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  1. 1. Victorian TAFE Association 13 th September 2004 TAFE Performance Management Review
  2. 2. Method Undertaking an analysis of existing systems against best practice principles; and developing a series of best practice approaches for TAFE Teacher Work Plans and Performance Appraisal/Review Procedures tailored to the TAFE environment
  3. 3. Current TAFE Performance Management <ul><li>Numerous attempts to introduce Performance Management systems or part thereof </li></ul><ul><li>Currently several versions operating in various TAFE Colleges </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot judge the success ‘in practice’ of these b ut documentation shows need for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Probably Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Range from - quite sophisticated to much less so! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Recommendations Recommendations do not replicate any one external or internal example, but take into account key elements of best practice, while meeting the clearly expressed needs of TAFE, including where appropriate, the best features of the existing TAFE systems.
  5. 5. Dattner Grant reviewed four critical pieces of research: 1. ‘Best Practices in Employee Performance Management and Development’ (1). Undertaken by Best Practices, LLC is a multi-industry study on behalf of a large, world-class pharmaceutical client. This project examined the best practices of employee performance management from over 70 companies in 31 industries. (1) Commissioned by Best Practices LLC 2002
  6. 6. Research Review cont’d 2. Study was commissioned in 2002 by the Society for Human Resources (2) into 480 organisations. It measured how organisations view the effectiveness of their current performance management systems, specific performance management tools; and forecast where activity would be shifting in the near future. (2) Society for Human Resources, Performance Management Survey of 480 Organisations 2002
  7. 7. Research Review cont’d 3. Research conducted by the Corporate Leadership Council in 2002 entitled ‘Building the High Performance Workplace – A Quantitative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Performance Management Strategies ’ which surveyed 34 organisations across seven major industries, covering 19,000 employees.
  8. 8. Research Review cont’d 4. Research conducted by the Corporate Leadership Council in 2002 entitled ‘ Closing the Performance Gap – Driving Business Results Through Performance Management’ which surveyed 15,000 individuals at 33 companies .(3) (3) The survey found seven key insights around clarity, freedom to take risk, solutions enablers, balancing praise and critique, the primacy of fairness, rewards and job opportunities
  9. 9. Research Findings <ul><li>Research highlighted several pitfalls in performance systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Divergent goals and purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Poor appraiser skills </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of understanding of what performance management really is </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of understanding of the integrated nature of performance management and sometimes the complete absence of some critical parts – no overall model – separate parts and lack of connection </li></ul><ul><li>Production of often good quality materials without good education processes, appropriate priority or resources, and a lack of “fit” or context </li></ul>
  10. 10. Research Findings cont’d <ul><li>Fear of the process by some, particularly in the areas of selection and appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>A feeling that performance management was not a valued leadership tool, or even a leadership tool at all </li></ul><ul><li>Some baggage associated with attempts to introduce performance management, such as time consumption in detailed paperwork without any priority, clear outcomes or purpose </li></ul><ul><li>A feeling that physical measures were all that mattered and that behaviour and climate issues did not count </li></ul><ul><li>A feeling that leaders did not drive the system and hence, had little ownership of it </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research Findings cont’d <ul><li>Cynicism about ‘fads’ and their failure to deliver the promise or follow through </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of understanding about the critical role that frontline managers should play in the process </li></ul><ul><li>A feeling that the documentation was overwhelming and unnecessarily complex and that at the end of the day, the exercise was fulfilling organisational requirements rather than adding value </li></ul><ul><li>Where Performance Management systems succeeded, most and occasionally all of these pitfall characteristics were absent </li></ul>
  12. 12. Research Findings cont’d <ul><li>Successful performance management was a powerful tool for energising people, for propelling productivity, creating efficiencies and shaping a more committed workforce dedicated to continuous improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Better practices typically involved a holistic approach – (a performance management cycle) covering a total career and all related aspects. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Research Findings cont’d <ul><li>This included: </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Induction </li></ul><ul><li>Setting objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Competency frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching and development </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring work in progress </li></ul><ul><li>Performance itself and its review and appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Reward and recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Career and succession planning </li></ul>
  14. 14. Research Findings cont’d In all best practice examples, these elements or similar, were present and they could be clearly linked to the organisation’s purpose, vision, values, strategies and plans. In other words, the performance of an individual aligned directly to the performance of the organisation however it was defined.
