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  1. 1. Edhec European Asset Management Practices Survey Noel Amenc Professor of Finance, Director of the “Edhec Risk and Asset Management Research Centre” Head of Research, Misys Asset Management Systems 21 st May 2003 © Edhec 2003 030521 -
  2. 2. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Investment services </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio management process </li></ul><ul><li>Performance analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Risk management </li></ul>Outline
  3. 3. Objectives of the study <ul><li>Assess the degree to which European asset management firms’ practices correspond to the most recent research in the asset management field; </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the potential gaps with regard to the strategic and regulatory environments of the respondents; </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a basis for a permanent observatory of asset management companies’ practices. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Methodology Organisation of the research <ul><li>“ Industry Intelligence” - Edhec/MAMS cooperation; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Legal Intelligence”; </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed summary of strategic, institutional and conceptual challenges (June 2002); </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of current practices of the 400 leading European asset management companies (July to October 2002); </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of the report (December 2002 to March 2003). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Methodology Survey on asset management companies’ practices <ul><li>How the questionnaires were administered: </li></ul><ul><li>3 questionnaires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy and Management Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation and Information Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anonymity guaranteed; </li></ul><ul><li>1,200 professionals contacted within the 400 largest European asset management firms (CIO, IT Director, Risk Director, etc.). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Methodology Survey on asset management companies’ practices <ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><li>60 asset management firms responded to the survey; </li></ul><ul><li>AUM of respondents totals 6,211.62 billion Euros; </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of the sample is very similar to the structure of the whole survey population; </li></ul><ul><li>The number of responses allows for a pan-European analysis; </li></ul><ul><li>Comparisons between countries should be considered with care. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Methodology Survey on asset management companies practices <ul><li>Appropriateness of the sample </li></ul><ul><li>The sample shows a size bias but a fairly good geographic representation </li></ul><ul><li>38% of respondents have an AIMR or GIPS certificate </li></ul>
  8. 8. The management offerings Global or niche offering <ul><li>Most asset management firms position their offering as global offers, whatever their size; </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic thinking on the question of critical size has not yet had a dramatic impact on the market. </li></ul>0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% A global service covering all investment styles and strategies A service mainly based on index or passive investment An active investment service A service that is mainly based on delegation and selecting specialists (subcontracted multi-management or partnership No answer How would you best describe the investment services proposed by your company?
  9. 9. The management offerings Active vs Passive <ul><li>Development of passive offerings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive offerings represent 23% of “Equity” products and nearly 10% of all products; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These results are consistent with other market analysis (Morgan Stanley, Watson Wyatt) </li></ul></ul>Country France Germany UK Others Europe Index Management - Equities 3.18% 4.25% 13.06% 11.55% 9.89% Index Management - Bonds 2.06% 0.75% 0.45% 4.97% 2.29% Active Investment - Equities 36.25% 27.95% 46.40% 25.85% 35.45% Active Investment - Bonds 36.42% 45.66% 29.00% 33.09% 33.65% Multi-Management - Traditional 0.53% 2.50% 1.73% 7.54% 3.64% Multi-Management - Alternative 0.86% 1.25% 0.00% 0.60% 0.50% Alternative Investment 1.16% 1.25% 0.88% 1.06% 1.03% Currency overlay 0.12% 7.64% 0.00% 1.26% 1.41% Private equity 0.00% 0.00% 0.81% 0.58% 0.50% Money market Investment 17.22% 3.00% 3.87% 9.23% 7.69% Others 2.35% 5.75% 3.79% 4.30% 3.98% No answer 28.57% 0.00% 0.00% 2.08% 8.57%
