Evolution of Media
• Before the Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO) The
press was controlled by the Press Complaint Commission (PCC) , a
voluntary regulatory body which governed and regulated over both
newspapers and magazines.
• The PCC had no legal power over the newspapers it governed
however it charged them if something was against the specific codes
of conduct which were pre determined by the body itself.
• The PCC was argued to make the press self ruling looking more
trustworthy however it was mainly governed by ex-news editors and
people with links to the industry.
• This along with many other shady things about the PCC made it
somewhat untrustworthy. Finally following the phone hacking
scandal in 2014 and the little action the PCC made following this the
body was shut down.
• The Papers are now governed by the ISPO who are still regulating
papers and magazines today.
The Levison Enquiry
• The levison enquiry looked into the responsibility of the text based
media body controlling the Papers and magazines. The enquiry
looked to see if the PCC, the body at the time allowed free press
whilst being responsible.
• Levison found that the PCC was not suitable for the roll in which it
promised to fulfil. It suggested to replace the current body with an
independent body which would take an active roll in promoting high
standards and prosecuting and penalizing those who don’t conform.
• It suggested legislation, for the first time, would play a key roll in
allowing those affected by the media to avoid the courts system all
together and for the victims accusations of mistreatment by the
press to be backed by pre-set laws.
• In response the Independent Press Standards Organisation ISPO was
created as a regulatory body appose to a Complaints handling
• This however is still argued by some to be not the best solution as
the body is still has huge links with the industry's financial backers.
• A super injunction is a means in which a body can submit a block of
all media coverage regarding an event. This prevents all UK papers
and news sources from reporting any information on the event in
question even if the event or events is in the public interest.
• Who uses them? The use of a super injunction is often to hide an
embarrassing or personal event because of this it makes them ideal
for celebrities who commit things such as affairs or soliciting
• One recent case follows the scandal related to Sir Elton John and his
husband. They on a whole would describe themselves as a role
model for gay and lesbian parents, this makes the scandal regarding
their open relationship portray them in a negative light, hence the
• The problem with a super injunction however is the exploits
surrounding them the ability to hide something within the public
interest is somewhat questionable. However the question comes
into place as to where how affective is super injunction and the
answer is not very as foreign news sources can still report on the
matter in the case of Sir Elton, Scottish papers.
• Normative theory defines that the press should be mirroring the
public opinion and interest whilst being fully inclusive of any
apparent, important or impending affairs.
• Its argued that this along with a free press is the ideal situation,
however this is difficult as a free press often arises radicalistic views
to be published, these views, whilst still being public interest, are
often misinterpreted as public opinion.
• Normative theory in western culture covers points such as:
• Current affairs
• And corruption
Points For Regulation
• Allows for those affected by the media to be backed by a ruling
body- many affected by the press can often feel as if sufficient
actions aren't being enforced when in regards to things such as
• Helps in providing the right product for the right audience
• stops the frequency in which the media offends the public
• Allows for the product to be of high quality- Stops unworthy or
illegitimate products and reporting's from being un-prosecuted.
• Provides a need for social sciences to be funded- In regards to the
type of news which is acceptable for a specific audience as some,
especially the young, can be greatly traumatised by un-filtered
Points Against Regulation
• Regulation of media is somewhat necessary however the news
should not be censored, all news within the public interest should be
allowed to be covered in depth.
• The privacy or innocence of some should not affect the publics right
to have public interest reported on
• Most regulation is ineffective already, stopping it would make papers
and other such media sources more time and cost efficient
• In regards to the BBFC and age ratings it should be the job of a
parent or guardian to assess the suitability of a media product for
their child, this is especially because some children and young adults
mature at different rates.