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Chapter 16


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Chapter 16

  1. 1. Chapter 16 Facial Machines
  2. 2. Learning Objectives • Explain electrotherapy • Identify the machines used in skin care treatments • Understand the mechanization used for each machine • Explain the benefits of each machine • Understand how to safely use each machine • Know the contraindications for machines
  3. 3. Facial Machines • Definition: electrotherapy is the use of electrical devices for therapeutic benefits – Achieve better product penetration – Sanitize skin – Especially effective for more challenging skin conditions
  4. 4. Facial Machines (continued) • New machines emerge each year – Must keep abreast of technological advances – Be cautious of expensive, trendy machines
  5. 5. Contraindications • Some machines should never be used on – Heart patients – Clients with pacemakers – Clients with metal implants – Pregnant clients – Clients with epilepsy or seizure disorders – Open or broken skin
  6. 6. Magnifying Lamp (Loupe) • Magnifies the face • Helps esthetician treat and analyze the skin • Uses cool fluorescent light bulb • Various powers of magnification, measured in diopters
  7. 7. Magnifying Lamp (Loupe) (continued) – 3 diopters = 30 times magnification – 5 diopters = 50 times magnification (most common) – 10 diopters = 100 times magnification
  8. 8. Magnifying Lamp Procedure • Position lamp when setting up room • Turn on lamp • Apply eye pads • Gently swing over face • If adjustment needed, move away from face • Reposition lamp • Move lamp back and forth to examine sides of face
  9. 9. Magnifying Lamp Maintenance • Clean lens – Spray with disinfectant – Wipe with soft cloth • Sanitize entire lamp and base with high-level disinfectant • Quality lamp can last 10 years – Well constructed – Well maintained
  10. 10. Wood’s Lamp • Developed by Robert Williams Woods • Filtered black light – Illuminates • Fungi • Bacterial disorders • Pigmentation problems • Other skin problems • Different conditions show up in various shades of color
  11. 11. Wood’s Lamp (continued) • Thick corneum layer: white fluorescence • Horny layer of dead skin cells: white spots • Normal, healthy skin: blue-white • Dehydrated skin: light violet • Oily areas/comedones: yellow or sometimes pink • Pigmentation problems: brown
  12. 12. Wood’s Lamp (continued) • Room must be totally dark • Put on small eye pads • Turn on light; hold over face – Bulbs can get hot – Do not allow lamp to touch skin – Do not have lamp on too long • Follow the manufacturer’s directions for cleaning
  13. 13. Hot Towel Cabinet • Also called hot cabbie – Commonly used in the treatment room – Hot towels: used for face and body – Provide soothing and softening benefits – Utilized to remove facial masks – Cotton pads can also be warmed in cabbie
  14. 14. Hot Towel Cabinet Maintenance • Keep clean – Must be free from mold or mildew – Clean inside with topical disinfectant after each client – Leave door open at night – Empty and clean water catch tray daily
  15. 15. Rotary Brush • Lightly exfoliates; assists in cleaning • Stimulates skin • Helps soften excess oil, dirt, and cell buildup • Contraindications – Acne – Couperose skin – Inflamed skin
  16. 16. Rotary Brush (continued) • Smaller brushes for face • Larger sizes for body area, such as back • Typically have 2 to 3 brushes with different textures from soft to firm • Rotate at different speeds and directions • Moisten brush before use
  17. 17. Rotary Brush (continued) • Sensitive skin requires slow, steady rotation; soft bristles • Thicker, oily skin tolerates faster speeds and firmer brushes
  18. 18. Brush Maintenance • Comes with detachable brushes for cleaning – Must be removed after each use – Wash with soap and water – Immerse in hospital-strength disinfectant • Time according to manufacturer – Cleanse, rinse, and store so they do not lose their shape – Dry and store in clean, closed container
  19. 19. Steamer • Considered by many to be most important machine used in esthetics • Benefits: – Stimulates circulation – Softens sebum and other debris – Warmth relaxes skin, for easier extractions – Sinuses and congestion – Steamers with ozone have antiseptic qualities
  20. 20. Steamer (continued) • Acne and problematic skin • Do not use too much steam on skin that is couperose or inflamed
  21. 21. Steamer (continued) • Come in various sizes and models • Use only distilled or filtered water – Minerals in tap water damage machinery • Direct vapor via nozzle • Aromatherapy ring inside nozzle head – Special feature for essential oils
  22. 22. Steamer Maintenance • Wipe down outside of steamer with high-level disinfectant after each use • At night, empty jar and let dry – Make sure rubber seal along rim is clean • Refill steamer with fresh distilled water each morning • Water should be free of chemicals and minerals
  23. 23. Steamer Maintenance (continued) • Do not leave water in steamer overnight or on weekends • Neglected steamers tend to spit hot water because of mineral buildup • Some models have solid tanks – Cannot see element – Must be cleaned 2 to 3 times per month • Vinegar and water
