Financial Management for Entrepreneurs


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Financial Management for Entrepreneurs

  1. 1. Chapter 13 Working Capital and Current Asset Management
  2. 2. Learning Goals <ul><li>Understand short-term financial management, net working capital, and the related trade-off between profitability and risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the cash conversion cycle, its funding requirements, and the key strategies for managing it. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss inventory management: differing views, common techniques, and international concerns. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Goals (cont.) <ul><li>Explain the credit selection process and the quantitative procedure for evaluating changes in credit standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Review the procedures for quantitatively considering cash discount changes, other aspects of credit terms, and credit monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the management of receipts and disbursements, including float, speeding up collections, slowing down payments, cash concentration, zero balance accounts, and investing in marketable securities. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Long & Short Term Assets & Liabilities
  5. 5. Net Working Capital <ul><li>Working Capital includes a firm’s current assets, which consist of cash and marketable securities in addition to accounts receivable and inventories. </li></ul><ul><li>It also consists of current liabilities, including accounts payable (trade credit), notes payable (bank loans), and accrued liabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Net Working Capital is defined as total current assets less total current liabilities. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Tradeoff Between Profitability & Risk <ul><li>Positive Net Working Capital (low return and low risk) </li></ul>Current Assets Net Working Capital > 0 Fixed Assets Current Liabilities Long-Term Debt Equity low return high return low cost high cost highest cost
  7. 7. The Tradeoff Between Profitability & Risk (cont.) <ul><li>Negative Net Working Capital (high return and high risk) </li></ul>Current Assets Fixed Assets Current Liabilities Net Working Capital < 0 Long-Term Debt Equity low return high return low cost high cost highest cost
  8. 8. The Tradeoff Between Profitability & Risk (cont.)
  9. 9. The Cash Conversion Cycle <ul><li>Short-term financial management —managing current assets and current liabilities—is on of the financial manager’s most important and time-consuming activities. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of short-term financial management is to manage each of the firms’ current assets and liabilities to achieve a balance between profitability and risk that contributes positively to overall firm value. </li></ul><ul><li>Central to short-term financial management is an understanding of the firm’s cash conversion cycle. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Calculating the Cash Conversion Cycle The Operating Cycle (OC) is the time between ordering materials and collecting cash from receivables. The Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC) is the time between when a firm pays it’s suppliers (payables) for inventory and collecting cash from the sale of the finished product.
  11. 11. Calculating the Cash Conversion Cycle (cont.) <ul><li>Both the OC and CCC may be computed as shown below. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Calculating the Cash Conversion Cycle (cont.) MAX Company, a producer of paper dinnerware, has annual sales of $10 million, cost of goods sold of 75% of sales, and purchases that are 65% of cost of goods sold. MAX has an average age of inventory (AAI) of 60 days, an average collection period (ACP) of 40 days, and an average payment period (APP) of 35 days. Using the values for these variables, the cash conversion cycle for MAX is 65 days (60 + 40 - 35) and is shown on a time line in Figure 14.1.
  13. 13. Calculating the Cash Conversion Cycle (cont.)
  14. 14. Calculating the Cash Conversion Cycle (cont.) The resources MAX has invested in the cash conversion cycle assuming a 365-day year are: Obviously, reducing AAI or ACP or lengthening APP will reduce the cash conversion cycle, thus reducing the amount of resources the firm must commit to support operations.
  15. 15. Funding Requirements of the CCC <ul><li>Permanent vs. Seasonal Funding Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a firm’s sales are constant, then its investment in operating assets should also be constant, and the firm will have only a permanent funding requirement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If sales are cyclical, then investment in operating assets will vary over time, leading to the need for seasonal funding requirements in addition to the permanent funding requirements for its minimum investment in operating assets. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Funding Requirements of the CCC (cont.) <ul><li>Permanent vs. Seasonal Funding Needs </li></ul>Nicholson Company holds, on average, $50,000 in cash and marketable securities, $1,250,000 in inventory, and $750,000 in accounts receivable. Nicholson’s business is very stable over time, so its operating assets can be viewed as permanent. In addition, Nicholson’s accounts payable of $425,000 are stable over time. Nicholson has a permanent investment in operating assets of $1,625,000 ($50,000 + $1,250,000 + $750,000 - $425,000). This amount would also equal the company’s permanent funding requirement.
