1 Discussion paper: Tools for training to build capacity for community asset
By the end of January 2002 the fieldwork has been compiled and the observations have been subject to an
analysis. The conclusions from this study will contribute to the pilot training programme on Community
Asset Management being developed by the trainers at the Human Settlements Management Institute, Delhi.
On 4 and 5 February 2002 a meeting was organised between MLC researchers (RK,IS) and HSMI trainers
(SKG,GR) to transfer the knowledge gained by MLC on the field to the trainers. The two groups also
discussed an outline plan of the content and form of the proposed pilot training. This plan was put forward
to the entire project team for consultation on 6 February 2002.
1.1 Preparatory notes on a consultation between fieldwork researchers from MLC
(IS, RK) and HSMI trainers (SKG, GR)
These notes are written prior to discussion with professional trainers at the Human Settlements
Management Institute in Delhi. In January 2002 the DFID funded ‘Community Asset Management’
research project is already underway for one year.
At the present moment two key events are in progress. The fieldwork conducted in the first half of the 2001
in India has been fully compiled (Appendix A, B, C,D) and key observations have been drawn out through
cross tabulations (Appendix E) This compilation has been done at the Max Lock Centre in London. At the
India end a pilot exercise is being conducted at HUDA Bhoi Sahi in Bhubaneswar, state of Orissa. This is
one of the settlements that were surveyed in detail during the fieldwork of April 2001. A primary school
building has been taken up for repair and a microcosm of people likely to be involved in a typical
community asset management exercise are being trained around it. The observations and feedback from
this exercise remains to be drawn and compiled.
The research project has had one more significant set of actors that have followed the process so far and are
key to the design and delivery of a capacity building programme for community asset management. These
are the trainers. Theirs is the important task to absorb the observations from the fieldwork and the feedback
from the pilot repair programme and guide the team towards training tools for a capacity building exercise.
The following questions need to be addressed through the experience of the trainers:
1Is there a clear picture of the following available for training purposes?
1a To what extent are the local authorities aware and prepared to practice community asset management?
1b Is there a clear demand by community groups for knowledge related to community led asset
1c How can building centres improve the quality of technical knowledge available to artisans and
communities for asset management?
2 What kind of further research needs to be done?
3 Who should be targeted for training and dissemination of the lessons?
4 What should be the form of the training programme and training tools?
for example should a new training be started or should the existing opportunities such as existing
SJSRY scheme include CAM. Benefits should be highlighted.
5 What should the short term and long term diary for training look like?
6 Who are likely to be the resource people?
A discussion between HSMI and MLC is scheduled for February 4,5 and 6, 2002. A suggested output is
planning a paper for the Third World Review where the interpretation process is explored..
The following pages provide the impressions of the researchers who conducted the fieldwork. They provide
a comparative summary of commonalities and differences between the people, communities and
institutions of Hyderabad, Bhubaneswar and Ranchi. The MLC team interviewed over 150 individuals at
all levels that are significant in their duties and roles in the community based asset management process
and which the research hypothesised existed, to one degree or another, in all communities. A comparison
would identify the gaps in awareness, the willingness to be part of any maintenance process, the practicality
of implementation and the innate strengths that training could address in order to make Community Asset
Management fully functional in the diversity of contexts that was encountered in the research. They should
be read in concurrence with Appendix E where observations from the fieldwork have been tabulated and
analysed. As a matter of priority the fieldwork data from Bhubaneswar (Appendix C) should be read as it
would provide the background to the present exercise underway in Bhubaneswar of which the trainers at
HSMI have first hand experience.
Additions after discussion with Hilary Byrne on 24 January 2002:
A training programme should be organised in July August that serves a double purpose of presenting the
information and analysis from the fieldwork and Bhubaneswar exercise to the various stakeholders as well
as gives the opportunity to stakeholders to do a SWOT analysis in order to come up with proposals for
practical action that may be disseminated through a seminar to policymakers. The feedback from this entire
exercise should be used to frame the final training tools.
Timing of this first session should be at the end of the Monsoons when people are in a position to
experience the maintenance requirements as well as apply their knowledge to the maintenance work during
the festive season.