  24. 24. Steamer Maintenance (continued) • Always read and follow manufacturer’s directions • Never put essential oils or herbs directly in water • Some models: wick-type apparatus at mouth of nozzle to place essential oils • Some models: container for herbs
  25. 25. Vacuum Machine • Purposes – Suctions dirt and impurities from skin – Stimulates dermal layer/blood circulation – Believed to help reduce appearance of creases – Believed to improve overall appearance of skin
  26. 26. Vacuum Machine (continued) • Should not be used on couperose skin, skin with broken capillaries, or open lesions • Glass and metal suction cups: different sizes and shapes, depending on their use
  27. 27. Vacuum Machine (continued) • Never suction liquids or oils into suction device • Avoid using strong suction: causes bruising
  28. 28. Suction Machine Maintenance • Glass devices – Clean with soap and water – Soak in hospital-strength disinfectant • Follow manufacturer’s directions to clean the handpieces and hoses • Filter may have to be changed often, depending on use
  29. 29. Galvanic Current • Used to create two reactions in esthetics – Desincrustation – Iontophoresis • Converts alternating current from electrical outlet into direct current – Creates relaxation response that can be regulated to target specific nerve endings in epidermis
  30. 30. Galvanic Current (continued) • Can leave metallic taste in mouth • Contraindications – Couperose skin – Pustular acne or inflamed areas – Pregnancy – Pacemakers – Heart problems
  31. 31. Galvanic Current (continued) • Contraindications (continued) – High blood pressure – Braces – Epileptic
  32. 32. Desincrustation • Anaphoresis – Facilitates deep pore cleansing • Creates a chemical reaction that emulsifies or liquefies sebum and debris • Beneficial for acne: helps soften sebum and follicles for deep pore cleansing
  33. 33. Desincrustation (continued) • To perform – Place alkaline-based electronegative solution onto surface of skin • Solution formulated to stay on skin surface – Client holds positive electrode: positive polarity – Esthetician uses other electrode on face; set on negative polarity
  34. 34. Desincrustation (continued) • To perform (continued) – Various types of electrodes available • Most common: flat electrode and roller • Creates chemical reaction that transforms sebum into soap – Process called saponification – Helps dissolve excess oil, clogged pores, comedones, and other debris – Softens at the same time
  35. 35. Iontophoresis • Process of introducing water-soluble products containing ions into skin via an electric current • Allows esthetician to transfer or penetrate ions of an applied solution into deeper layers of skin via a galvanic current
  36. 36. Iontophoresis (continued) • Ions: atoms or molecules that carry an electrical charge • Current flows through conductive solutions from the positive and negative polarities – Called ionization – Ionization: separating of a substance into ions – Based on universal laws of attraction
  37. 37. Iontophoresis (continued) • Ionic penetration takes two forms – Cataphoresis • Infusion of a positive product – Anaphoresis • Infusion of a negative product
  38. 38. Polarity of Solutions • Products that are slightly acidic: positive • Products with an alkaline (or base): negative • Used for desincrustation • For negative products, esthetician infuses solution with an electrode set at negative – Esthetician holds negative electrode; the client holds positive electrode
  39. 39. Polarity of Solutions (continued) • Products with negative and positive ingredients – Product should be ionized for 3 to 5 minutes on negative and then for 3 to 5 minutes on positive • Products that are neither positive nor negative – First use negative, and then use positive – Allows you to stimulate and soften skin first and then facilitate product penetration
  40. 40. Polarity of Solutions (continued) • Molecular weight is a factor in permeability – Smaller molecules have greater penetration abilities – Larger molecules cannot penetrate into skin
  41. 41. Galvanic Maintenance • Read and follow manufacturer’s directions for cleaning and disinfecting • Detach electrode cord from electrode – Remove soiled sponge or cotton cover and discard – Do not soak electrode unless directed to do so
  42. 42. Galvanic Maintenance (continued) – Never place metal electrode in an autoclave – Soak black ring in germicidal solution for 10 minutes • Detach metal tip and soak for 20 minutes in a disinfectant solution – Spray tip with hospital-strength germicide, and wipe with cotton gauze that has also been sprayed with germicide
  43. 43. Ionto Mask • Works with galvanic current • Used to facilitate – Desincrustation: deep pore cleansing – Ionization: product penetration – Different solutions used to target specific skin conditions
  44. 44. Ionto Mask • Basic steps – Cover face with moistened gauze • Helps direct current to underlying tissue – Apply mask and time according to treatment parameters – Place wet pad under client’s shoulder – Plug mask into source of galvanic current