  17. 17. Funding Requirements of the CCC (cont.) <ul><li>Permanent vs. Seasonal Funding Needs </li></ul>In contrast, Semper Pump Company, which produces bicycle pumps, has seasonal funding needs. Semper has seasonal sales, with its peak sales driven by purchases of bicycle pumps. Semper holds, at minimum, $25,000 in cash and marketable securities, $100,000 in inventory, and $60,000 in accounts receivable. At peak times, Semper’s inventory increases to $750,000 and its accounts receivable increase to $400,000. To capture production efficiencies, Semper produces pumps at a constant rate throughout the year. Thus, accounts payable remain at
  18. 18. Funding Requirements of the CCC (cont.) <ul><li>Permanent vs. Seasonal Funding Needs </li></ul>$50,000 throughout the year. Accordingly, Semper has a permanent funding requirement for its minimum level of operating assets of $135,000 ($25,000 + $100,000 + $60,000 - $50,000) and peak seasonal funding requirements of $900,000 [($125,000 + $750,000 + $400,000 - $50,000) - $135,000]. Semper’s total funding requirements for operating assets vary from a minimum of $135,000 (permanent) to a a seasonal peak of $1,125,000 ($135,000 + $900,000) as shown in Figure 14.2.
  19. 19. Funding Requirements of the CCC (cont.) <ul><li>Permanent vs. Seasonal Funding Needs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Funding Requirements of the CCC (cont.) <ul><li>Aggressive vs. Conservative Funding Strategies </li></ul>Semper Pump has a permanent funding requirement of $135,000 and seasonal requirements that vary between $0 and $990,000 and average $101,250. If Semper can borrow short-term funds at 6.25% and long term funds at 8%, and can earn 5% on any invested surplus, then the annual cost of the aggressive strategy would be:
  21. 21. Funding Requirements of the CCC (cont.) <ul><li>Aggressive vs. Conservative Funding Strategies </li></ul>Alternatively, Semper can choose a conservative strategy under which surplus cash balances are fully invested. In Figure 13.2, this surplus would be the difference between the peak need of $1,125,000 and the total need, which varies between $135,000 and $1,125,000 during the year.
  22. 22. Funding Requirements of the CCC (cont.) <ul><li>Aggressive vs. Conservative Funding Strategies </li></ul>Clearly, the aggressive strategy’s heavy reliance on short-term financing makes it riskier than the conservative strategy because of interest rate swings and possible difficulties in obtaining needed funds quickly when the seasonal peaks occur. The conservative strategy avoids these risks through the locked-in interest rate and long-term financing, but is more costly. Thus the final decision is left to management.
  23. 23. Strategies for Managing the CCC <ul><li>Turn over inventory as quickly as possible without stock outs that result in lost sales. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect accounts receivable as quickly as possible without losing sales from high-pressure collection techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Manage, mail, processing, and clearing time to reduce them when collecting from customers and to increase them when paying suppliers. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay accounts payable as slowly as possible without damaging the firm’s credit rating. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Inventory Management: Inventory Fundamentals <ul><li>Classification of inventories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw materials : items purchased for use in the manufacture of a finished product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work-in-progress : all items that are currently in production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finished goods : items that have been produced but not yet sold </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Inventory Management: Differing Views About Inventory <ul><li>The different departments within a firm (finance, production, marketing, etc.) often have differing views about what is an “appropriate” level of inventory. </li></ul><ul><li>Financial managers would like to keep inventory levels low to ensure that funds are wisely invested. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing managers would like to keep inventory levels high to ensure orders could be quickly filled. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing managers would like to keep raw materials levels high to avoid production delays and to make larger, more economical production runs. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Techniques for Managing Inventory <ul><li>The ABC System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ABC system of inventory management divides inventory into three groups of descending order of importance based on the dollar amount invested in each. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A typical system would contain, group A would consist of 20% of the items worth 80% of the total dollar value; group B would consist of the next largest investment, and so on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of the A items would intensive because of the high dollar investment involved. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.) <ul><li>The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model </li></ul><ul><li>Where: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S = usage in units per period (year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O = order cost per order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C = carrying costs per unit per period (year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q = order quantity in units </li></ul></ul>EOQ = 2 x S x O C
  28. 28. Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.) <ul><li>The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model </li></ul>Assume that RLB, Inc., a manufacturer of electronic test equipment, uses 1,600 units of an item annually. Its order cost is $50 per order, and the carrying cost is $1 per unit per year. Substituting into the above equation we get: The EOQ can be used to evaluate the total cost of inventory as shown on the following slides. EOQ = 2(1,600)($50) = 400 $1
  29. 29. Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.) <ul><li>The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model </li></ul>Ordering Costs = Cost/Order x # of Orders/Year Carrying Costs = Carrying Costs/Year x Order Size 2 Total Costs = Ordering Costs + Carrying Costs Ordering Costs = $50 x 4 = $200 Carrying Costs = ($1 x 400)/2 = $200 Total Costs = $200 + $200 = $400
  30. 30. <ul><li>The Reorder Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once a company has calculated its EOQ, it must determine when it should place its orders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More specifically, the reorder point must consider the lead time needed to place and receive orders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If we assume that inventory is used at a constant rate throughout the year (no seasonality), the reorder point can be determined by using the following equation: </li></ul></ul>Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.) Reorder point = lead time in days x daily usage Daily usage = Annual usage/360
  31. 31. Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.) <ul><li>The Reorder Point </li></ul>Reorder point = 10 x 4.44 = 44.44 or 45 units Daily usage = 1,600/360 = 4.44 units/day Using the RIB example above, if they know that it requires 10 days to place and receive an order, and the annual usage is 1,600 units per year, the reorder point can be determined as follows: Thus, when RIB’s inventory level reaches 45 units, it should place an order for 400 units. However, if RIB wishes to maintain safety stock to protect against stock outs, they would order before inventory reached 45 units.
