“ It wasn’t no Civil War. Wasn’t no World War. Just people in the same country fighting each other”
The Civil Rights Movement Journal #19 . <ul><ul><li>From your past study of History Identify the Who (leaders), What (goals, accomplishments) and , when (time period) of the Civil Rights Movement in the U.S. </li></ul></ul>
The Emancipation Proclamation 1863 . In 1861, President Abraham Lincoln had one thing on his mind when the Civil War broke out: preserve the Union . On Jan. 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared all slaves in Confederate-controlled areas free.
What questions had to be resolved? The Civil War is over...
CIVIL WAR and RECONSTRUCTION 13 th Amendment S lavery abolished 14 th Amendment C itizenship extended 15 th Amendment African Americans V oting
Post Reconstruction 1877 + Jim Crow Laws Lasting effects of Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) Inequality Social Political Economic
The Legacy of Reconstruction The Legacy of Reconstruction positive negative KKK SHARECROPPING VOTING DENIED SEGREGATION SOLID SOUTH BITTERNESS END OF SLAVERY 14TH AND 15TH AMENDMENTS BLACK CODES FREEDMEN'S BUREAU Jim Crow
Don’t accept inferiority Self respect more important than wealth Political power Agriculture, mechanics, commerce, domestic service Common labor, “ dignity in tilling the field Opportunity to earn a dollar Social equality is “extremist folly ” Booker T. Washington WEB DuBois
A FAMILIAR THEME? Henry Johnson and the NY’s 369th Infantry; “Harlem Hellfighters” The 54 th Massachusetts inspiration for the film “GLORY” The Civil War 1860-1865 World War I 1914-1919
WORLD WAR II World War II 1941-45 332nd Fighter Pilot Squadron; the "Tuskegee Airmen " Segregated Armed forces Discrimination Prejudice 1947 HST orders integration of the military
1 st African-American to play in major league baseball Significance? JACKIE ROBINSON 1947
SOUTHERN JUSTICE The Case of Emmett Till (1955)
CRIME: Allegedly whistling at a white woman PUNISHMENT: Brutally beaten by 2 white men The Case of Emmett Till (1955)
The Death of Emmett Till (Words and Music by Bob Dylan) 'Twas down in Mississippi no so long ago, When a young boy from Chicago town stepped through a Southern door. This boy's dreadful tragedy I can still remember well, The color of his skin was black and his name was Emmett Till.
The Civil Rights Movement Dubois/Washington 1954 - Brown
<ul><li>Issue: Is separate but equal is constitutional? </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts : 14 th amendment, civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>Background: Who was Linda Brown - How were her rights denied? </li></ul><ul><li>Significance: Overturns Plessy v. Ferguson ( 1896); separate but equal is unconstitutional </li></ul>BROWN vs. The BOARD of EDUCATION (1954)
Public Facilities and Accommodations <ul><li>Civil rights leaders and groups develop new tactics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil disobedience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>boycott </li></ul></ul>
The Civil Rights Movement Dubois/Washington 1954 - Brown 1955 - Montgomery
In 1955 Rosa Parks rode a bus and sat in a seat provided for whites. Her refusal to give her seat to a white man was the beginning of a bus boycott. She was arrested and sent to jail.
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 - Rosa Parks and the citizens of Montgomery, Alabama boycott public bus service for 381 days - Supreme Court rule segregated buses are illegal
SIT-INs . 1960 Sit-ins – (Greensborough, NC)Four black college students sat at a segregated lunch counter (nonviolent resistance).. Local police officers arrested the students This event sparked a series of similar protests at lunch counters across the South.
The Civil Rights Movement Dubois/Washington 1954 - Brown 1955 - Montgomery 1957 - Little Rock 1960 - Sit-Ins
Public Facilities (cont’d) Birmingham –1963 Description? Why did the movement succeed? National significance?
Most racist city in USA? Police dogs used to put down peaceful protest Harsh tactics used by local Police Birmingham 1963
LETTER FROM THE BIRMINGHAM JAIL “ When you see the vast majority of 20 million negro brothers smothering in the air tight cage of poverty…then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait.”
The Civil Rights Movement Dubois/Washington 1954 - Brown 1955 - Montgomery 1957 - Little Rock 1960 - Sit-Ins 1963 - March on Washington 1964-68 - Legislation
MARCH on WASHINGTON . More than 200,000 blacks and whites gather before Lincoln Memorial to hear speeches (including King's "I Have a Dream") and protest racial injustice
Civil Rights Act of 1964 <ul><li>“ We believe that all men are created equal…yet certain people are not treated equally because of the color of their skin..” </li></ul>“ I have a dream…”
The Civil Rights Movement Dubois/Washington 1954 - Brown 1955 - Montgomery 1957 - Little Rock 1960 - Sit-Ins 1963 - March on Washington
Civil Rights Act of 1964 1. Banned segregation in all public accommodations (restaurants, hotels…) 2. Banned segregation in public owned and operated facilities (parks, schools…) 3. Prohibits discrimination in employment based on race, sex religion and national origin
Bans Poll Taxes as a voting requirement 24 th amendment
Voting Rights Act of 1965 Authorized federal officials to register voters where local officials prevented African-Americans from registering to vote
It doesn't mean that I advocate violence, but at the same time, I am not against using violence in self-defense. I don't call it violence when it's self-defense, I call it intelligence. - Malcolm X
Non-violent protesting. Speaking out for non-violence Passive resistance Suspicious of whites; willing to use "any means necessary" to achieve equality. Was a segregationist until his pilgrimage to Mecca