  10. 10. The management offerings Active vs Passive <ul><li>The drivers for the growth of passive offerings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active products seen as too passive, too close to indices => what justifies the fee premium ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current difficulties of “Stock Picking” approaches in the “Long Only” universe; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of portfolio turnover not always offset by an enhanced risk/return profile (cf. Fitzrovia study 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The management offerings New forms of organisation: core-passive/active-satellite <ul><li>Organisation of “core passive – active satellite” allocation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear separation of a major portfolio (core) managed passively from one or more very actively managed satellites; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach tightly linked to the development of ETFs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach favoured by consultants for cost reasons. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The management offerings New forms of organisation: core-passive/active-satellite <ul><ul><li>Example of cost reduction for an “International Equity” portfolio (€100m, 4% tracking error) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional approach: 100bp = €1m </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core-satellite approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core portfolio management fees: 20bp </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite portfolio management fees: 100bp </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core portfolio tracking error: 0% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite portfolio tracking error: 20% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In order to obtain ex-ante a core-satellite with a 4% tracking error, 20% of the invested capital should be allocated to the satellite and 80% to the core portfolio; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall management costs: 20 x 80% + 100 x 20% = 36bp </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The management offerings New forms of organisation: core-passive/active-satellite <ul><li>Favoured by consultants for performance reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for a better distinction between good and poor performers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for manager diversification in the satellite portfolio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease the risk management process, a 20% tracking error limit is easier to respect than a 4% limit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The core-satellite approach can result in a new segmentation of management offerings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core-satellite assembler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Core” producer or “Beta” factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Satellite” producer or “Alpha” specialists. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The management offerings Multi-management <ul><li>Despite its popularity and success, multi-management only represents 4.14% of the existing offerings; </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative multi-management is barely present with 0.5% of responses; </li></ul><ul><li>Funds of funds represent the most popular way of implementing multi-management offerings (46% of responses) </li></ul>
  15. 15. The management offerings Multi-management <ul><li>Arguments used by funds of funds promoters are different from the ones used by multi-managers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multi-managers = fund pickers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selection by style, objective to avoid poor managers, diversify the best managers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in a certain level of performance persistence for the best, or “the least bad” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ongoing relationship with the managers does not allow for active allocation (style neutrality) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The management offerings Multi-management <ul><ul><li>Funds of funds = fund timer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of both fund picking and tactical allocation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of allocation as main explanation factor for performance (style, geogra-phic or industry sector) </li></ul></ul></ul>As regards to multi-management in the traditional universe, which investment services do you favour?
  17. 17. The management offerings Multi-management <ul><li>New forms of multi-management: fund trackers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pure allocation” logic; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low management fees; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates control over the risk of delegating management (no style drift). </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The management offerings Alternative Investments <ul><li>A diversification approach rather than a quest for out-performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 17% of respondents mention the superior “alphas” of AI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% of respondents put forward the diversification and de-correlation properties of AI. </li></ul></ul>Perception of Alternative Investments 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% As a turn of events related to the general economic climate As an asset class that is part of global asset allocation As a more valuable source of alphas than that of the traditional universe As a source of return that exhibits low correlation with traditional stock and bond markets As an excellent diversification tool
  19. 19. The management offerings Alternative Investments <ul><li>The development of Alternative Investments favours outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance of the specifics of this form of management, including for alternative multi-management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The low level of volumes does not justify internalisation of the activity. </li></ul></ul>Implementation of alternative investment services With a subsidiary company or a department within the asset management firm 37% With the investment bank of the group the asset management firm belongs to 11% With an external organisation 31% No answer 31%
