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  • Scope Broad, comprehensive scope based on enterprise-wide “knowledge management” concepts “ Federated” approach to knowledge management: coordination, not centralization Phased implementation based on user needs, and on strategic and funding opportunities
  • NLII LOWG Ontology - theory of objects and their ties-- concepts and relationships Not important to study the entire diagram Vastness of the landscape Center ring- Social/Technical Infrastructure in place Internet-2 initiatives Wireless campus Collaborative tools Enhanced learning environments Smart classrooms
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    1. 1. New Models for Scholarly Communications: The Knowledge Bank Project at the Ohio State University Joseph J. Branin Director of Libraries The Ohio State University A Presentation to the University of Tennessee, Knoxville April 1, 2004
    2. 2. “ Squeeze Collection” Center for Epigraphical and Paleographical Studies
    3. 4. Ohio State’s Knowledge Bank
    4. 5. Motivations for creating the Knowledge Bank at Ohio State <ul><li>Increasing amount and diversity of digital content being produced on campus </li></ul><ul><li>Interest by administrators and faculty to better organize, share, and in some cases, market these digital assets </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian expertise in information management </li></ul>
    5. 8. Knowledge Management Context <ul><li>At the Ohio State University, the Knowledge Bank project places its institutional repository in the larger context of a multifaceted knowledge management program. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The university library’s traditional focus on collecting, storing, and preserving published scholarly material is related and extended to new responsibilities for handling unpublished digital assets such as working papers, research databases, and multimedia course material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative and academic computing’s responsibilities for data warehousing, teaching technology, and course management systems also are related to the institutional repository through the Knowledge Bank project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And other knowledge management activities such as the development of expertise directories and information policies for rights and privacy are viewed as related parts of an overall knowledge management program. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 9. Knowledge Management Basics <ul><li>Data, information, and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Tacit and explicit knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The dynamic and social nature of knowledge management </li></ul>Peter Drucker, The Coming of the new organization, Harvard Business Review , 1988 Special issue on Knowledge Management in Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology , 2002
    7. 10. Knowledge Management Definitions <ul><li>Data = simple, discrete facts and figures </li></ul><ul><li>Information = data organized for a meaningful purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge = Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experience and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers. In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only in documents and repositories but also in organizational routines, processes, practices, and norms . (Davenport and Prusak) </li></ul>
    8. 11. Explicit and Tacit Knowledge <ul><li>Formally articulated </li></ul><ul><li>Documented </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Reports, lessons learned </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed, codified </li></ul><ul><li>Transferred through conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to articulate or unspoken </li></ul><ul><li>Held within self, personal </li></ul><ul><li>Insight and understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Judgments, assumptions </li></ul>From Claire McInernye, JASIST , 2002
    9. 12. The Nature of Knowledge Management <ul><li>Knowledge happens in and among people; it is the social life of information </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive or enterprise-wide view of data, information, and knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managing expertise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a culture of learning and of sharing knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic process of creation, elicitation, and sharing </li></ul>
    10. 13. Digital Knowledge Bank at OSU <ul><li>Online Published Material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-books, e-journals, government documents, handbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online Reference Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalogs, indexes, dictionaries, encyclopedias, directories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online Information Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholar’s portal, alumni portal, chat reference, online tutorials,, e-reserves, e-course packs, technology help center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic Records Management </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Data Warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Publishing Assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-print services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-books, e-journal support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web site development and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information/IP Policy Development </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty Expertise Directory </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Institutional Repository </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital special collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich media (multimedia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data sets and files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theses/dissertations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty publications, pre-publications, working papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course reserves/E-course pack materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course Web sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Research/Development in Digital Information Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User needs studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying best practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistance with Technology Transfer </li></ul></ul>
    11. 14. Institutional Repository Definition Although institutional repositories are still evolving and taking on differing manifestations in specific institutions, they can be defined in general as systems and service models designed to collect, organize, store, share, and preserve an institution’s digital information or knowledge assets worthy of such investment. This may, of course, sound very much like a library, and in many cases an institution’s library should and is taking responsibility for developing and operating such a digital repository. But while the mission of an institutional repository coincides nicely with that of a library, the technical infrastructure and the types of material collected in such a repository present new challenges and extended responsibilities for the traditional library.
