Module One: Life Processes in Plants and Animals Paper One Sian Ferguson
• Homeostasis is the process of maintaining the ideal internal conditions (i.e. correct temperature, right amount of water and glucose & other solutes) for the body to work at it’s optimum.• Excretion is the process of removing metabolic waste products and other toxins.• Osmoregulation is maintaining the correct balance between water and solutes.• Excretion, which includes osmoregulation, is thus extremely important in maintaining homeostasis.• Secretion is the release of useful substances, e.g. hormones, from the body. Thus, it is not excretion. Egestion, i.e. defecation, is also not excretion.
• Certain waste products would become highly toxic if they were to accumulate. This could damage tissues.• An excess of water could also lead to a number of complications.• Thus, the waste products must be removed – they continually move into the bloodstream, which carries them to the excretory organs.
Raw Materials (Food and 02) Useful MaterialsUseless MaterialsEgested (faeces) Metabolised Metabolic Waste Useful Products Products (urea and CO2) Excreted
• There are four main excretory organs: – Lungs – Colon – Skin – Kidneys• The liver is not an excretory organ, but produces many products which are excreted elsewhere. Toxins and drugs as well as alcohol, is broken down in the liver. Hence, an excess of smoking, medication and alcohol is extremely harmful to the liver.
• The carbon dioxide released from cellular respiration is carried to the lungs in the blood. It then diffuses across the respiratory membrane and is exhaled.• A small amount of heat and water is excreted this way.• Bile pigments, from the break down of haemoglobin, and cholesterol are synthesised in the liver.• They pass into the small intestine as bile and are finally excreted in the faeces as bile salts, from the colon.• Mucus and bacteria are too excreted through the colon.
• Sweat, which is excreted through the skin, contains water, salts and some urea.• As the water in the sweat is excreted, heat is lost and the body is cooled.• Sweat is a form of excretion as it rids the body of waste, as well as a form of secretion as it maintains the body temperature.
• When amino acids and nucleic acids are broken down, nitrogenous wastes are released as ammonia, urea, uric acid and creatinine. Ammonia is toxic if it accumulates and is therefore converted to less toxic urea in the liver.• The following substances are made in the liver and excreted by the kidneys: – Urea, the main nitrogenous waste compound secreted. It is formed by the breakdown of excess amino acids in the process of deamination. – Uric acid, the nitrogenous end product of nucleic acid metabolism. – Creatinine is formed from creatinine phosphate, found in the muscle cells. – Non-nitrogenous waste, e.g. CO2, excess water, ions, hormones, poisons and drugs.
• The main function of the urinary system is to maintain homeostasis by regulating the volume and concentration of body fluids. It filters and reabsorbs certain materials from the blood.• The urinary system is made up of the following parts: A) Two kidneys B) A bladder C) An urethra
• The kidneys aid in: – excretion as they filter waste out of the blood – regulate the water and salt balance in the body. – One kidney – the right kidney – is slightly lower than the left as it is pushed down by the liver, which is larger on the right.• Each kidney contains: – A renal artery (a branch of the abdominal aorta), which carries waste products to the kidney and supplies the kidneys with oxygen and nutrients. – A renal vein that contains the purest blood in the body. It carries CO2 to the inferior vena cava. – Ureter that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
• Stores urine• Is stimulated by impulses from a motor nerve, to contract to expel the urine.• Has sphincter muscles at the base to control the flow of urine• Carries urine from the bladder to outside the body
AortaAdrenal Gland Carries oxygenated blood,Regulates Salt food and waste from the heart Renal ArteryRenal Vein Carries blood from body toCarries blood from kidneys kidneysto inferior vena cava Kidney Excretory andInferior vena cava osmoregulatory organ.Carries deoxygenated blood Ureterand other substances back Carries urine fromto the heart kidneys to bladder Motor Nerve Stimulates bladder nerve Bladder Stores urine Urethra Carries urine from bladder to outside the body
• Found in abdominal cavity below the diaphragm, near the posterior, on either side of the vertebral column.• Kept in position with connective tissue, the peritoneum, as well as renal blood vessels. They are wedged in with other organs.• Externally they are bean-shaped, dark red and the size of a large bar of soap.• The inner, concave border is called the hilum.• Surrounded by three layers of protective tissue: – A tough, fibrous renal capsule on the surface protects them from disease. – A middle layer of adipose tissue cushions them against blows. – An outer layer of fibrous connective tissue, the renal fascia, anchors the kidneys to surrounding structures.