  20. 20. The management offerings Structured products <ul><li>Structured management is perceived as a strategic offering for 34% of respondents and of interest for 31%. </li></ul>Do structured products play an important part in your company's strategy for the future? Country France Germany UK Others Europe Yes 57% 0% 25% 42% 34% No 0% 50% 50% 25% 31% Of some interest 29% 50% 25% 33% 31% Don't know 14% 0% 0% 0% 3%
  21. 21. The management offerings Structured products <ul><li>Structured management does correspond to a more significant need for “risk profiling” from investors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers have to be able to manage the different moments of return distributions (especially the symmetry and extreme losses); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of derivatives appears as a new source of added-value; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The UCITS III directive should allow for “risk profiling” based on derivative instruments. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The management offerings Structured products <ul><li>The investment bank is a partner/competitor for asset managers in this field. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The management process Asset allocation <ul><li>Confusion between benchmark and index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The benchmark can be different from the index. The academic studies very often mentioned by passive managers (Brinson, Singer, Beebower, 1991) did not say that nothing could be done outside of the indices, but that the benchmark, i.e. the strategic allocation, was a determining source of performance. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The management process Asset allocation <ul><ul><li>The study does not conclude that one should not alter the initial allocation, but only that if one does not modify it, there is little hope of beating the classes in which the portfolio is invested. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This tautology has very often led management companies to neglect active allocation techniques which remain determinant. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The management process Asset allocation <ul><li>United Kingdom and Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active asset allocation is favoured in the management process for all European countries, with the exception of United Kingdom (Investment Bank / Broker-Dealer culture) </li></ul></ul>Which investment process do you favour? (Europe) 64% 3% 33% A top/down approach separating the strategic and tactical allocation phase from the stock picking stage An opportunistic approach based on stock selection without reference to a process or to asset allocation constraints A bottom up approach based on stock selection with allocation constraints Country France Germany UK A top/down approach separating the strategic and tactical allocation phase from the stock picking stage 100% 75% 37% An opportunitic approach based on stock selection without reference to a process or to asset allocation constraints 0% 0% 0% A bottom up approach based on stock selection with allocation constraints 0% 25% 63% Percentage is established based on number of responses, eleven percent of respondents did not answer this question
  26. 26. The management process Asset allocation <ul><li>Tactical allocation is widely used by asset management firms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The allocation privileges macro-economic forecasts (80%); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite academic results, quantitative approach for tactical allocation is not widely used (17%), with investment management firms preferring a quali-tative approach. </li></ul></ul>0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Is it associated with one or several allocation or investment committees? Does it incorporate macroeconomic forecasting or scenarios? Does it incorporate sector or microeconomic Forecasting? Does it take into account the extreme risks of allocation by means of simulations and/or Scenarios? Does it include a tactical dimension by holding a monthly or quarterly investment committee Meeting? Is it mainly based on a quantitative process for strategic allocation? Is it mainly based on a quantitative process for tactical allocation? France Germany United Kingdom Others Europe The Asset Allocation Process
  27. 27. The management process Portfolio construction <ul><li>The benchmark relative risk approach is favoured by respondents (74%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This approach is usually supported by a Black & Littermann approach which compares the market port-folio (neutral view) to a market capitalisation weighted index. </li></ul></ul>Is portfolio composition for one or more asset classes, categories or styles based on: 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Optimisation of absolute risk based on a mean-variance approach Optimisation of absolute risk based on a mean-VaR approach An approach based on a minimum acceptable level of risk or return The minimisation of volatility risk The minimisation of extreme risk A relative risk approach compared to a benchmark that represents the long-term allocation policy Others No quantitative methods for optimisation France Germany United Kingdom Others Europe
