WHAT IS MONARCHY? A monarchy is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in a single individual (the monarch). When the monarch has no or few legal restraints in state and political matters, it is called an absolute monarchy and is a form of autocracy. Cases in which the monarchs discretion is formally limited are called constitutional monarchies.
WHAT IS ABSOLUTE MONARCHY? Ultimate governing authority Wields unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people. Hereditary Autocrat
CHARACTERISTICS OF ABSOLUTEMONARCHY: GOD The King Ministers, advisers, secretaries, employees
SPAIN Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile The policies of Ferdinand and Isabella Skillful, strong co-rulers had serious consequences wherein They faced the challenges in they lost:unifying Spain Known as the “Catholic the Jews who played an important roleKings” as business leaders and merchants andThey ordered the Jews andMuslims to convert to Christianity the Muslims who had developed their advanced farming methods, which had improved Spanish agriculture
The Hapsburgs come to power in Spain Rudolf I of Hapsburg He was the first of the count-kings Gained control over Austria He played a vital role in raising the Hapsburg dynasty to a leading position among the Imperial feudal dynasties.
Maximilian I of Hapsburg Mary of Burgundy son, Philip Also known as Philip The Handsome or The Fair
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile son, known as Charles, Charles I or Charles V Juana PhilipDaughter of Ferdinand and Isabella
1516, he became the King of Spain He became the Holy Roman Emperor and inherited the Hapsburgs’ Austrian territories when Maximilian died He continued his grandparents’ efforts to unify and strengthen Spain. Conquered Mexico and Peru Treasure taken from Aztecs and Incas and silver and gold from American mines began to pour in Spain Under his rule, Spain attempted to expand in Italy,Charles bringing on war with France He become involved in protecting Hapsburg lands in Austria from the Ottoman Turks.
Ferdinand IBrother of Charles who inheritedthe eastern Hapsburg lands –Austria, Hungary and BohemiaHe was crowned as the HolyRoman Emperor Philip II He inherited the Netherlands, Spain’s lands in America and Italy
He was a king from 1556-1598, ruling as an absolute monarch. His goals were to strengthen both Spanish power and the power of the Roman Catholic Church. He was dedicated in increasing the authority of the church. He wanted Spain to be entirely Catholic Moriscos- these are the MuslimsPhilip II converted to Christianity rather than leave Spain
Portugal cameunder the Spanishcrown and Philipacquired Portugal’svast overseasempire.
Dutch Protestants rebel against Spanishrule because:Philip increased taxes and restrictedDutch trade to give an advantage toSpanish merchants.He also established the Inquisition inattempt to impose Catholicism on thegrowing number of Calvinists in thenorthern province. William, Prince the Orange or William the Silent In 1566, the Dutch began a rebellion against the Spanish rule that lasted for 80 years.
In 1554, Philip married Mary I, Englands Catholic queen Philip II Mary ISpain clashes with England Mary’s protestant half- sister who inherited the English throne when Mary I died Elizabeth
Invincible Armada (SpanishPhilip II Armada) ruled by Philip II and Elizabeth English ships in 1588. Spanish fleet met its defeat against the English ships Marks the end of Philip’s power and the Spanish prestige.
Causes of the decline of Spanishpower: The cost of warThe neglect of trade and industryChanges in agricultureThe dependence on temporary wealth
FRANCE Ruled France between 1559 and 1589. Mother of three kings (Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III) She used her political skill to try to maintain a balance in France In 1562, civil war eruptedCatherine de Medici between Huguenots and Catholics that lasted for 30 years,
August 24, 1572, many Protestants nobles weregathered in Paris for the wedding of Henry of Navarre, oneof their leaders.Riots and mobs of Parisians began a massacre of theHuguenots. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
He inherited the throne of Henry IV He was at first a Huguenot king that eventually converted to Catholicism. He was the first king from the Bourbon family. He was courageous and intelligent and become one of the best-loved monarchs in French history.Henry of Navarre or Henry IV Issued the Edict of Nantes – granted the Huguenots a large measure of religious freedom, equal treatment under the law and equal opportunity to hold positions in the government.