  15. 15. Research Findings cont’d <ul><li>Research also revealed that successful Performance Management Systems had some of these characteristics:  </li></ul><ul><li>The conduct of regular, ongoing reviews covering both what is being accomplished and how it is being done </li></ul><ul><li>Well constructed appraisal forms that highlight precise competence, behaviour and performance and have little if any ambiguity </li></ul>
  16. 16. Appraisal Systems <ul><li>Good appraisal systems typically included: </li></ul><ul><li>Listing of goals for the appraisal period </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour rating factors, standards, or competencies </li></ul><ul><li>A development planning section specifying behaviour improvement goals and development actions </li></ul><ul><li>An administrative section </li></ul>
  17. 17. Appraisal Systems cont’d <ul><li>Clear, well written goals that include action, objective and measurement </li></ul><ul><li>If competencies, behaviours and standards of performance were used – they were written in clear, behavioural terminology so that the direct report knows what ‘effective’ performance looks like and what must be done to improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, unambiguous rating scales </li></ul>
  18. 18. TAFE Performance Management <ul><li>Ideal TAFE outcomes might be that Performance Management: </li></ul><ul><li>Is reasonably simple – given the complexities around performance </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a vehicle for cultural transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Is a full performance cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Is fully integrated within the system and to other things happening in the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Is a real priority for leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Links, but more importantly, adds value to business plan and performance </li></ul>
  19. 19. TAFE Performance Management cont’d <ul><li>Connects clearly to competencies, talent review and succession will be used </li></ul><ul><li>Can track organisational capability </li></ul><ul><li>Allows people to understand exactly what is expected of them </li></ul><ul><li>Allows people to know reliably, how they are going </li></ul><ul><li>Allows people to understand what and how they are learning along the way </li></ul><ul><li>Allows people to contribute in meaningful ways to TAFE’s performance </li></ul>
  20. 20. Overall Analysis of Existing TAFE Systems Against Best Practice Full Performance Cycle In some TAFE Institutions, many of the components of a thorough Performance Management System are in place. However, none that we sighted shows what the full performance cycle looks like and how it is interconnected. In other instances, critical parts appeared to be missing altogether. Best practice takes a ‘whole of working life’ approach typically covering four ‘clusters’
  21. 21. Role Clarity Cluster <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The Role Clarity Cluster typically has four elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Induction </li></ul><ul><li>Role description </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and expectations </li></ul>
  22. 22. Development & Support Cluster <ul><li>The Development & Support Cluster typically has four elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of self </li></ul><ul><li>Skills & behaviours or competencies (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching – feedback & dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Development plans   </li></ul>
  23. 23. Performance & Behaviour Cluster <ul><li>The Performance & Behaviour Cluster typically has two elements: </li></ul><ul><li>The appraisal of goal delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the development against a defined set of competencies and behaviour. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Rewards & Behaviour Cluster <ul><li>The Rewards & Behaviour Cluster typically has three elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards, recognition & benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Career development </li></ul><ul><li>Succession planning </li></ul>
  25. 25. Work Plans <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant feature </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasised inputs, not outputs – compliance </li></ul>
  26. 26. Appraisal Forms <ul><li>Appraisal forms varied considerably and we suspect there was an over expectation on the ‘form’. </li></ul><ul><li>No form can compensate for poor planning and underdeveloped performance management skills. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Appraisal Forms cont’d Best practice forms typically have at least four sections to provide adequate structure and guidance. They are: 1. A section for listing business goals for the appraisal period – i.e. what direct reports will ideally accomplish 2. A section devoted to behaviour rating factors, standards or competencies. This is how the direct report will go about achieving goals
  28. 28. Appraisal Forms cont’d 3. A development planning section specifying behaviour improvement goals and development actions. This plan is carried over from each prior review and spells out what the organisation will do for the direct report developmentally during this appraisal period 4. An administrative section requiring some sign-offs showing that the direct report received the appraisal and the manager acknowledged it
  29. 29. Written Goals We were uncertain how well written goals or objectives were. Do they use appropriate measurement methods? Do they present observable competencies, behaviours, standards of performance – whatever you like to call them – written in clear, behavioural terminology so that the employee knows what ‘effective’ performance looks like and what must be done to improve performance? Do they avoid statements in which a direct report can perform commendably on some aspects of the rating factor and poorly on others, instead of single behavioural events? A key to written goals is appropriate training/coaching of the appraiser to develop consistency of approach across a TAFE provider.
  30. 30. Competencies <ul><li>  The documentation we reviewed contained very little on competencies, which we see as a gap in the Performance Management process. </li></ul><ul><li>A description of best practices is set out below : </li></ul><ul><li>Is competence an absolute or a relative state? </li></ul><ul><li>If relative, what are the degrees of competence? </li></ul><ul><li>Who measures them and how? </li></ul><ul><li>Is competence portable or entirely contextual? </li></ul><ul><li>If one is competent in one situation, is there a correlation to competence in future similar situations? </li></ul><ul><li>Is competence a holistic concept or a set of discreet elements? </li></ul><ul><li>Does competence vary from technical, emotional and cognitive aspects? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Competencies cont’d
  32. 32. Competencies cont’d Technical – particular skills of a role that are required for job effectiveness. Areas of work at which the individual is competent. This is job related and is better called areas of competence, often referred to as a skill.  Cognitive – attributes that are intellectual that distinguish approaches to thinking, problem solving and other more global attributes Emotional – based on Emotional Intelligence that contribute to effective performance at work, outstanding leadership and deeply satisfying relationships.
  33. 33. Skills of Management To Use Performance Management Systems Again, our study does not produce evidence on how effectively performance is managed in TAFE, suffice to say that best practice research showed that despite good systems, many managers lacked the skills to use performance management for developmental and motivational purposes .(1) For example, appraisal sessions often began and ended with the manager merely telling employees how they have performed. (1) A Hay Group study showed that the coaching style was the least used management style
  34. 34. Leaders As Coaches and Teachers While we have no obvious evidence of its absence in TAFE, there is a strong reminder in the Best Practice Research that Performance Management systems breathe or choke on the goodwill and leadership of leaders and their colleagues at all levels across organisations. Consequently, the leaders’ role in the delivery of good individual performance and development is paramount. It is central to their role as a leader.