    12. 15. Digital Content (Asset) Management Maturing <ul><li>The Open Archival Information System (OAIS) model developed by an international group of information technology organizations spearheaded by NASA’s Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, which offers “a comprehensive logical model describing all the functions required in a digital repository </li></ul><ul><li>The Open Archives Initiative from the library and scientific community, which has developed an Open Archives Metadata Harvesting Protocol (OAI-PMH) that defines a mechanism for harvesting XML-formatted metadata from repositories </li></ul>
    13. 16. Digital Asset Management Maturing (continued) <ul><li>A Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) developed under the sponsorship of the Digital Library Federation, which provides a schema for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structured metadata in a digital repository or library </li></ul><ul><li>Shareable Courseware Object Reference Model (SCRORM) developed by the federal government agency Advanced Distributed Learning to provide guidance for the preparation and storage of digital educational material so that such material is “reusable, accessible, interoperable, and durable. </li></ul>
    14. 17. ) Digital Asset Management Maturing (continued) <ul><li>Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata (PRISM), a schema under development by the publishing industry to create a common language for the metadata that describes published digital assets </li></ul><ul><li>Open source and proprietary software systems such as Dspace, ePrints, FEDORA, bepress, Documentum, CONTENTdm, IBM’s Content Management, and Artesia’s TEAMS that offer technical infrastructure options for implementing all or part of an institutional repository </li></ul>
    15. 18. OAIS Functional Model
    16. 19. Dspace Model
    17. 20. Cooperative Organizational Approach to Developing the Knowledge Bank <ul><li>The Ohio State University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries, Chief Information Officer, Office of Research, University Press, Academic faculty and technologists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OhioLINK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Member libraries, Ohio Learning Network, Ohio Super Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Media Center (Documentum platform) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MIT : DSpace Federation </li></ul><ul><li>OCLC </li></ul>
    18. 21. Getting the Knowledge Bank Underway <ul><li>Vision, general plan -- 2001- 2002 ( done) </li></ul><ul><li>Funding –2003 -- reallocation, University start up funds, State grant ( done) </li></ul><ul><li>Create digital repository program – deploy Dspace and extent OhioLink’s Digital Media Center ( underway) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and deploy a service model ( underway ) </li></ul><ul><li>Engage faculty ( underway) </li></ul>
    19. 22. Types of Material for Repository <ul><li>Electronic Theses and Dissertations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduate school requirement for all new Ph.D. dissertations 2002+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working with undergraduate honors program to move digital with honors theses </li></ul></ul>
    20. 24. Types of Material for Repository <ul><li>Electronic Theses and Dissertations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Center” publications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia material </li></ul></ul>
    21. 26. Types of Material for Repository <ul><li>Electronic Theses and Dissertations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Center” publications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Course material </li></ul>
    22. 29. Types of Material for Repository <ul><li>Electronic Theses and Dissertations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Center” publications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Course material </li></ul><ul><li>Library resources </li></ul>
    23. 31. Institutional Repository Projects <ul><li>Olentangy River Wetlands Research </li></ul><ul><li>NIH- Principles of Parallel Causation </li></ul><ul><li>WW II photos, videos & sound reminiscies </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate Honors Program </li></ul><ul><li>International Studies Program </li></ul><ul><li>Hilandar Library watermarks collection </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Research </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Union </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and Learning Center Research Interns </li></ul><ul><li>University Press: out-of-print backfile, new monograph series </li></ul>
    24. 35. Biggest Challenges in Creating an Institutional Repository <ul><li>Faculty Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliographer/Selector liaison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campus Inventory of Digital Projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise Directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities of Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants Program Requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical Assurances and Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Preservation (Open Archive Information System “OAIS” Reference Model) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degrees of Digital Access (Open Archive Initiative “OAI-PMH”) </li></ul></ul>
    25. 36. Worldwide Resources Columbus & Ohio Resources OSU Central Databases OSU Academic Unit Databases OSU Faculty Data Knowledge Bank Engine Internet OARNet OSU SONNET Network The OSU Knowledge Bank Unified Access Knowledge Bank Team Diverse Sources Integrated Information Leadership Training Coordination Standards Technical Support Business Partnerships Collaborative Research Enriched Instruction + New Technology Trusted Archive