  32. 32. <ul><li>Just-In-Time (JIT) System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The JIT inventory management system minimizes the inventory investment by having material inputs arrive exactly at the time they are needed for production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For a JIT system to work, extensive coordination must exist between the firm, its suppliers, and shipping companies to ensure that material inputs arrive on time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition, the inputs must be of near perfect quality and consistency given the absence of safety stock. </li></ul></ul>Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.)
  33. 33. <ul><li>Computerized Systems for Resource Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MRP systems are used to determine what to order, when to order, and what priorities to assign to ordering materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MRP uses EOQ concepts to determine how much to order using computer software. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It simulates each product’s bill of materials structure all of the product’s parts), inventory status, and manufacturing process. </li></ul></ul>Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.)
  34. 34. <ul><li>Computerized Systems for Resource Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like the simple EOQ, the objective of MRP systems is to minimize a company’s overall investment in inventory without impairing production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing resource planning II (MRP II) is an extension of MRP that integrates data from numerous areas such as finance, accounting, marketing, engineering, and manufacturing suing a sophisticated computer system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This system generates production plans as well as numerous financial and management reports. </li></ul></ul>Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.)
  35. 35. Techniques for Managing Inventory (cont.) <ul><li>Computerized Systems for Resource Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike MRP and MRP II, which tend to focus on internal operations, enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems can expand the focus externally to include information about suppliers and customers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ERP electronically integrates all of a firm’s departments so that, for example, production can call up sales information and immediately know how much must be produced to fill certain customer orders. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Inventory Management: International Inventory Management <ul><li>International inventory management is typically much more complicated for exporters and MNCs. </li></ul><ul><li>The production and manufacturing economies of scale that might be expected from selling globally may prove elusive if products must be tailored for local markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Transporting products over long distances often results in delays, confusion, damage, theft, and other difficulties. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Accounts Receivable Management <ul><li>The second component of the cash conversion cycle is the average collection period – the average length of time from a sale on credit until the payment becomes usable funds to the firm. </li></ul><ul><li>The collection period consists of two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the time period from the sale until the customer mails payment, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the time from when the payment is mailed until the firm collects funds in its bank account. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Accounts Receivable Management: The Five Cs of Credit <ul><li>Character: The applicant’s record of meeting past obligations. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: The applicant’s ability to repay the requested credit. </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: The applicant’s debt relative to equity. </li></ul><ul><li>Collateral: The amount of assets the applicant has available for use in securing the credit. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions: Current general and industry-specific economic conditions. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Scoring <ul><li>Credit scoring is a procedure resulting in a score that measures an applicant’s overall credit strength, derived as a weighted-average of scores of various credit characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>The procedure results in a score that measures the applicant’s overall credit strength, and the score is used to make the accept/reject decision for granting the applicant credit. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Accounts Receivable Management: Credit Scoring (cont.) <ul><li>The purpose of credit scoring is to make a relatively informed credit decision quickly and inexpensively. </li></ul><ul><li>For a demonstration of credit scoring, including the use of a spreadsheet for that purpose, see the book’s Web site at gitman . </li></ul>
  41. 41. Accounts Receivable Management: Changing Credit Standards <ul><li>The firm sometimes will contemplate changing its credit standards to improve its returns and generate greater value for its owners. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Changing Credit Standards Example Dodd Tool, a manufacturer of lathe tools, is currently selling a product for $10/unit. Sales (all on credit) for last year were 60,000 units. The variable cost per unit is $6. The firm’s total fixed costs are $120,000. Dodd is currently contemplating a relaxation of credit standards that is anticipated to increase sales 5% to 63,000 units. It is also anticipated that the ACP will increase from 30 to 45 days, and that bad debt expenses will increase from 1% of sales to 2% of sales. The opportunity cost of tying funds up in receivables is 15%. Given this information, should Dodd relax its credit standards?
  43. 43. Changing Credit Standards Example (cont.)