  45. 45. High-Frequency Machine • Apparatus that utilizes alternative or sinusoidal current • Oscillating circuit passes through a device that allows for selection of a Tesla pulse current – Current can produce 60,000 to 200,000 hertz frequency – High-frequency current is capable of changing polarity 1,000 times per second
  46. 46. High-Frequency Machine (continued) – Capable of changing polarity 1,000 times per second – Has no polarity; does not produce chemical changes – Product penetration: physically impossible
  47. 47. High-Frequency Machine (continued) • Rapid oscillation created by high frequency vibrates water molecules in skin – Esthetic high-frequency devices cause mild heat effect • Contraindications – Couperose – Inflamed
  48. 48. High-Frequency Machine (continued) • Contraindications (continued) – Pregnant – Epileptic – Pacemaker – High blood pressure • May be applied after extractions or used over product
  49. 49. High-Frequency Machine (continued) • Benefits – Antiseptic – Stimulates circulation – Helps oxygenate skin – Increases cell metabolism – Helps coagulate and heal open lesions – Generates warm feeling – Has relaxing effect
  50. 50. Electrodes • During manufacturing process – Most air removed; creates vacuum – Air replaced mainly with neon gas – Some also contain argon gas – Electricity passes through these gases; emit visible shades of light – Neon gas: pink, orange, or red light – Argon or rarified gas: blue or violet light
  51. 51. Electrodes (continued) • Several types of direct/indirect electrodes – Each electrode has unique benefits/features • Produce physiological reactions in esthetic treatments
  52. 52. Maintenance • Wipe glass electrode with a solution of soap and water • Place glass end into a sterilization solution for 20 minutes • Rinse with cool water – Do not get metal end wet • Dry with clean towel; store in covered container
  53. 53. Spray Machine • Calming and hydrating • Part of vacuum machine – Attached via hose that is connected to small plastic bottle with a spray nozzle • Bottle can be filled with freshener solution or toner – 1 part toner; 2 parts distilled water – Gently mist face after cleansing or other treatment step
  54. 54. Lucas Sprayer • Invented by Dr. Lucas Championniere • Most unique of all atomizers and sprays – Fine mist • Plant extracts, herb teas, fresheners, astringent – Excellent for treating dehydrated, mature, or couperose skins – Can be used warm to increase blood flow – Can be used cool for couperose skin
  55. 55. Paraffin Wax Heater • Used to create warm paraffin mask – Hydrates dry skin • Provides quick results • Creates occlusive mask – Holds body heat – Promotes product penetration – Relaxing – Gives clients a glowing complexion
  56. 56. Paraffin Wax Heater • Paraffin wax heaters stay warm at a safe, low level of heat • Must be replenished as used wax is discarded • Heats up slowly • Use professional wax bath machine that emits low heat
  57. 57. Electric Mitts and Boots • Apply heat to hands and feet • Often promoted as add-on service – Increase circulation – Promote overall relaxation – Heat helps lotion penetrate – Soothes aching feet and hands – Paraffin wax used over lotion to warm and moisturize skin
  58. 58. Electric Mitts and Boots (continued) • Steps – Put lotion on hands and/or feet – Cover with plastic disposable liners before inserting into warmers – Warm for approximately 10 minutes • Make sure warmers do not get too hot – If feet or hands sweat, lotion cannot penetrate – To clean, wipe with high-level disinfectant
  59. 59. Electric Heat Mask • One of several methods used for deep penetration • Produces heat at comfortable temperature • Used to help soften skin for deep pore penetration – Can be used on dry, oily, or combination skin • Products used target skin types/conditions
  60. 60. Electric Heat Mask (continued) • Contraindications – Couperose – Thin – Sensitive • Mask is left on for approximately 7 minutes • To prevent mask burnout, turn off immediately after treatment
  61. 61. Purchasing Equipment • Do your research • Regulations define which machines can and cannot be used by estheticians • Consider insurance costs • Investigate manufacturers’ claims • Warranties and training: important factors
  62. 62. Summary • Advances in science and technology have generated many high-performance tools to enhance the esthetician’s work. These specialized tools and equipment are designed to help the esthetician obtain the best results possible in skin care treatments.
  63. 63. Review Questions 1. What skin conditions does a Wood’s lamp reveal? 2. What is the purpose of a brush machine? 3. What are the benefits of the vacuum device? 4. List and define the two reactions of the galvanic current.
  64. 64. Review Questions (continued) 5. What are the contraindications for using a galvanic machine? 6. Define anaphoresis. 7. How does the negative pole of the galvanic current affect the skin? 8. Define cataphoresis.
  65. 65. Review Questions (continued) 9. How does the positive pole of the galvanic current affect the skin? 10.What is high frequency used for? 11.What are the benefits of the spray machine? 12.What are the benefits of electric mitts and boots?
  66. 66. Congratulations! • You have completed one unit of your esthetics study course