  28. 28. The management process Portfolio construction <ul><li>Despite its weaknesses, 23% of management firms use the mean-variance approach; </li></ul><ul><li>Only 22% of respondents take extreme risks into consideration in the portfolio construction process. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Performance analysis Success of GIPS standards <ul><li>Implementation of “Country Version” (CVG) or “Translated Version” (TG) within most European countries </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of the unification process by European players (Gold GIPS - 2005) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Performance analysis Risk-adjusted measure <ul><li>An unsophisticated approach to measuring managers’ alphas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low level of usage of multi-factor models (17%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General use of Peer Groups (51%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement of out-performance with regard to a benchmark (97%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The benchmark is usually a market index (97%) and rarely a normal portfolio representing the true risk exposures of a portfolio over the period (6%). </li></ul>
  31. 31. Performance analysis Risk-adjusted measure
  32. 32. Performance analysis Performance attribution <ul><li>Not a genuinely global approach, strongly linked to “equity” offerings </li></ul>Are the sources of performance broken down? ( Europe ) 51% 29% 14% 6% For all investments For certain investments No No answer
  33. 33. Performance analysis Performance attribution <ul><li>Absence of international standardisation </li></ul>Favour GIPS/AIMR-PPS recommending disclosure of attribution statistics? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Yes No Don't know Other Money Managers Plan Sponsors Investment Consultants Source: Spaulding (200)
  34. 34. Performance analysis Performance attribution <ul><li>Multi-factor models for performance attribution dominate; </li></ul><ul><li>The arithmetic approach (Brinson et al.) is more often used for “client” reporting; </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-factor models sourced from the risk management discipline, also widely used for performance attribution (49%) are nevertheless neglected for published measures of managers’ alphas. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Performance analysis Performance attribution Which performance attribution method and/or performance decomposition model do you use? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Style analysis model (such as Sharpe) Arithmetic model ( such as Brinson, Singer or Beebower) Model based on multi-factor analysis (such as Barra) Others No answer France Germany United Kingdom Others Europe
  36. 36. Risk management Risk monitoring <ul><li>The measurement of risk as required by the regulator or the mandate is a key constituent of the risk monitoring function; </li></ul><ul><li>Only 51% of respondents monitor the portfolio’s extreme risks; </li></ul><ul><li>Only 23% of respondents consolidate and assess the risks of off-balance sheet operations. </li></ul>0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Analysis of the extreme risks to which portfolios are exposed Measurement of the risk-adjusted return for each investment Credit risk analysis Consolidation and evaluation of risk associated with off balance sheet positions per portfolio, per client, per manager and for the whole investment firm Ensuring that risk regulations and restrictions set by the client and/or investment firm are being respected Measurement of operational risk No answer France Germany United Kingdom Others Total Europe Which of the following does risk analysis include? 43 25 58 58 51 29 100 67 83 69 71 50 50 42 51 29 25 0 42 23 57 100 83 75 77 71 25 0 33 29 14 0 8 8 9
  37. 37. Risk management Future investment <ul><li>Investment priorities are consistent across the various geographical zones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of allocation constraints and risk limits (60%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure and analysis of extreme risks (46%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation and monitoring of off-balance sheet positions (52%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is also interesting to note that client reporting is widely seen as a key investment (71%) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Risk management Future investment Which areas of risk management or analysis do you intend to invest in over the next three years? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Improving models for OTC operations evaluation Monitoring off balance sheet positions Ensuring that the investment firm's guarantees are being respected Ensuring that asset allocation rules and risk limits are being respected Risk reports designed for clients Measurement of operational risk Measurement and analysis of extreme risks Others No answer France Germany United Kingdom Others Total Europe 14 50 8 42 26 29 75 17 33 31 14 50 17 42 26 29 75 58 33 60 43 75 75 33 71 43 50 25 92 37 43 50 25 75 46 29 0 0 67 3 0 25 25 8 14
  39. 39. Risk management Risk measurement <ul><li>Two types of risks are not well represented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatility risk (56%), for which the score is probably linked to the low usage of derivative instruments. France is an exception with regard to this question; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquidity risk (59%), for which the challenges are both conceptual (definition of a model for measuring liquidity risk) and technical (implementation of the consequences of liquidity risk on instrument pricing) (cf. CMRA study, 2001). </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Risk management Risk measurement