NephronRenal CapsuleProtects kidneyPapillaTips of each pyramid, fits into calyxRenal arteryCarries blood to kidneysRenal veinCarries blood fromkidneysPyramidMade up of collecting ductsCalyxCollects urine from collecting ductsMedullaMade up of pyramidsUreterCarries urine from pelvis tobladder for storage
The kidney needs to have a constant supply of blood in order tocontrol the composition of body fluids.• The renal artery, a branch from the aorta, enters the kidney at the hilum. It supplies blood rich in nitrogenous waste, oxygen and nutrients.• The renal artery branches and spreads through the medulla, between the pyramids, to the cortex.• In the cortex, they branch into afferent arterioles, carrying blood to the Bowman’s capsule.• In the capsule, the arteriole divides to form a tuft of loose capillaries around the renal tubule called the glomerulus.
• The capillaries unite to form the efferent arteriole which is narrower than the afferent arteriole.• The efferent arteriole divides again to form a mass of capillaries around the renal tubule, called the peritubular capillaries.• In this way a portal system is formed.• Capillaries join to form venules and then larger veins which eventually form the renal vein.• The renal vein carries purified, deoxygenated blood to the inferior vena cava, and then to the heart.
• A passive, non selective process.• Fluids and solutes are forced through the glomerular membrane by hydrostatic pressure.• The glomerular filtrate has the same composition as blood, without the blood cells and plasma proteins. These are too large to fit through the glomerular membrane.
This is the process by which substances are reabsorbed.• Carrier molecules on the microvilli join up with certain molecules from the filtrate and actively transport them through the epithelial cells to the blood.• Energy from ATP is used to join the molecule to the carrier molecule. The following are actively reabsorbed: – All organic nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and water soluble vitamins are completely reabsorbed. – Sodium ions and fat soluble vitamins are selectively reabsorbed, according to the needs of the body.
Passive Reabsorption• 65% of water is passively reabsorbed by osmosis.• Passive no energy needed• Chloride ions passively follow paths of sodium ions.
Tubular Excretion• Urine formation may occur mostly through filtration-reabsorption, a process called tubular excretion is also involved.• Takes place in:- Proximal tubules- Distal tubules• Tubular excretion is reabsorption in reverse
Tubule Excretion• Cells of tubules remove certain molecules and ions from blood• Then deposit these into the filtrate within the tubules such as:- Both Hydrogen ions and potassium ions secreted in to filtrate. As each secreted, sodium ions reabsorbed by blood.- More creatine & uric acid- Drugs, preservatives & colourants actively excreted.
Osmoregulation• Kidneys continuously regulating the chemical composition of blood within narrow limitsHomeostasis is maintained• The control of water and solute content in body is called osmoregulation and is largely brought about by kidneys
How is water balance regulated?• When fluid intake high – kidneys excrete dilute urine (saving salt and excreting water)• Fluid intake low – kidney conserves water by forming concentrated urine.
How does Henle’sloop conserve water?• Role is to create a very high SALT CONCENTRATION in tissue fluid in medulla area of kidney.
What is the final outcome?• Water actively conserved & passed back in to blood and not lost in urine.• So less urine formed – concentrated and dark in colour.
What happens to the urine now?• Filtrate that finally flows from duct can be called urine as it is the fluid the body does not want.• From collecting ducts passes drop by drop through papillae renal calyx renal pelvis for transport bladder which stores until expelled out urethra• Urine propelled by peristaltic movements of smooth muscular walls
What is the finalcomposition of urine?• 96% water• Salts (mainly sodium chloride) 1.5%• 2% Urea• Small quantity = drugs, colourants, homones preservatives.
Key functions of• Homeostasis kidney?1. Excretion of nitrogenous waste = urea + small amounts uric acid + creatine + ammonium ions to prevent toxic substances.2. With help of skin osmoregulation by selecting water and salts according to bodys needs.3. Maintain pH of body fluid excrete more or less hydrogen ions.4. Maintain electrolytic(salts) balance of body fluids by selectively reabsorbing or secreting ions