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  1. 1. Mark was grounded because he wasn’t active in school . Effect Cause
  2. 2. The writer will show a connection between two or more things, how one thing CAUSE another, or how something happens AS A RESULT OF something. We can mention the cause before the effect. Because our company has a LAN, we can share the use of printer with our colleagues. We can mention the effect before the cause. We can share the use of files with our colleagues because our company has a LAN. Examples
  3. 3. because since as now that because of due to owning to as a result of Because off-the-shelf programs do not always fit a computer’s needs, software often has to be specially developed. (cause  effect)   Teachers must rethink their roles as computer technology is creating a revolution in the classroom. (effect  cause) Examples
  4. 4. The writer will show a connection between two or more things, how one thing CAUSE another because since as now that because of due to owning to as a result of Early computers developed quickly as a result of their use in military applications. (effect  cause) Examples
  5. 5. The writer will show a connection between two or more things, how something happens AS A RESULT OF something. so therefore as a result consequently thus for this reason because of this hence Computers can remove many of the routine and boring tasks. Therefore , we have more time for interesting, creative work.(cause  effect)   Carpel tunnel syndrome is a serious medical condition. For this reason, computer users should be careful of their posture and take frequent breaks. (cause  effect) Examples
  6. 6. A CAUSE is something that makes something else happen. Out of two events, it is the event that happens first. To determine the cause, ask the question "Why Did it Happen?" An EFFECT is what happens as a result of the cause. Of two related events, it ’ s the one that happens second or last.   To determine the effect, ask the question "What Happened?"
  7. 7. CAUSE EFFECT The boy kicked the ball. The ball rolled. The girl teased the cat. The cat growled. Sally studied hard for a test. Sally earned an A on her test. Joe became really tired. Joe went to sleep early.
  8. 8. At times connecting words are used to link the cause and effect.  Examples of connecting words are: because, so, consequently, therefore, due to the fact, since, as a result, the reason for, thus, nevertheless
  9. 9. A coordinating conjunction mostly occurs mid-sentence and joins two independent clauses . A comma is placed before the conjunction (for and, nor, but, or, yet, so). They may also occur at the beginning of a sentence . USED IN A SENTENCE 1. He saw starving children, so he helped. 2. He helped, for he knew they could survive.
  10. 10. A correlative conjunction is paired with another word and is used to join equivalent sentence elements such as one noun or noun-phrase with another noun or noun-phrase. He raised so much money that they created a food bank. He raised such a large amount of money that they created a food bank.
  11. 11. subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause , which requires attachment to an independent clause to complete the rest of the thought. When the dependent clause occurs: (1) before the independent clause, a comma separates the clauses; (2)  after the independent clause , no comma separates the clauses. The children survived because they had help.  Because they had help, the children survived. The children survived because of the help. ( noun phrase )
  12. 12. CAUSE because , since , now that , as , as long as , inasmuch as , because of , due to , owing to , on account of , despite , if only because   EFFECT so that    (purpose-result) in order    (purpose-result)
  13. 13. A transition word is used at the beginning of a sentence with a comma after it. It marks a change in thought from one sentence (or paragraph) to the next. A period or semicolon comes before it. People helped. As a consequence, the children survived. People helped; as a consequence, the children survived.
  14. 14. CAUSE For this reason , For all these reasons EFFECT Therefore , Cause / Effect , Consequently, As a consequence , As a result , Thus , Hence
  15. 15. A cause is what makes something happens. To find the cause, you need to ask yourself , “What happened first?”. An effect is what happens because of something else (the cause). To find the effect, you need to ask yourself, “What happened second?”. The boy was grounded because he wasn’t on green at school. What happened first? The boy wasn’t on green at school. (This is the cause) What happened second? The boy was grounded. (This is the effect)
  16. 16. There are signal words that will help you to identify the two parts of a cause/effect relationship. The most common signal words are: because, if, when, so, then. Mark was grounded because he wasn’t on green at school . In the sentence above, the word because signals a cause-effect relationship.
  17. 17. Now, let’s try to identify some cause-effect relationships. In the following sentences, click on either the cause or the effect . Remember, the cause is the first part of a cause-effect relationship and the effect is the second part. Click the cause in the following sentence. It got dark because the sun went down.
  18. 18. You Got It!
  19. 19. Try Again!
  20. 20. My sister was scared of the mouse, so she yelled for help. Click on the cause in the sentence below.
  21. 21. You Got It!
  22. 22. Try Again!
  23. 23. Click the cause in the sentence below. The dog dug a hole so he could bury his bone.
  24. 24. You Got It!
  25. 25. Try Again!
  26. 26. Click the cause in the sentence below. Mark was tired, so he fell asleep in class.
  27. 27. You Got It!
  28. 28. Try Again!
  29. 29. If you study hard, you will pass the test. Click the cause in the sentence below.
  30. 30. You Got It!
  31. 31. Try Again!
  32. 32. Click the effect in the sentence below. When the light said, “Walk,” the man crossed the street.
  33. 33. You Got It!
  34. 34. Try Again!
  35. 35. Click the effect in the sentence below. The boy was surprised when the rocker began to move.
  36. 36. You Got It!
  37. 37. Try Again!
  38. 38. Click the effect in the sentence below. My mom was hot, so she turned on the fan.
  39. 39. You Got It!
  40. 40. Try Again!
  41. 41. Click the effect in the sentence below. The player was angry so he jumped on the referee.
  42. 42. You Got It!
  43. 43. Try Again!
  44. 44. Click the effect in the sentence below. When the wolf left, the pig popped his head out of the can .
  45. 45. You Got It!
  46. 46. Try Again!
  47. 47. Congratulations!!!!!!! You are now a Cause/Effect Expert!!!!!