He was a tough soldier, French minister, staunch Huguenot and a faithful right-hand man who assisted Henry IV in the rule of France. He increased the amount of money raised for the royalMaximilien de treasury.Béthune, firstDuke of Sully He reduced dishonesty in the government and encouraged trade by building roads and canals and by improving ports.
He was 9 years old when he succeeded his father Henry IV as king of France. Marie de Medicis ruled France until the young king came of age. But mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by hisLouis XIII mother led the young king to take power in 1617 and exiling his mother and its followers.
He became Louis’ chief minister and brought the monarchy’s new strength. He was a cool-headed and clear- sighted. He imprisoned and executed nobles who threatened the royal authority. To prevent the Hapsburgs fromCardinal Richelieu dominating Europe, he took France into the Thirty Years’ War on the side of the Protestants states.
Hapsburg rulers claim Bohemia1516, Louis II, the Ferdinand I wasgrandson of Poland’s crowned as the king ofruler, became king of both Bohemia and HungaryBohemia and Hungary. which made Bohemia part of the HapsburgLouis II was killed at the domains.Battle of Mohacs
Bohemia Czech and Catholic German Hapsburg Protestants They (Czech) rebelled against Ferdinand II (Hapsburg) Bohemians deposed Ferdinand and chose Fredrick V,Religious differences lead to war German Protestant prince
Consequences of the war: Devastation of entire regions Famine and diseases significantly decreased the population of the German Thirty Years’ War states, Bohemia, Low (1618-1648) Countries and ItalyThe last and the biggest Combatant powers werereligious war that eventually bankruptedengulfed most of the majorEuropean states.
He sought support from other Catholic rulers.Ferdinand II Maximilian, the Philip III of Spain Catholic ruler of the German state of Bavaria
In 1620, the Battle of WhiteMountain marked the defeat of theBohemians and deposed Frederick.
War again began to spread when the Bavarian Army attacked the Protestant regions in Northern Germany and threatened territory held by Denmark. VERSUSKing Christian IV of Denmark Albrecht Wallenstein
German Protestants VERSUS aided by the Catholicof France and Protestant Sweden King Gustavus Adolphus (Lion ofFerdinand II the North)- one of the great generals. Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIII
Peace of Westphalia It was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabruck and Munster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years’ War in the Holy Roman Empire and Eighty Years’ War between Spain and the Dutch Republic.The lasting results of the Thirty Years’ War:It ended the medieval dream of Europe to be fully united under the Holy RomanEmperor and to become faithful to the Roman Catholic Church.German princes were given the right to rule their own states and their own religion.France became the leading state in the Western Europe, while Sweden dominatedthe Baltic Sea.Spain finally recognized the independence of the United Netherlands, whileSwitzerland, also Protestant, became independent of the control of the Holy RomanEmpire.
He was declared the new king when Louis XIII died. His mother Anne ruled for him along with the new chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin. He claims the theory known as the divine rights of the kings which stated that kings are born to possess all and command all. L’etat, c’est moi- The state-it is I Louis XIVor Sun King France had its greater unity and a stronger central government. He reign helped art, literature, drama, music and ballet to flourished in France.
He became the finance minister. A strong advocate of mercantilism. He improved the methods of taxation, supported shipbuilding and a new navy and had canalsJean Baptiste Colbert and roads built. France had no legislative body that could call a halt to the king’s spending.
War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713) Often called the first of the world wars because most of the leading states of Europe were involved.
Philip V or Peace of Utrecht (1713-1714) Philip of AnjouHe was the grandson It comprises of individual peace treatiesof Louis XIV. rather than single document and it was signed by the belligerents in the War ofHe was the first the Spanish Succession.Bourbon prince on the Treaties between several EuropeanSpanish throne states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and Dutch Republic helped to end the war.