1.2 Notes: Meetings dated 4th & 5th of February 2002 to discuss pilot training
programme for CAM
A two-day meeting was organized between MLC (RK, IS) and HSMI trainers (SKG, GR) and HSMI
researcher NV to discuss the forthcoming CAM pilot training. The trainers responded to queries from the
MLC team and their suggestions, as summarised below, would be put forward to the full CAM team
(including Dr. KS, PK, MT, MC) on 6th February, 2002 for comment.
1. The existing training programmes run by SKG and GR at HSMI
The purpose of the discussion was to comprehend the involvement of the project members in the training
activities at HSMI. SKG, GR are involved in the design and implementation of specialist training within
HSMI, acting as resource persons for training conducted by other faculty within HSMI, acting as resource
people outside of HSMI on request, research and consultancy work at the HSMI, proposal writing for new
programmes, dissemination related to training programmes such as writing for journals. The training year
at HSMI runs from April until March and a programme of training is formalised before the start of the
training year. The programmes are determined as per the demands made within HSMI, other wings within
HUDCO as well as external agencies including the Central and State government. Funding for some
programmes such as SJSRY, run by SKG is secured while funding for other programmes may depend on
proposals made to different agencies. The trainers organize training programmes ranging from one day to
two weeks based in Delhi and also travel for decentralized training. HUDCO provides a subsidy for some
of the training programmes such as those meant for the training of building centre managers. The
participants in HSMI training programmes range from CDS members at decentralized training to senior
government officials arriving for training in Delhi. The trainees may be a mixed group as well as focused
gatherings. Within HSMI it is common for faculty members to invite other members of the faculty to act as
resource persons in their training programmes.
2. The proposed training programmes for the next year
GR is expected to conduct 6 -7 training programmes on building technology issues for a one to two week
duration each. SKG is expected to conduct 38 training programmes related to SJSRY from 3 day long
decentralized programmes to one week long programmes conducted at HSMI Delhi. The decentralised
programmes can be conducted at short notice. The full list of programmes already scheduled to be
conducted by SKG and GR is available and should be considered before deciding the final date for the pilot
training programme for CAM.
3. Process of preparing training calendar.
The proposals for the coming year are being prepared since December 2001 and need to be finalised by
10th February so that the programme calendar can be disseminated by March. The dates for pilot training
programme should be discussed and finalised on the 6th February 2002.
4. Plan for the proposed CAM pilot training at HSMI.
The following notes have been made following the query on how the pilot training should be conducted.
4.1 Should the pilot programme be an independent or be incorporated in an existing training programme?
The trainers suggested that the pilot training programme should be an independent programme to make
sure that the right target group can be selected and trained. If the budget allows the training should be
based in Bhubaneswar as this would have the advantage that the trainees would be able to have a direct
experience of the site and the beneficiaries of the on-site programme. GR further suggested that this
weeklong training with a field component and detailed discussion on physical maintenance and skill
building should be organized for the building center managers.
As an idea, immediately after the pilot programme, a shorter two-day module on non-technical CAM
issues may be tried in the regular SJSRY training programmes as they have secure funding. The
resultant feedback and experience of participants can be used to review and finalize the training
material to be fed into shorter modules in a range of regular training programmes. Each of these
participants at the pilot training programme can act as resource person for further dissemination.
4.2 How to ensure that all target groups receive appropriate training on CAM?
There are training programmes already in place to disseminate CAM toolkits at national, district and
panchayat level. Details are available with SKG and GR. There are several programmes being
conducted at HSMI, Delhi and at other centres where CAM may be introduced as part of existing
4.3 When should the CAM pilot programme be scheduled?
Although the CAM training programme has been proposed for November in the HSMI training
calendar it can be easily slotted in AUGUST provided the Bhubaneswar on-site programme is
completed by then and documentation available. SKG has scheduled programmes in the last two weeks
of August so it is better to plan in the first half of August. GR would be able to advise on her schedule
for August on the 6th February. However the trainers pointed out that an announcement for the training
programmes would have to be made at least 10 weeks ahead of the training (first week June by these
dates). The trainers also pointed out that the BBSR on-site exercise, institutional structure (being done
by SKG), good practice database (being done by GR), fieldwork documentation (being done by MLC)
and the international desktop study (to be clarified by MLC) needs to be ready and available before the
training programme announcement is made.
