CULTURAL CONCERNS IN NURSING Presented by:Jade Kaniowski, Lacey Kelley, Heather Kyle, Laura Lindsey, Kimberly Peters
Cultural Concerns in NursingBeing aware of or inquiring about a personscultural or religious beliefs with respect tomedical care can help nurses avoid causingcultural pain to patients. These concerns mustbe a priority when caring for patients and mustbe respected in order to gain a patient’s trustand to be able to holistically care for them.Caring for patients not only focuses on thephysical aspect of health, but must also includethe mind and spirit as well.
CultureShared system of beliefs, values, and behavioralexpectations that provide social structure fordaily living.
Cultural DiversityIt is the cultural variety and differences thatexist in the world, a society or an institution. Itis having a group of diverse people in one place.People working or living together that havedifferent cultures.
Cultural SensitivityBeing aware that cultural differences and similaritiesexist and that they can have an effect ofbehavior, values and learning. It also means to beaware and tolerant of these differences andacknowledging them when interacting with others.
StereotypingCategorizing individuals or groups of people into anoversimplified or standardized image or idea. It’swhen you assume that a belief or characteristic isshared by all in one class, culture or ethic group.
Cultural bias To give an advantage to one cultural overanother. To ignore the differences betweencultures and impose understanding based onthe study of one culture to other cultures. Tothink one culture has precedence of the other.
Cultural Influences on Healthcare• Physiologic Characteristics• Psychological Characteristics• Reactions to Pain• Gender roles• Language and communication• Orientation to space and time• Food and nutrition• Socioeconomic Factors
Physiologic CharacteristicsCertain racial groups are more prone to specific diseasesand conditions.Examples include:• Keloids• Lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance• Sickle cell anemia
Psychological CharacteristicsIn most situations, a person interprets thebehaviors of another person in terms of her orhis own familiar culture.
Reactions to PainHealthcare researchers have discovered that many of the expressionsand behaviors exhibited by people in pain are culturally prescribed.Nursing care for patients in pain should be individualized, butimportant culture-sensitive considerations include the following:• Recognize that culture is an important component of individuality and that each person holds various beliefs about pain• Respect the patient’s right to respond to pain in whatever manner is culturally and individually appropriate• Never stereotype a patient’s perceptions or responses to pain based on the persons culture
Gender rolesIn many cultures either the man or woman is thedominant figure and generally makes decisions forthe family.Knowing who is the dominant member of the familyis an important consideration when planningnursing care.
Language and communication• To avoid misinterpretation of questions and answers, it is important to use an interpreter who understands the healthcare system.• When caring for culturally and ethnically diverse patients it is important to perform a transcultural assessment of communication.
Orientation to space and time• Personal space is the area around a person regarded as part of the person. This area, individualized to each person and to different cultures and ethnic groups, is the area others should not intrude during personal interactions.• Different cultures vary in being future, present, or past oriented.
Food and nutritionFood preferences and how foods are preparedare often related to culture. Patients in ahospital or long term care often do not have achoice in foods. This can be a cause for weightand health changes in a patient.
Socioeconomic FactorsResearch suggests that both physical and mentalhealth are associated with Socioeconomicstatus(SES). In particular, studies suggest that lowerSES is linked to poorer health outcomes. Poorhealth may in turn decrease an individual’s capacityto work, thus reducing their ability to improve theirSES.
CULTURALLY COMPETENT NURSING CAREProviding culturally competent care means thatcare is planned and implemented in a way that issensitive to the needs of individuals, families, andgroups from a diverse populations within society.• Cultural assessment• Guidelines for care
Cultural assessmentWhen caring for patients from a differentculture, it is important to find out how theywant to be treated based on their cultural valuesand beliefs. An effective way to identify specificfactors that influence a patient’s behavior is toperform a cultural assessment.
Guidelines for CareCultural competency is a process and takes time. It involves developingawareness, acquiring knowledge, and practicing skills. As defined byCampinha-Bacote (2003), the nurses should answer the followingquestions when caring for culturally diverse patients:• Am I aware of my personal biases and prejudices toward cultural groups different from mine?• Do I have the skill to conduct a cultural assessment in a sensitive manner?• Do I have knowledge of the patient’s worldview?• How many encounters have I had with patients from diverse cultural backgrounds?• What is my genuine desire to be culturally competent?
Links to Learn More…• http://www.culturediversity.org/index.html• http://www.apa.org/about/gr/issues/socioeco nomic/ses-health.aspx• http://www.barnesjewish.org/about/diversity
ReferencesFernandez, V. M., & Fernandez, K. M. (2011, November 05). Transcultural nursing: Basicconcepts and case studies. Retrieved from http://www.culturediversity.org/index.htmlDavidhizar, R., & Giger, J. (2004). A review of the literature on care of clients in painwho are culturally diverse. International Nursing Review, 51(1), 47-55.Paniagua, C. T., & Taylor, R. E. (2008). The Cultural Lens of Genomics. Online Journal Of Issues InNursing, 13(1), 2.Parikh, A. (2008). Cultural assessment manual. Retrieved from http://www.dbhds.virginia.gov/2008CLC/documents/clc-Trn-AmieParikh-revis-cult- assess.pdfhttp://www.apa.org/about/gr/issues/socioeconomic/ses-health.aspxLillis, C., & Taylor, C. R. (2008). Fundamentals of nursing, the art and science of nursing care. (6th ed.). New York, NY: Lippincott Williams & Wilkind.