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What-Are-Speech-Styles.pdf

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What Are Speech Styles?
•When a person interacts with others, he or she uses a
particular style of speaking or speech style. A speech
style also indicates the level of formality with which a
person speaks.
•In his book The Five Clocks, Dutch linguist Martin Joos
identified five types of speech style: intimate, casual,
consultative, formal, and frozen. These speech styles
are also called language registers.
•According to Ronald Wardhaugh in his book An
Introduction to Sociolinguistics (1986), “No one speaks
the same way all the time.” For him, “language will
exhibit considerable internal variation, and single-style
speakers will not be found.” As such, you will find
yourself using different speech styles in different
situations. In some situations, you may even transition
from one speech style to another. However,
Wardhaugh states that this variation has limits
(or norms).
•For instance, you cannot just alter the meaning
of words or pronounce them differently. If you
do any of these, not only is it unacceptable, but
also the receivers of your message might not be
able to understand what you are conveying.
•When you interact with others, it is important to choose
an appropriate speech style to use. In doing so, you should
consider several factors, which include the following:
•a. Audience – Who are you speaking with? What is your
relationship with him, her, or them?
•Your audience may be acquaintances, peers, friends, family
members, teachers, counselors, doctors, and other
professionals.
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What-Are-Speech-Styles.pdf

  • 1. What Are Speech Styles?
  • 2. •When a person interacts with others, he or she uses a particular style of speaking or speech style. A speech style also indicates the level of formality with which a person speaks. •In his book The Five Clocks, Dutch linguist Martin Joos identified five types of speech style: intimate, casual, consultative, formal, and frozen. These speech styles are also called language registers.
  • 3. •According to Ronald Wardhaugh in his book An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (1986), “No one speaks the same way all the time.” For him, “language will exhibit considerable internal variation, and single-style speakers will not be found.” As such, you will find yourself using different speech styles in different situations. In some situations, you may even transition from one speech style to another. However, Wardhaugh states that this variation has limits (or norms).
  • 4. •For instance, you cannot just alter the meaning of words or pronounce them differently. If you do any of these, not only is it unacceptable, but also the receivers of your message might not be able to understand what you are conveying.
  • 5. •When you interact with others, it is important to choose an appropriate speech style to use. In doing so, you should consider several factors, which include the following: •a. Audience – Who are you speaking with? What is your relationship with him, her, or them? •Your audience may be acquaintances, peers, friends, family members, teachers, counselors, doctors, and other professionals.
  • 9. Key Points •A speech style indicates the level of formality with which a person speaks. •The types of speech style are intimate, casual, consultative, formal, and frozen. •
  • 10. • Intimate Speech Style • The intimate speech style, according to Martin Joos, is characterized by a complete absence of social inhibitions. This style is used by participants who share a very close relationship, such as between very close friends, siblings, husband and wife, parents and children, and boyfriend and girlfriend
  • 11. •In this style, the participants share a completely private vocabulary, making it difficult for others who are outside of the group to understand. Since the participants have an intimate relationship and they often know each other’s intention, there is no need for a clear articulation of words or additional explanations.
  • 12. •The following are some other features of an intimate speech style: •a. Conversations are usually done in private. b. Participants usually use short, incomplete utterances. c. Grammar and proper word choice are not given importance
  • 13. • d. Nonverbal cues are often used to convey messages. e. Participants share inside jokes. f. Words that signal intimacy, such as terms of endearment (e.g., sweetheart, dear, honey) are used. • Being the most intimate among the speech styles, this should be avoided in public and in professional situations.
  • 14. •Casual Speech Style •The casual speech style is a relaxed or informal dialogue between friends, peers, colleagues, or family. Thus, the participants may use group language so only members of the group can understand it
  • 15. •Other characteristics of this speech style include the following: •a. The tone is conversational. Slang (or nonstandard words or expressions), colloquial words, elliptical sentences (some words are omitted), and informal contractions (e.g., ain’t, dunno, gonna) are used. b. General words rather than technical ones are used. c. Interruptions are common. d. Nicknames are used in addressing one another.
  • 16. •This speech style is used in informal situations. You may also use this when you would like to make someone feel at ease or when you want to know that individual on a more personal level.
  • 17. Key Points •The intimate speech style is characterized by a complete absence of social inhibitions. This style is used by participants who share a very close relationship. •The casual speech style is a conversational speech that often uses informal language
  • 18. •The consultative speech style is considered to be the most operational style among the other styles. It is used in semiformal situations in which a speaker needs to provide background information because the listener (or addressee) may not be able to understand without it.
  • 19. •For example, in a discussion between an insurance agent and a prospective client, the agent needs to provide the client with background information regarding the types of insurance policies the company offers and the benefits provided by each. In turn, the listener participates by giving feedback. Thus, both the speaker and the listener are active participants.
  • 20. •The following are other characteristics of the consultative style: •a. It is used in ordinary or routine transactions that lead to an outcome or result. b. This is often used in business or in other professional situations, such as in conversations between a doctor and a patient, a teacher and a student, or a lawyer and his client.
  • 21. •c. Interruptions are allowed. The listener gives short responses like I see, Uh-huh, and Ah to signal that he or she is paying attention to the speaker or has understood what was said. d. Titles such as Mr., Ms., or Doctor are likely to be used when using this speech style. e. More formal than intimate and casual styles, this style requires a speaker to choose words with some care, but the flow of conversation is still instantaneous.
  • 22. • This speech style is also the one used when meeting or being introduced to someone for the first time, or when conversing with a stranger. • The consultative speech style is a professional discourse wherein one needs to have a background information for better communication results.
  • 23. •Formal Speech Style •What distinguishes the formal speech style from the consultative style is the lack of listener participation. Unlike in interactions that use the consultative style, the listener does not participate, in most cases, in an interaction that requires the formal style.
  • 24. • A formal style is often used in formal situations, such as in a graduation ceremony, an official meeting, a television newscast, and a conference, where there is only one-way communication. Since there is little or no feedback from the listeners or audience, the speaker needs to plan ahead his or her utterances, or what he or she is going to say.
  • 25. •Other characteristics of the formal style are: •a. Interruptions are not allowed. Only the speaker is the source of information. b. Pronunciation is very clear. c. Words are carefully chosen, and grammar rules are followed. d. Sentence structures are more complex and varied.
  • 26. •e. Extensive and technical vocabulary is required. f. Ideas are cohesive and organized. g. All background or necessary information is clearly given. •This speech style is also used in sermons, speeches, and announcements. This is also the style that is used for academic and business writing.
  • 27. •The frozen speech style, also called the oratorical style, is the most formal style and is reserved for very formal situations such as in religious services, state affairs, and court proceedings. This style is used to address or is given before an audience of absolute strangers. It uses prescribed and highly formal language, such as in official or historical documents and literary texts.
  • 28. •Here are other characteristics of this style: •a. It uses “frozen” language, where statements are learned by rote. Examples are the Lord’s Prayer, the Pledge of Allegiance, and the national anthem. b. It has a symbolic or historical nature. c. It is typically prescribed by law, custom, or ritual. d. It involves certain fixed or stock expressions that are rarely or never altered or change
  • 29. • The formal speech style is a prepared speech that uses formal language registers. • The frozen speech style is a type of communication that rarely or never changes. •