He died in 1715 Results of his reign: •Wars and extravagant spending had emptied the royal treasury and left the country in debt. •System of taxation placed burden of taxes on peasants. Louis XIV •Emergence of war in year 1715-174or Sun King •Financial problems helped to weaken the monarch and bring on the French Revolution in 1789.
EnglandElizabeth I Her 45-year reign was considered as one of Englands greatest ages. - She succeeded to keep peace within her kingdom. - England gained its first trading post in India and London became a busy center of commerce. - She generally favored religious toleration.
Roman Catholics challenged the right to thethrone of Elizabeth I. They supported the claim ofMary, Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart), Elizabeth’scousin and a Roman catholic. Mary Queen of Scots was executed asordered by Elizabeth I.
James IHe is Mary Stuart’s son and he succeeded ElizabethI. lacked the abilities either to persuade officials He and politicians or to win the English people’s support. Charles I He is the son of James I. During his reign tensions between the monarchs and the Parliament intensified on issues of taxes and religion.
Petition of Rights It limited the power of the king and set forthspecific rights:1.The monarch could not collect taxes withoutparliament’s consent.2.Civilians could not be forced to provide food andshelter for soldiers.3.Military law could not be imposed in time ofpeace.4.No person could be imprisoned except upon aspecific charge. Charles I dismissed the Parliament. Forthe next 11 years, until 1640, the king ruledwithout Parliament.
During Charles I reign, the archbishop WilliamLaud, encouraged harsh persecutions of Puritans. In 1637, Charles I tried to impose Anglican(Church of England) form of worship in Scotland.The Lowland Scots, who were CalvinistPresbyterians, rose in revolt. Needing funds to fightin Scotland, Charles was forced to call a meeting ofParliament in 1640. But Parliament refused the approval of funds for war in Scotland. As a result, Charles dissolved the Parliament after three weeks. It is known as the Short Parliament.
English Civil War It began when Puritan members of theParliament called for reforms in the Church ofEngland. Charles rejected the Parliamentsproposal and brought in troops to arrest its leaders.The people of London outraged. The King’s supporters, called Cavaliers orroyalists included Anglicans (members of theChurch of England) and Catholics, most member ofthe nobility and royalist members of the House ofCommons. Parliament’s supporters were Puritans and other middle-class townspeople, who resented the King’s arrogance and high expenses. They were known as Roundheads.
Desperate for funds, Charles called for newelections to Parliament in November 1640. The newParliament was not officially dissolved until 1653 and isknown as the Long Parliament. The Long Parliament was determined to reduce themonarch’s power. -It passed laws calling for regular sessions ofParliament. - It abolished the special court called the StarChamber, where royal officials had held secret trials. - It also made illegal for the monarch to raise taxeswithout the Parliament’s consent.
The parliamentary army won important battlesin 1644 and 1645 and took King Charles as prisoner.The King escaped and established an army inScotland to invade England but still, his troops weredefeated. Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan leader emerged asthe leader of the Parliamentary forces. -He expelled his opponents in the Parliament. - The remaining members of the Parliament abolished the House of Lords and brought the king to trial for treason. As a result, Charles I was beheaded in 1649.
Cromwell formed a new government, a republicknown as the Commonwealth. He took the title “Lord Protector” and ruledEngland, Scotland and Ireland until hid death in 1658. The civil war continued during theCommonwealth , for the King’s son gathered royalistsupport. Cromwell put down the rebellion in Ireland andforced Irish Catholic landholders to turn over theirestates to Protestant English settlers. The massacre of Irish rebels in 1649 and theloss of property resulted to bitterness among the Irishand they called this the “curse of Cromwell”.
Charles IIHe is the son of the executed king, Charles I.Parliament invited him to return to the throne afterCromwell’s death. His reign was called theRestoration Period. He was known as the “Merry Monarch” for he was popular among his subjects but often at odds with the Parliament. England was still troubled by religious divisions of the nonconformists who were the Catholics, Anglicans, and other Protestants (including Puritans).