Note: SKG and GR would provide a session wise outline for comment of the pilot training programme
on 6th February 2002. Further details on these sessions such as resource persons, supporting training
material would be provided at the review session in March 2002. RK and IS will be submitting the full
documentation of fieldwork by 12th February 2002 and answers to any further queries at the review
session in March 2002. GR would provide for comment a short list of case studies and the criteria for
their selection for a good practice database at the review session in March, 2002.
4.4 How to ensure that the beneficiaries can provide feedback to the CAM pilot training?
The training can be organised at BBSR (with a visit to the site for an interaction between the trainees
and the beneficiaries) or at Delhi (with documentation such as video recorded feedback from site)
depending upon the available budgets. The trainers agreed that the first option is preferred. This should
be discussed at the review workshop in March.
4.5 What does the proposed training toolkit looks like?
4.5.1 In what form do the trainers need information related to fieldwork and on-site work in
At the present moment the fieldwork is documented as a set of MS Word files and support material
such as pictures that have been scanned into a database. The Bhubaneswar experience is being
documented as a video as well as MS Word documents. Further suggestions on their final format for
use in training may be made during the review session in March.
4.5.2 What training material or tool-kits could be used during the pilot training?
SKG and GR suggested that each session would have some supporting material. So far some
commonly used media have been power-point presentations, videos, checklists and handouts.
4.5.3 How would the final tool-kits be prepared?
Feedback from trainees would be taken after each session in the pilot training and the session as well
as the supporting material would be reviewed and added to the final tool-kit.
The trainers made a point that the core of the tool-kits for the training programme shall be structured
and validated so that it may be adapted to the various target groups with minor alterations. The trainers
suggested that PRA and PLA activity may also be incorporated into the training programmes.
4.6 How can the experience of fieldwork be incorporated in the pilot training programme?
The trainers expect MLC fieldwork team to present the fieldwork to the trainees at the pilot training
4.7 How can the respondents of the fieldwork, particularly in Hyderabad and Ranchi, be brought in to
comment at the CAM pilot programme?
The trainees at the pilot programme would include participants from these place.
(Summarised by IS, RK after consultation with SKG, GR and NV 05Feb02)
1.3 Notes: Meeting of 6th February 2002 attended by HSMI/HUDCO (KS, SKG, GR,
MC, NV), PKD and MLC (MT, RK, IS) teams held at HSMI, Lodi Road at 1030
The agenda of this meeting, was to discuss the draft plan for the forthcoming CAM pilot training
programme (as discussed between SKG, GR, RK and IS. See 1.2 above), provide updates on various
activities underway in the research project and finalise dates and tasks for the coming months. Comments
were made in the following order and the key decisions have been listed.
1 Remarks by Dr. Michael Theis on project progress.
Excellent progress has been made in the last two days of discussion for the pilot training programme. The
documentation and analysis of fieldwork is nearly finished and the on-site programme is underway. They
will contribute first hand knowledge for the trainers to prepare the pilot training. It is the expertise of HSMI
to incorporate it into a training programme on a day-to-day basis. MT also put forward the idea that the
pilot training may be conducted in August 2002, so there is sufficient time for MLC to submit a concept
note to DFID by August end asking for an extension of the project into a dissemination stage and further
funding. The training programme piloted and tested in India can also feed into a parallel programme on
Asset management in Africa.
2 Update on the on-site work in Bhubaneswar by Malay Chatterjee.
A work programme has been fully outlined and progress is being made as per that programme. As per the
demand of the community the conversion of the community hall at HUDA Bhoi Sahi was being considered
and he has already contacted the authorities in BBSR to make it possible. KS suggested that the community
in HUDA Bhoi Sahi should sign an agreement for the change in land use of the buildings. PK suggested
that the on-site work is a continuous process and the trainers at HSMI should continue to draw on the
experience. The development of the pilot training and tool kits should be conducted in parallel without
waiting for the on-site work to finish.