  41. 41. Risk management Value at Risk (VaR) <ul><li>Usage not widespread (51%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No regulatory framework; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The systematisation of VaR requires the adaptation of complex tools initially designed for investment banking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to adapt the VaR calculations to the specific context of investment management firms (simple calculations but real inclusion of non-Gaussian risks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VaR Cornish Fisher (Favre Galinao, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style VaR (L’habitant, 2001) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Risk management Risk measurement <ul><li>An approach not really tailored to the measurement of extreme risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents favour parametric VaR (44%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very low usage of extreme value approaches (6%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21% of respondents trust the normal distribution laws to analyse the consequences of extreme risk variations. </li></ul></ul>How do you assess the risk of extreme loss for your portfolio? 44% 32% 26% 15% 6% 18% 31% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Parametric VaR Historical simulation VaR Monte Carlo simulation based VaR Simplified Monte Carlo VaR + scenarios Extreme Value Theory No VAR carried out No answer
  43. 43. Risk management Multi factor analysis <ul><li>Factor Analysis is one of the areas where asset managers have invested the most so far. The usage of multi-factor models is consistent with the “risk relative” asset allocation approach. </li></ul>Do you base your portfolio risk anlysis on a multi-factor model? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Yes, explicit microeconomic type (BARRA) Yes, explicit macroeconomic type (BIRR) Yes, implicit type (APT) Yes, others No, but we are planning to do so No, we do not consider this useful No answer France Germany United Kingdom Others Total Europe 63 40 56 50 53 25 20 0 8 12 13 0 22 0 9 13 20 22 8 15 25 20 0 17 15 0 20 11 33 18 0 0 22 0 6
  44. 44. Risk management Multi factor analysis <ul><li>Even though explicit models (BARRA, BIRR, etc.) still dominate the market, the implicit approaches are growing in importance (9% in Europe and 22% in the United Kingdom). </li></ul>
  45. 45. Risk management Credit risk <ul><li>Quantitative approach not well represented; </li></ul><ul><li>Financial analysis privileged despite its “backward looking” approach. </li></ul>Is the specific approach to credit risk based on: 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% A model using an option- based approach A model based on the published rating An analysis, carried out by the financial analysis department A modelling of the links between credit risk and liquidity risk Others No answer France Germany United Kingdom Others Total Europe 13 0 0 33 15 50 60 22 67 50 38 0 67 33 38 25 0 22 8 15 0 0 33 8 21 25 0 11 8 12
  46. 46. Risk Management Compliance: Level of compliance <ul><li>The level of compliance is quite high so far due to regulatory evolutions; </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing importance of “contractual” compliance; </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of financial constraint monitoring (VaR 53%, risk factors 24%). </li></ul>
  47. 47. Risk Management Compliance: Level of compliance What risk constraints do you take into account? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Company-related rules Mandate-related rules Constraints relating to a specific asset Constraints relating to an investment category Constraints relating to the asset class defined within the allocation framework Counterparty limits Constraints linked to a risk factor identified by multi-factor analysis Leverage effect constraints Extreme risk constraints (VaR) Tracking error Others None 76 79 65 71 71 62 24 50 53 6 6 3
  48. 48. Risk Management Compliance: Pre or Post trade compliance <ul><li>Pre-trade compliance becoming a strategic challenge for organisations and their portfolio management systems; </li></ul><ul><li>This pre-trade compliance takes not only regulatory requirements into account but also financial constraints. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Risk Management Operational risk: What attention is given to Operational Risk ? <ul><li>Only 50% of European management firms feel impacted by the consequences of Basel II, despite the CAD III initiative; </li></ul><ul><li>This lack of interest can be understood : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment Management companies are not the most exposed to operational risks (custodian role); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The implementation of new capital requirements to cope with an idiosyncratic risk is not supported by academic research, nor is it supported by industry studies (Oxera 2001, Biais et al., 2003); </li></ul></ul>Do you think the Basel II Accord, which allows for the allocation of share capital to cover operational risks of banks and their asset management subsidiaries, will affect your activity? 50% 24% 24% 3% Yes No Don't know No answer
  50. 50. Risk Management Operational risk: Measures taken to respond to the new regulatory requirements <ul><li>Despite their usefulness with regard to capital savings, internal models have not yet received attention from our respondents; </li></ul><ul><li>Loss data collection is the current priority for investment management firms (53%). By definition, however, the data collection cannot serve as a basis for analysing extreme risks, which are supposed to be covered by capital charges. As a result, the question of operational risk is tackled from the operations efficiency angle. </li></ul>