-He urged more tolerant policies for nonconformiststhan Parliament was willing to grant. James II He inherited the crown from his brother Charles II.But he lost popular support by his policies.The English feared that the birth of James II sonwould result to the return of absolute rule andCatholicism. Therefore, in 1688, Parliament jointlyoffered the crown to Mary , James’ Protestantdaughter, and her husband, William of Orange.The change of monarchs was acclaimed to be theGlorious Revolution.
The Glorious Revolution establishedParliament’s supremacy over the English monarch. In 1689, Parliament presented the new rulers,Mary and William III, with a Bill of Rights to whichthey were expected to agree. - It made illegal for the monarch to suspend laws,levy taxes or raise a standing army duringpeacetime without Parliament’s approval. - Subjects had the right to petition the monarchand the ruler could not interfere with freedom ofspeech of the Parliament.
Effects of these events to Western world:• Parliamentary government• The Rule of law• Limited monarchy• The protection of individual liberties
RussiaIvan III (Ivan the Great) He laid the foundation of a centralized state in Russia. -He asserted independence from Mongols. - He set a pattern of expansion that has continued throughout Russian history.
- He married Sophia (niece of the last Byzantine emperor). Since the marriage, he proclaimed himself heir toConstantinople. As a symbol of his authority he adopted thetitle czar (derived from Caesar) and insisted in the sameabsolute power the Byzantine emperors had held.-He strengthened central rule by ending the self-government of towns, ignoring the council of boyars(nobles), and taking over the boyars’ estates to give hissupporters. - His rule was less restricted by church, nobles or town privileges than that of any Western European monarch. Thus, Ivan III made czar an autocrat, a ruler with unlimited power over his subjects.
Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) First ruler to be crowned with the title czar. He was Ivan III’s grandson. -He was hostile of the boyars due to his personal experiences. - He became czar and married Anastasia Romanov at 17. - He was an able and energetic man despite his spinal disease.
-He established a national assembly had a newlaw code, and created a strong landowning classloyal to him.- He organized an army to destroy the boyarfamilies. His troops murdered thousands andspread terror.Times of Trouble – Began when a rebelliousgroup, Cossack, revolted against the czarscreating disorder so widespread during thatperiod. The Cossacks were runaway serfs, farmersand adventurers. They were formed because theybelieved that the czars were limiting their freedom.
Peter I (Peter the Great) The changes during his reign made Russia an empire and established the modern state. -At nearly seven feet tall, he had immense physical strength, vitality and curiosity. - His goal was to help Russia catch up with Western Europe. As a symbol of Russia’s turn toward the West, he established St. Petersburg, as a new capital.
Great Northern War This war involved Northern Europeancountries. It was Russia (allies with Poland andDenmark) against Sweden. At first, Sweden wasvictorious, but after Peter I retrained andreorganized the navy through Western technicalhelp, Russia emerged victorious. Russia as victors took the Baltic Sea and made it an empire and it became a major power in Northern Europe. Peter I took the title “czar of all the Russians”.
-He brought institutions under centralized rule.- However, peasants were forced to work on statebuilding projects or serve the army. Serfdom cameclose to slavery.
Catherine II (Catherine the Great)She is the successor of Peter I. She is a GermanPrincess and she also wished to Westernize Russiabut her approach was different from Peter the Great. -She freed the nobles from the policies that were formerly set by Peter the Great. -She gave merchants and townspeople freedom and encouraged trade, education and the arts and sciences.
However, the benefits of her policies onlyfavored the educated upper class. Still, the serfswere at a disadvantage. This led to even morerebellions by the serfs and Cossacks. She expanded the Russian empire through trade via ports in the Baltic Sea and gained rich farmlands in the partitioned territories of Poland. By the end of her reign, Russia became a major power in world politics.