  48. 48. 1. Steven Brown is in the 6th grade at Taylor County Middle School. He is an intelligent student, but one night Steven stayed up too late and he knew he had a test the next day. When he took his test at school he failed it. What was the cause of Steven failing his test? A. He didn't try at all. B. He didn't know about the test. C. He stayed up too late.
  49. 49. C. He stayed up too late
  50. 50. 2 . Ronnie had a dog named Shane. Shane is fun to play with. One day Ronnie was playing with Shane and the ball went across the street. Shane ran into the street and got hit by a car. When Ronnie got to Shane he was injured with a broken leg. What was the effect of Shane getting hit by the car? A. He died. B. He was injured with a broken leg. C. The car wrecked.
  51. 51. B. He was injured with a broken leg.
  52. 52. 3. Tammy was in her backyard climbing a tree. She climbed to the middle part of the tree. Before she knew what had happened, bees were swarming all around and over her. Tammy let out a blood curdling yell. What do you think was the effect of Tammy hitting the nest? A. Bees stung her. B. The nest fell. C. Some of the bees died.
  53. 53. A. Bees stung her .
  54. 54. 4. Mrs. Johnson works at a bakery. She is a nice, but elderly lady, who really needs to retire from the bakery. One Monday afternoon Robert went to the bakery after school to order a cake for his mom's wedding. Robert needed the cake on Thursday afternoon by 3:00 P. M. Mrs. Johnson said she would have it ready for him. On Tuesday she started making the cake but she put too much flour in the cake and it rose up too much in the middle. Mrs. Johnson started over making the cake. This time she put too much sugar in the cake and it cracked right down the middle. Finally, by Thursday morning, Mrs. Johnson had the cake ready to decorate. As she was picking it up to place it on the table where she decorated her cakes, she almost dropped it on the floor. What do you think was the cause of Mrs. Johnson having so much trouble with the cake?
  55. 55. A. Robert did not order the cake early enough. B. The weather was making the dough separate. C. Mrs. Johnson was really too old to still be working in the bakery.
  56. 56. She put too much flour in the cake mix.
  57. 57. 5. Shawn Falco is the quarterback for the Washington Wantabees. He is a great quarterback. January 1, 2002 the Wantabees played against the Milwaukee Willabees. The Wantabees were losing 10 to 14. It was 4th down and 3 yards to go with 4 seconds left on the clock. Shawn hiked the ball but he dropped it. This cost them the game. What was the effect of Shawn dropping the ball?
  58. 58. A. They lost the game. B. He got hurt. C. He got fired
  59. 59. A. They lost the game.
  60. 60. 6. David Green is a man who works at a zoo. He helps train the animals for shows. He mostly works with chimps, tigers, and lions. He is a great trainer. David was woking with a tiger to teach it how to jump through a ring of fire. Two days later the tiger learned how to jump trough a ring of fire. David was finished, so he was going to put the tiger into its cage. David forgot to lock the gate, so the tiger got out. What was the cause of the tiger getting out?
  61. 61. A. The lock broke. B. The tiger jumped out. C. David forgot to lock the gate.
  62. 62. C. David forgot to lock the gate.
  63. 63. 7.a. Henry James is a basketball player for the Orlando TwirlyBirds. Henry is a great player. He got sick one morning, so he missed his game. Orlando lost because they didn't have their key player who was Henry. What was the effect of Henry getting sick?
  64. 64. A. He missed his game. B. His team was upset with him. C. He had to have surgery .
  65. 65. a. He missed his game
  66. 66. 8 . Frank Jones is a man who loves to go fishing. One Saturday afternoon Frank went fishing and caught a humongous fish. However, it got away because he didn't tie the string tight enough and it broke.What was the cause of the fish getting away? A. The string wasn't tight enough and it broke. B. The hook broke. C. A screw came out of the rod.
  67. 67. A. The string wasn't tight enough and it broke
  68. 68. CONNECTORS
  69. 69. ,and Also, Moreover, Besides, In addition, Additionally, Furthermore, ,as well as The writer is continuing with the same idea and going to provide ADDITIONAL INFORMATION . Examples An ink-jet printer is quite fast and silent, and it is not so expensive as a laser printer. Imagesetters produce very high-solution output (up to 3,540 dpi) on paper or microfilm. In addition , they are extremely fast.
  70. 70. (4) Markers of Comparison: The writer will show how the previous idea is SIMILAR to what follows. similarly in the same way similar to like A biological virus is a very small, simple organism that infects living cells by attaching itself to them and using them to reproduce itself. Similarly, a computer virus is a very small program routine that infects a computer system and uses its resources to reproduce itself. Like a virus in the human body, a computer virus can do a lot of damage. Examples
  71. 71. To signal relation in time : <ul><li>Before, meanwhile, later, soon, at last, earlier, thereafter, afterward, by that time, from then on, first, next, now, presently, shortly, immediately, finally </li></ul>
  72. 72. To signal similarity: <ul><li>Likewise, similarly, once again, once more </li></ul>
  73. 73. To signal difference : <ul><li>But, yet, however, although, whereas, though, even so, nonetheless, still, on the other hand, on the contrary </li></ul>
  74. 74. To signal consequences : <ul><li>As a result, consequently, therefore, hence, for this reason </li></ul>
  75. 75. regardless   of *Without attention to He smoked cigars  regardless of  the consequences.
  76. 76. So that Indicates purpose;  in order that . He must die  so that  others might live.
  77. 77. in  the  first   place To  begin  with;  earlier ;  first ; at the  start . The question is not whether I still enjoy the job, when I never enjoyed it  in the first place .
  78. 78. Also In addition; besides; as well; further; too
  79. 79. However Nevertheless ,  nonetheless ,  even so ,  that said ,  in spite of  this However  clear you think you've been, many questions will remain