  44. 44. Changing Credit Standards Example (cont.) <ul><li>Additional Profit Contribution from Sales </li></ul>
  45. 45. Changing Credit Standards Example (cont.)
  46. 46. Changing Credit Standards Example (cont.)
  47. 47. Changing Credit Standards Example (cont.)
  48. 48. Changing Credit Terms <ul><li>A firm’s credit terms specify the repayment terms required of all of its credit customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Credit terms are composed of three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cash discount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cash discount period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The credit period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For example, with credit terms of 2/10 net 30, the discount is 2%, the discount period is 10 days, and the credit period is 30 days. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Changing Credit Terms Example MAX Company has an average collection period of 40 days (turnover = 365/40 = 9.1). In accordance with the firm’s credit terms of net 30, this period is divided into 32 days until the customers place their payments in the mail (not everyone pays within 30 days) and 8 days to receive, process, and collect payments once they are mailed. MAX is considering initiating a cash discount by changing its credit terms from net 30 to 2/10 net 30. The firm expects this change to reduce the amount of time until the payments are placed in the mail, resulting in an average collection period of 25 days (turnover = 365/25 = 14.6).
  50. 50. Changing Credit Terms Example (cont.) Insert Table 14.3 here
  51. 51. Credit Monitoring <ul><li>Credit monitoring is the ongoing review of a firm’s accounts receivable to determine whether customers are paying according to the stated credit terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Slow payments are costly to a firm because they lengthen the average collection period and increase the firm’s investment in accounts receivable. </li></ul><ul><li>Two frequently used techniques for credit monitoring are the average collection period and aging of accounts receivable. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Credit Monitoring: Average Collection Period <ul><li>The average collection period is the average number of days that credit sales are outstanding and has two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time from sale until the customer places the payment in the mail, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The time to receive, process, and collect payment. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Credit Monitoring: Aging of Accounts Receivable
  54. 54. Credit Monitoring: Collection Policy <ul><li>The firm’s collection policy is its procedures for collecting a firm’s accounts receivable when they are due. </li></ul><ul><li>The effectiveness of this policy can be partly evaluated by evaluating at the level of bad expenses. </li></ul><ul><li>As seen in the previous examples, this level depends not only on collection policy but also on the firm’s credit policy. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Collection Policy
  56. 56. Management of Receipts & Disbursements: Float <ul><li>Collection float is the delay between the time when a payer deducts a payment from its checking account ledger and the time when the payee actually receives the funds in spendable form. </li></ul><ul><li>Disbursement float is the delay between the time when a payer deducts a payment from its checking account ledger and the time when the funds are actually withdrawn from the account. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the collection and disbursement float have three separate components. </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Mail float is the delay between the time when a payer places payment in the mail and the time when it is received by the payee. </li></ul><ul><li>Processing float is the delay between the receipt of a check by the payee and the deposit of it in the firm’s account. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearing float is the delay between the deposit of a check by the payee and the actual availability of the funds which results from the time required for a check to clear the banking system. </li></ul>Management of Receipts & Disbursements: Float (cont.)
  58. 58. Management of Receipts & Disbursements: Speeding Up Collections <ul><li>Lockboxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lockbox system is a collection procedure in which payers send their payments to a nearby post office box that is emptied by the firm’s bank several times a day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is different from and superior to concentration banking in that the firm’s bank actually services the lockbox which reduces the processing float. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lockbox system reduces the collection float by shortening the processing float as well as the mail and clearing float. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Management of Receipts & Disbursements: Slowing Down Payments <ul><li>Controlled Disbursing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled Disbursing involves the strategic use of mailing points and bank accounts to lengthen the mail float and clearing float respectively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This approach should be used carefully, however, because longer payment periods may strain supplier relations. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Management of Receipts & Disbursements: Cash Concentration <ul><li>Direct Sends and Other Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wire transfers is a telecommunications bookkeeping device that removes funds from the payer’s bank and deposits them into the payees bank—thereby reducing collections float. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated clearinghouse (ACH) debits are pre-authorized electronic withdrawals from the payer’s account that are transferred to the payee’s account via a settlement among banks by the automated clearinghouse. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACHs clear in one day, thereby reducing mail, processing, and clearing float. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Management of Receipts & Disbursements: Zero-Balance Accounts <ul><li>Zero-balance accounts (ZBAs) are disbursement accounts that always have an end-of-day balance of zero. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose is to eliminate non-earning cash balances in corporate checking accounts. </li></ul><ul><li>A ZBA works well as a disbursement account under a cash concentration system. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Investing in Marketable Securities
  63. 63. Investing in Marketable Securities (cont.)
  64. 64. Investing in Marketable Securities (cont.)