3 Update on the building centre analysis by P K Das.
The main points covered in his presentation were: methodology of building centre analysis, pictorial
documentation of the building centre studies, 4 layers that are being used as a basis for the analysis and the
on-site demonstration project at BBSR. He also suggested that alternative models such as CARE, DA,
COSTFORD and BMSB should be studied and all this should feed in to the tool-kits to be developed for
CAM pilot training programme.
4 Summary of the draft plan discussed for the pilot training programme by Ripin Kalra and Inderjit Sagoo
A discussion on the time schedule and tasks was proposed so that these may be finalised with the input of
all the people present in this meeting. August first week was agreed as the date for the pilot training
programme to be conducted in Bhubaneswar by SKG and GR. SKG and GR to internally discuss the details
and present final outline of training during a review in Bhubaneswar in April. SKG and GR to develop tool-
kits in parallel with On-site work in Bhubaneswar and test draft tool kits in March at Bhubaneswar.
5 Update on the compilation and analysis of fieldwork data by Ripin Kalra and Inderjit Sagoo
The draft fieldwork documentation was available for the use of SKG and GR to incorporate into their
training. A final compilation of the fieldwork will be provided by March 1, 2002. MLC will also be able to
present fieldwork findings during the pilot training in August in a form suggested by the HSMI trainers.
6 Session wise proposal for the pilot training programme on CAM by Dr. S K Gupta and Gayatri Rajesh.
SKG and GR presented separate outlines of the pilot training programme on technical and community
7 Dates and tasks relevant to pilot training programme are summarised
Following dates and tasks were finalized towards the training programme:
By 1 March 2002
On-site project at BBSR continues. MLC submits final compilation of fieldwork in electronic and hard
copies. Draft tool kits developed by SKG and GR
By 20 March 2002
Review session at BBSR on demonstration work. SKG and GR to discuss outline of pilot
training programme and tool-kits with PK and others present.
By 11 April 2002
Review exercise at BBSR with MLC. SKG and GR to present final outline of pilot training programme,
resource persons and support training material.
By 3 June 2002
Announcement of CAM pilot training programme sent out to potential trainees by HSMI.
By 7 June 2002
Cut-off date for final toolkits by HSMI ready for translation into regional languages such as Oriya.
Week starting 8 August 2002
Pilot training programme in Bhubaneswar conducted by SKG and GR.
By 30 August 2002
MLC to submit concept note to DFID for extension of research project into dissemination and monitoring
Other notes and comments:
KS added that 1-2 building centres can be taken up for providing training facilities and these can become
demonstration centres / models where Architecture students can also be involved as trainees. Awareness
needs to be created for building centres to accept training as their role. He further suggested that this idea
could go as a part of the concept note to DFID for further funding on this project.
Discussing the point about target groups for the CAM pilot training programme, KS said that if it’s a “test”,
it should be tested on one target group. Testing the pilot training programme on the right target group will
give the right feedback. After necessary modifications based on the feedback, this programme can then be
incorporated as a part of other regular training programmes for other target groups.
To this, MT added that the training has already started in BBSR for policy makers since they were involved
in an introductory session organised last month by HSMI/MLC team for informing them about the CAM
project. KS suggested that these policy makers should be kept posted on the progress on the on-site BBSR
project and also be involved in the workshop to be held in April in BBSR.
KS identified three elements of training i.e. knowledge, skill and awareness/attitude and said that different
mix of these elements is required for different target groups. He further added that the training should not
end at 1 or 2 weeks programmes, there should be a “Post Course Nursing Programme” as well.
PKD put forward the idea of a community college at Narangarh Building Centre, to which KS said that
modules could be developed for short courses in simple language with graphics. He gave an example of the
Indira Gandhi National Open University run programme on construction management. He also added that
this idea can also be proposed to DFID and if they can support such a programme then HSMI can tie up
with IGNOU and MLC for this project.
(Summarised by IS and RK 10 Feb 02)