid T4- RDF of 75% of recommended P&K – 50% as basal + balance NPK as WSF + LBF + humic acid T5- RDF of 100% of recommended P&K – 50% as basal + balance NPK as WSF + LBF + humic acid (RDF- 150:60:60 kg NPK/ha)
  50. 50. Table 16: Grain yield, water used and water productivity of different rice establishment methods Method of Establishment Grain yield (t/ha) Total water used (m3 ) Water productivity (kg/m3 ) Water saved (%) Conventional method 10.66 257.78 0.81 -- SRI 14.85 231.00 1.54 24 CD (P=0.05) 0.68 -- -- -- Kenya Nyamai et al. (2012)Kenya Nyamai et al. (2012)
  51. 51. Treatment Grain yield (Kg ha-1 ) Total water used (WR+RF) cm WUE (kg ha-cm-1 ) T1–Zero till sowing 4261.01 92.13 46.25 T2 –Aerobic method 5225.98 108.92 47.98 T3 –SRI method 5436.02 125.11 46.45 T4 –Drum seeding 5202.22 156.93 33.15 T5 –Self propelled mechanical transplanting 5032.74 156.93 32.07 T6 –Hand transplanting 4814.61 156.93 30.68 S.E m. ± 89.42 - 1.78 C.D. at 5% 268.27 - 5.38 Table 17: Water use and water use efficiency as influenced by different establishment systems UAS, GKVK Vijay Mahantesh, 2009UAS, GKVK Vijay Mahantesh, 2009
  52. 52. • Alternate wetting and drying (AWD): 15-30% • Direct seeded rice: 75% • Aerobic rice: 40-50% • System of rice Intensification (SRI): 30-40% • Alternate wetting and drying (AWD): 15-30% • Direct seeded rice: 75% • Aerobic rice: 40-50% • System of rice Intensification (SRI): 30-40%
  53. 53. Automation of irrigation
  54. 54. An Automated Irrigation System for Rice Cropping with Remote Supervision Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the proposed automation system Brazil Pfitscher et al. (2013)Brazil Pfitscher et al. (2013)
  55. 55. Fig.4: a) Scheme of water level sensor installation. b) Work scheme of electrical drives. Fig.4: a) Scheme of water level sensor installation. b) Work scheme of electrical drives.
  56. 56. Remote Sensing and Control of an Irrigation System Using a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Remote Sensing and Control of an Irrigation System Using a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Fig. 5. Conceptual system layout of in-field wireless sensor network for site- specific irrigation. Sidney, Australia Kim, (2008)
  57. 57. Alternate wetting and drying is the improved and efficient irrigation method over submergence of paddy. Irrigation scheduling at IW/CPE 0.6-1.0 was found to be effective to enhance rice productivity. Application of irrigation water through drip is the most economically and environmentally sound in aerobic rice System of Rice Intensification method rice cultivation can save irrigation water up to 30 % in addition to yield improvement. Automation in irrigation can address the water, labour and time constraints in agriculture Conclusion:
  58. 58. Save water, Save Rice Thank youThank you

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